198,329 results match your criteria Neuroimaging in Neurocysticercosis


Long-term seizure outcome in frontal lobe epilepsy surgery.

Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 3;90:93-98. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

IRCCS "NEUROMED", Pozzilli, IS, Italy; Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to report long-term seizure outcome in patients who underwent frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) surgery.

Method: This retrospective study included 44 consecutive subjects who underwent resective surgery for intractable FLE at IRCCS NEUROMED (period 2001-2014), followed up for at least 2 years (mean: 8.7 years). Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Classic Psychedelics: An integrative review of epidemiology, mystical experience, brain network function, and therapeutics.

Pharmacol Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences; Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.

The purpose of this paper is to provide an integrative review and offer novel insights regarding human research with classic psychedelics (classic hallucinogens), which are 5HT2AR agonists such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), mescaline, and psilocybin. Classic psychedelics have been administered as sacraments since ancient times. They were of prominent interest within psychiatry and neuroscience in the 1950s to 1960s, and during this time contributed to the emergence of the field of molecular neuroscience. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Ultra high field Imaging of Myelin Disease Models: Towards Specific Markers of Myelin Integrity?

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, Brain and Spine Institute, ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers of myelin are critical for the evaluation and development of regenerative therapies for demyelinating diseases. Several MRI methods have been developed for myelin imaging, based either on acquisition schemes or on mathematical modeling of the signal. They generally showed good sensitivity but validation for specificity towards myelin is still warranted to allow a reliable interpretation in an in vivo complex pathological environment. Read More

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December 2018

Morphological changes in subregions of hippocampus and amygdala in major depressive disorder patients.

Brain Imaging Behav 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University, P.O. Box 730000, Lanzhou, China.

Despite many neuroimaging studies in the past years, the neuroanatomical substrates of major depressive disorder (MDD) subcortical structures are still not well understood. Since hippocampus and amygdala are the two vital subcortical structures that most susceptible to MDD, finding the evidence of morphological changes in their subregions may bring some new insights for MDD research. Combining structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with novel morphometry analysis methods, we recruited 25 MDD patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), and investigated their volume and morphological differences in hippocampus and amygdala. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

eQTL of KCNK2 regionally influences the brain sulcal widening: evidence from 15,597 UK Biobank participants with neuroimaging data.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

UNATI, Institut Joliot, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Neurospin, CEA Saclay, Neurospin Bâtiment 145, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.

The grey and white matter volumes are known to reduce with age. This cortical shrinkage is visible on magnetic resonance images and is conveniently identified by the increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid in the sulci between two gyri. Here, we replicated this finding using the UK Biobank dataset and studied the genetic influence on these cortical features of aging. Read More

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December 2018
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Exploration of Shared Genetic Architecture Between Subcortical Brain Volumes and Anorexia Nervosa.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Psychological and Social Medicine and Developmental Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Fetscherstr. 74, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

In MRI scans of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), reductions in brain volume are often apparent. However, it is unknown whether such brain abnormalities are influenced by genetic determinants that partially overlap with those underlying AN. Here, we used a battery of methods (LD score regression, genetic risk scores, sign test, SNP effect concordance analysis, and Mendelian randomization) to investigate the genetic covariation between subcortical brain volumes and risk for AN based on summary measures retrieved from genome-wide association studies of regional brain volumes (ENIGMA consortium, n = 13,170) and genetic risk for AN (PGC-ED consortium, n = 14,477). Read More

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December 2018
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Function-specific Tractography of Language Pathways Based on nTMS Mapping in Patients with Supratentorial Lesions.

Clin Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: In patients with supratentorial lesions diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI-FT) is increasingly used to visualize subcortical fiber courses. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) was applied in this study to reveal specific cortical functions by investigating the particular language errors elicited by stimulation. To make DTI-FT more function-specific, the identified language-positive nTMS spots were used as regions of interest (ROIs). Read More

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December 2018
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Spontaneous Acute Subdural Hematoma Associated with Arachnoid Cyst and Intra-cystic Hemorrhage.

Cureus 2018 Sep 28;10(9):e3383. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Neurosurgery, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, USA.

Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital, extra-axial lesions containing fluid similar to the composition of cerebrospinal fluid. Usually found incidentally, these lesions are observed with serial imaging to document their growth patterns and stability, and are then followed conservatively until clinical symptoms develop. Surgical options for symptomatic arachnoid cysts include cyst aspiration, cyst evacuation with fenestration into the subarachnoid space, and shunt procedures including cysto-peritoneal and cysto-ventricular shunts. Read More

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September 2018

Cognitive Profiles and Atrophy Ratings on MRI in Senior Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2018 21;10:384. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

In this cross-sectional study, we sought to describe cognitive and neuroimaging profiles of Memory clinic patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). 51 MCI patients and 51 controls, matched on age, sex, and socio-economic status (SES), were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery that included a measure of intelligence (General Ability Index, "GAI," from WAIS-IV), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MCI subtypes were determined after inclusion, and z-scores normalized to our control group were generated for each cognitive domain in each MCI participant. Read More

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November 2018
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Inter-Vendor Reproducibility of Myelin Water Imaging Using a 3D Gradient and Spin Echo Sequence.

Front Neurosci 2018 21;12:854. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Medicine, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Myelin water imaging can be achieved using multicomponent T relaxation analysis to quantify measurement of myelin content, termed the myelin water fraction (MWF). Therefore, myelin water imaging can be a valuable tool to better understand the underlying white matter pathology in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. To apply myelin water imaging in multisite studies and clinical applications, it must be acquired in a clinically feasible scan time (less than 15 min) and be reproducible across sites and scanner vendors. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

The Efficacy of IV Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Restoring Cerebral Blood Flow in the Hours Immediately after Administration in Patients with Acute Stroke.

J Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Background And Purpose: Timely restoration of tissue-level cerebral blood flow is the goal of thrombolytic therapy in patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to identify the incidence and predictors of reperfusion immediately following treatment with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA).

Methods: This study included patients with acute ischemic stroke triaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) and treated with IV rt-PA who were subsequently enrolled in our natural history study and underwent repeat MRI with PWI approximately 2 hours posttreatment. Read More

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December 2018

Multi-scale analysis of schizophrenia risk genes, brain structure, and clinical symptoms reveals integrative clues for subtyping schizophrenia patients.

J Mol Cell Biol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

National Center of Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, PR China.

Analysis linking directly genomics, neuroimaging phenotypes and clinical measurements is crucial for understanding psychiatric disorders, but remains rare. Here, we describe a multi-scale analysis using genome-wide SNPs, gene-expression, grey matter volume (GMV) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores (PANSS) to explore the etiology of schizophrenia. With 72 drug-naive schizophrenic first episode patients (FEPs) and 73 matched heathy controls, we identified 108 genes, from schizophrenia risk genes, that correlated significantly with GMV, which are highly co-expressed in the brain during development. Read More

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December 2018

Tau Is Elevated in Pediatric Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

ASAIO J 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Neurologic injury is a known and feared complication of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Neurologic biomarkers may have a role in assisting with early identification of such. Axonal biomarker tau has not been investigated in the pediatric ECMO population. Read More

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November 2018
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Change in Emotional and Theory of Mind Processing in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2018 Dec;206(12):935-943

Institute of Psychotherapy, and.

Changes in emotional processing (EP) and in theory of mind (TOM) are central across treatment approaches for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although the assessment of EP relies on the observation of a patient's self-criticism in a two-chair dialogue, an individual's TOM assessments is made based on responses to humorous stimuli based on false beliefs. For this pilot study, we assessed eight patients with BPD before and after a 3-month-long psychiatric treatment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tasks. Read More

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December 2018

A δ Homolog for Dementia Case Finding with Replication in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Departments of Family and Community Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Dementia can be empirically described by the latent dementia phenotype "δ" and its various composite "homologs". We have explored δ's blood-based protein biomarkers in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC) study. However, it would be convenient to replicate those associations in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Read More

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November 2018

Conductivity Tensor Imaging of In Vivo Human Brain and Experimental Validation using Giant Vesicle Suspension.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Human brain mapping of low-frequency electrical conductivity tensors can realize patient-specific volume conductor models for neuroimaging and electrical stimulation. We report experimental validation and in vivo human experiments of a new electrodeless conductivity tensor imaging (CTI) method. From CTI imaging of a giant vesicle suspension using a 9. Read More

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December 2018

LRP10 in α-synucleinopathies.

Lancet Neurol 2018 Dec 13;17(12):1034. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Inserm U1127, CNRS UMR 7225, UPMC Paris 06 University, UMR S1127, Sorbonne University, Brain and Spinal Cord Institute (ICM), Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Paris, France; Department of Genetics, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital Group, GHPS, Public Hospitals of Paris, AP-HP, Paris, France. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Fatigue at enrollment predicts EDSS worsening in the New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium.

Mult Scler 2018 Dec 3:1352458518816619. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

New York State Multiple Sclerosis Consortium, Buffalo, NY, USA/Jacobs MS Center for Treatment and Research, Buffalo, NY, USA/ Department of Neurology, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Background:: Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing symptoms among persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).

Objective:: The aim of this study is to evaluate fatigue as a predictor for disease worsening among pwMS.

Methods:: In this retrospective cohort study of New York State MS Consortium (NYSMSC) registry, MS patients reporting moderate-to-severe fatigue at study enrollment ( n = 2714) were frequency matched to less-fatigued subjects ( n = 2714) on age, baseline Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), disease duration, and MS phenotype. Read More

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December 2018

Catecholaminergic modulation of the avoidance of cognitive control.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec;147(12):1763-1781

Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University.

The catecholamines have long been associated with cognitive control and value-based decision-making. More recently, we proposed that the catecholamines might modulate value-based decision-making about whether or not to engage in cognitive control. We test this hypothesis by assessing effects of a catecholamine challenge in a large sample of young, healthy adults (n = 100) on the avoidance of a cognitively demanding control process: task switching. Read More

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December 2018

Interhemispheric functional connectivity for Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment based on the triple network model.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2018 Dec.;19(12):924-934

Department of Psychiatry, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou 310014, China.

The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in interhemispheric functional connectivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) based on a triple network model consisting of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The technique of voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) analysis was applied to explore the aberrant connectivity of all patients. The results showed that: (1) the statistically significant connections of interhemispheric brain regions included DMN-related brain regions (i. Read More

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December 2018

Acceleration of vessel-selective dynamic MR Angiography by pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling in combination with Acquisition of ConTRol and labEled images in the Same Shot (ACTRESS).

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The recently introduced "Acquisition of ConTRol and labEled imaging in the Same Shot" (ACTRESS) approach was designed to halve the scan time of arterial spin labeling (ASL) -based 4D-MRA by obtaining both labeled and control images in a single Look-Locker readout. However, application for vessel-selective labeling remains difficult. The aim of this study was to achieve a combination of ACTRESS and vessel-selective labeling to halve the scan time of vessel-selective 4D-MRA. Read More

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December 2018
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The choice of embedding media affects image quality, tissue R , and susceptibility behaviors in post-mortem brain MR microscopy at 7.0T.

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

NeuroCure Clinical Research Center, Charité-Universitaetsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: The quality and precision of post-mortem MRI microscopy may vary depending on the embedding medium used. To investigate this, our study evaluated the impact of 5 widely used media on: (1) image quality, (2) contrast of high spatial resolution gradient-echo (T and T -weighted) MR images, (3) effective transverse relaxation rate (R ), and (4) quantitative susceptibility measurements (QSM) of post-mortem brain specimens.

Methods: Five formaldehyde-fixed brain slices were scanned using 7. Read More

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December 2018
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Cognitive and emotional challenges in children with reading difficulties.

Acta Paediatr 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Educational Neuroimaging Center, Faculty of Education in Science and Technology, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, The Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

Aim: Dyslexia is characterised by a primary difficulty in both reading and cognitive control. Children with reading difficulties also experience a broad range of social and emotional difficulties, such as low self-esteem, anxiety and depression. The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a linkage between emotional and cognitive-control difficulties and challenges in reading in children with reading difficulties compared to typical readers. Read More

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December 2018

A Single-Blinded Trial Using Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Painful Neuropathy.

Diabetes Ther 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Endocrinology, Nanjing First Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

About two-thirds of patients with painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) suffer from anxiety and/or depression disorders. However, the pathogenesis of PDN is unclear, in particular with respect to the mechanism associated with the central nervous system. We used the neuroimaging techniques of fraction amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and regional homogeneity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore the brain activity in patients with PDN. Read More

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November 2018

Neuroimaging of Adult Gliomas: An Update.

Authors:
Niloufar Sadeghi

J Belg Soc Radiol 2017 Nov 18;101(Suppl 1). Epub 2017 Nov 18.

Hôpital Erasme, Brussels, BE.

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November 2017

Individual differences in decoding skill, print exposure, and cortical structure in young adults.

Lang Cogn Neurosci 2018 22;33(10):1275-1295. Epub 2018 May 22.

Haskins Laboratories, 300 George St., Suite 900, New Haven, CT, 06511, U.S.A.

This exploratory study investigated relations between individual differences in cortical grey matter structure and young adult readers' cognitive profiles. Whole-brain analyses revealed neuroanatomical correlations with word and nonword reading ability (decoding), and experience with printed matter. Decoding was positively correlated with grey matter volume (GMV) in left superior temporal sulcus, and thickness (GMT) in right superior temporal gyrus. Read More

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Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Improve Mental Health Treatment: A Comprehensive Review.

J Soc Social Work Res 2018 27;9(2):223-260. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Professor in the Harvard Medical School Department of Psychiatry.

Mental health interventions do not yet offer complete, client-defined functional recovery, and novel directions in treatment research are needed to improve the efficacy of available interventions. One promising direction is the integration of social work and cognitive neuroscience methods, which provides new opportunities for clinical intervention research that will guide development of more effective mental health treatments that holistically attend to the biological, social, and environmental contributors to disability and recovery. This article reviews emerging trends in cognitive neuroscience and provides examples of how these advances can be used by social workers and allied professions to improve mental health treatment. Read More

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Differentiating Alzheimer's Disease from Dementia with Lewy Bodies Using a Deep Learning Technique Based on Structural Brain Connectivity.

Magn Reson Med Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Radiology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyoku.

Purpose: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are representative disorders of dementia of the elderly and the neuroimaging has contributed to early diagnosis by estimation of alterations of brain volume, blood flow and metabolism. A brain network analysis by MR imaging (MR connectome) is a recently developed technique and can estimate the dysfunction of the brain network in AD and DLB. A graph theory which is a major technique of network analysis is useful for a group study to extract the feature of disorders, but is not necessarily suitable for the disorder differentiation at the individual level. Read More

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December 2018

Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity due to fourth ventricular tumor resection resulting in cerebrovascular constriction syndrome.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1821-1822

Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

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December 2018

Adult post-varicella small vessel vaculopathy mimicking hypertensive basal ganglia haemorrhage with coexisting infarcts.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1800-1802

Department of Neurology, Indo-American Hospital: Brain and Spine Centre, Vaikom, Kerala, India.

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December 2018
2 Reads

A posterior-anterior distinction between scene perception and scene construction in human medial parietal cortex.

J Neurosci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Brain & Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Human retrosplenial complex (RSC), located in medial parietal cortex, has been implicated in numerous cognitive functions, including scene perception, spatial navigation, and autobiographical memory retrieval. Recently, a posterior-anterior distinction within RSC was proposed, such that posterior aspects process scene-related visual information (constituting a "medial place area;" MPA), whereas anterior aspects process information that is vividly retrieved from memory, thereby supporting remembering and potentially navigation. Here, we tested this proposed distinction in a single group of participants (both male and female) using fMRI with both perceptual and mnemonic tasks. Read More

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November 2018

Challenges in diffusion MRI tractography - Lessons learned from international benchmark competitions.

Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Sherbrooke Connectivity Imaging Lab (SCIL), Computer Science Department, Université de Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada.

Diffusion MRI (dMRI) fiber tractography has become a pillar of the neuroimaging community due to its ability to noninvasively map the structural connectivity of the brain. Despite widespread use in clinical and research domains, these methods suffer from several potential drawbacks or limitations. Thus, validating the accuracy and reproducibility of techniques is critical for sound scientific conclusions and effective clinical outcomes. Read More

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November 2018
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Neural substrates of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease spectrum and normal aging.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; KI for Health Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) originated from discrepancies between the degree of brain pathology and the severity of clinical manifestations. CR has been characterized through CR proxies, such as education and occupation complexity; however, such approaches have inherent limitations. Although several methods have been developed to overcome these limitations, they fail to reflect the entire Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Read More

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November 2018

Contributions of a high-fat diet to Alzheimer's disease-related decline: A longitudinal behavioural and structural neuroimaging study in mouse models.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Computational Brain Anatomy Laboratory, Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec H4H 1R3, Canada; Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada; Department of Biological and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada. Electronic address:

Obesity is recognized as a significant risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies have supported that obesity accelerates AD-related pathophysiology and memory impairment in mouse models of AD. However, the nature of the brain structure-behaviour relationship mediating this acceleration remains unclear. Read More

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November 2018

Multi-echo fMRI, resting-state connectivity, and high psychometric schizotypy.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK; Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK. Electronic address:

Disrupted striatal functional connectivity is proposed to play a critical role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies typically reported disrupted striatal connectivity in patients with psychosis and in individuals at clinical and genetic high risk of the disorder relative to healthy controls. This has not been widely studied in healthy individuals with subclinical psychotic-like experiences (schizotypy). Read More

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November 2018

Hematopoietic cell transplantation for severe MPS I in the first six months of life: The heart of the matter.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, United States.

Background: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is accepted therapy for severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS IH). With implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for MPS I in the US, HCT may now occur earlier than 1-2 years of age and it might be assumed that cardiac issues will be fewer. To examine this hypothesis, we reviewed our records for any MPS IH infant who underwent HCT at ≤6 months of age. Read More

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November 2018

QuickNAT: A fully convolutional network for quick and accurate segmentation of neuroanatomy.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging (AI-Med), Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, LMU, München, Germany.

Whole brain segmentation from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prerequisite for most morphological analyses, but is computationally intense and can therefore delay the availability of image markers after scan acquisition. We introduce QuickNAT, a fully convolutional, densely connected neural network that segments a MRI brain scan in 20 s. To enable training of the complex network with millions of learnable parameters using limited annotated data, we propose to first pre-train on auxiliary labels created from existing segmentation software. Read More

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November 2018

Regulating Emotion Through Distancing: A Taxonomy, Neurocognitive Model, and Supporting Meta-Analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Duke University, Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Box 90999, Durham, NC, 27708-0999, United States. Electronic address:

Distancing is a type of emotion regulation that involves simulating a new perspective to alter the psychological distance and emotional impact of a stimulus. The effectiveness and versatility of distancing relative to other types of emotion regulation make it a promising tool for clinical applications. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms of this tactic are unclear, and inconsistencies in terminology and methods across studies make it difficult to synthesize the literature. Read More

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November 2018

Predicting conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis-An imaging-based machine learning approach.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans play a pivotal role in the evaluation of patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), as these may depict brain lesions suggestive of an inflammatory cause. We hypothesized that it is possible to predict the conversion from CIS to multiple sclerosis (MS) based on the baseline MRI scan by studying image features of these lesions. We analyzed 84 patients diagnosed with CIS from a prospective observational single center cohort. Read More

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November 2018

Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis and overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome in children: Report of two cases and review of the literature.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Pediatric Clinic, Foundation IRCCS Policlinico "San Matteo", University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis (BBE) is a rare autoimmune encephalitis, characterized by acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and altered state of consciousness. Together with Guillan-Barrè Syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher Syndrome, it forms a spectrum of post-infectious demyelinating diseases. Overlapping forms between BBE and GBS (BBE/GBS) are described in patients with lower limbs weakness and typical signs of BBE, suggesting a combined involvement of Central and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS), but only few reported cases are focused on pediatric population. Read More

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November 2018

Differences in Ischemic Anterior and Posterior Circulation Strokes: A Clinico-Radiological and Outcome Analysis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Stroke Center/Neurology Service of the Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland.

Background: There are limited data comparing posterior (PC) and anterior (AC) circulation acute ischemic strokes (AIS). We aimed to identify specific features of PC and AC strokes regarding clinical, etiological, radiological, and outcome factors.

Methods: Patients from the Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne, a prospective cohort of consecutive AIS, from years 2003 to 2008 were included. Read More

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November 2018
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Acute-Onset Ataxia and Transient Cerebellar Diffusion Restriction Associated with a PRRT2 Mutation.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Neurology Department, Bicêtre Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, (AP-HP), Paris, France.

PRRT2 gene mutations cause paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), infantile convulsions, hemiplegic migraine, and episodic ataxia. A 21-year-old woman reported an episode of dizziness and ataxic gait occurring after swimming. Brain MRI showed a hyperintense cerebellar lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with decreased apparent diffusion coefficient. Read More

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November 2018

Noninvasive quantification of axonal loss in the presence of tissue swelling in traumatic spinal cord injury mice.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, 12275, Radiology, Saint Louis, Missouri, United States.

Neuroimaging plays an important role in assessing axonal pathology after traumatic spinal cord injury. However, coexisting inflammation confounds imaging assessment of the severity of axonal injury. Herein, we applied diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to quantitatively differentiate and quantify underlying pathologies in traumatic spinal cord injury at 3 days post-injury. Read More

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December 2018

The Lonely Brain: Evidence from studying patients with penetrating brain injury.

Soc Neurosci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

b Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory, Brain Injury Research , Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago , IL , USA.

Loneliness is perceived as social isolation and exclusion. The neural substrate of loneliness has been investigated with functional neuroimaging; however, lesion-based studies and their associated outcomes are needed to infer causal involvement between brain regions and function. Here, we applied voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses to investigate the causal role of brain lesions on self-report of loneliness (UCLA Loneliness Scale) in a unique sample from the Vietnam Head Injury Study, including veterans with penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI) (n = 132) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 35). Read More

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December 2018

Implicit Memory, Constructive Memory, and Imagining the Future: A Career Perspective.

Perspect Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 5:1745691618803640. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychology, Harvard University.

In this article I discuss some of the major questions, findings, and ideas that have driven my research program, which has examined various aspects of human memory using a combination of cognitive, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging approaches. I do so from a career perspective that describes important scientific influences that have shaped my approach to the study of memory and discusses considerations that led to choosing specific research paths. After acknowledging key early influences, I briefly summarize a few of the main takeaways from research on implicit memory during the 1980s and 1990s and then move on to consider more recent ideas and findings concerning constructive memory, future imagining, and mental simulation that have motivated my approach for the past 2 decades. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Longer TOMM40 poly-T variants associated with higher FDDNP-PET medial temporal tau and amyloid binding.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0208358. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience & Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, United States of America.

Background: The translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 (TOMM40), which lies in linkage disequilibrium with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene, has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). TOMM40 influences AD pathology through mitochondrial neurotoxicity, and the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is the most likely brain region for identifying early manifestations of AD-related morphology changes. While early reports indicated that the longer length poly-T allele of TOMM40 increases risk for AD, these findings have not been consistently replicated in further studies. Read More

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December 2018

Changes in brain white matter structure are associated with urine proteins in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS): A MAPP Network study.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(12):e0206807. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Radiological Science, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States of America.

The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network has yielded neuroimaging and urinary biomarker findings that highlight unique alterations in brain structure and in urinary proteins related to tissue remodeling and vascular structure in patients with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS). We hypothesized that localized changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements might be associated with corresponding changes in urinary protein levels in UCPPS. To test this hypothesis, we created statistical parameter maps depicting the linear correlation between DTI measurements (fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) and urinary protein quantification (MMP2, MMP9, NGAL, MMP9/NGAL complex, and VEGF) in 30 UCPPS patients from the MAPP Research Network, after accounting for clinical covariates. Read More

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December 2018
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Childhood Medulloblastoma Revisited.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec;27(6):479-502

Section of Neuroimaging, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant solid tumor in childhood and the most common embryonal neuroepithelial tumor of the central nervous system. Several morphological variants are recognized: classic medulloblastoma, large cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma, desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma, and medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. Recent advances in transcriptome and methylome profiling of these tumors led to a molecular classification that includes 4 major genetically defined groups. Read More

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December 2018
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Imaging Review of Common and Rare Causes of Stroke in Children.

Top Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec;27(6):463-477

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA.

Vascular injury is increasingly recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children (29 days to 18 years of age). Since vascular brain injury in children appears to be less common than in adults, the index of suspicion for vascular brain injury is usually lower. In this review article, we describe frequent and rare conditions underlying pediatric stroke including cardioembolic, viral, autoimmune, post-traumatic, and genetic etiologies. Read More

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December 2018