198,921 results match your criteria Neuroimaging in Epilepsy Surgery


Automatic labeling of cortical sulci for the human fetal brain based on spatio-temporal information of gyrification.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Fetal Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA; Division of Newborn Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Accurate parcellation and labeling of primary cortical sulci in the human fetal brain is useful for regional analysis of brain development. However, human fetal brains show large spatio-temporal changes in brain size, cortical folding patterns, and relative position/size of cortical regions, making accurate automatic sulcal labeling challenging. Here, we introduce a novel sulcal labeling method for the fetal brain using spatio-temporal gyrification information from multiple fetal templates. Read More

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December 2018

The neural correlates of discrete gait characteristics in ageing: A Structured Review.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute of Ageing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:

Gait is complex, described by diverse characteristics underpinned by widespread central nervous system networks including motor and cognitive functions. Despite this, neural substrates of discrete gait characteristics are poorly understood, limiting understanding of gait impairment in ageing and disease. This structured review aims to map gait characteristics, defined from a pre-specified model reflecting independent gait domains, to brain imaging parameters in older adults. Read More

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December 2018
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Patterns of altered regional brain glucose metabolism in borderline personality disorder and bipolar II disorder.

Acta Psychiatr Scand 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.

Objective: The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar II disorder (BIP-II) is disputed but understudied. Here, we investigated brain glucose metabolism in these patient groups and healthy control subjects (HCs).

Methods: Sixty-five subjects, 22 BPD (19 females); 22 BIP-II (17 females); 21 HC (14 females) were examined using 2-deoxy-2[18F]-fluoro-d-glucose Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) scanning. Read More

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December 2018

Correction to: The Neural Substrate of Reward Anticipation in Health: A Meta-Analysis of fMRI Findings in the Monetary Incentive Delay Task.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK.

The members of MTAC were removed from the author group and full list are shown in the Acknowledgements section. Also, members "Roee, A" and "Van Amselvoort, T" should be "Admon, R" and "Van Amelsvoort, T", respectively. The original article has been corrected. Read More

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December 2018

Altered structural connectivity of the motor subnetwork in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar features.

Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Symbiosis Center for Medical Image Analysis and Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis International University, Lavale, Mulshi, Pune, Maharashtra, 412115, India.

Objectives: To investigate the structural connectivity of the motor subnetwork in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar features (MSA-C), a distinct subtype of MSA, characterized by predominant cerebellar symptoms.

Methods: Twenty-three patients with MSA-C and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Disease severity was quantified using the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). Read More

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December 2018
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Exploratory genome-wide association analysis of response to ketamine and a polygenic analysis of response to scopolamine in depression.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14;8(1):280. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Statistical Genomics and Data Analysis Core, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic modulator ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed subjects. The anticholinergic agent scopolamine has also shown promise as a rapid-acting antidepressant. This study applied genome-wide markers to investigate the role of genetic variants in predicting acute antidepressant response to both agents. Read More

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December 2018

Cortical thickness atrophy in the transentorhinal cortex in mild cognitive impairment.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Center for Imaging Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Institute for Computational Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA; Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA.

This study examines the atrophy rates of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls in four regions within the medial temporal lobe: the transentorhinal cortex (TEC), entorhinal cortex (ERC), hippocampus, and amygdala. These regions were manually segmented and then corrected for undesirable longitudinal variability via Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping (LDDMM) based longitudinal diffeomorphometry. Diffeomorphometry techniques were used to compare thickness measurements in the TEC with the ERC. Read More

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December 2018

Motor training modulates intracortical inhibitory dynamics in motor cortex during movement preparation.

Brain Stimul 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London (UCL), London, WC1N 3BG, UK; Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK; Oxford Centre for Human Brain Mapping (OHBA), Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The primary motor cortex (M1) has a vital role to play in the learning of novel motor skills. However, the physiological changes underpinning this learning, particularly in terms of dynamic changes during movement preparation, are incompletely understood. In particular, a substantial decrease in resting gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) activity, i. Read More

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November 2018

Catecholaminergic modulation of indices of cognitive flexibility: A pharmaco-tDCS study.

Brain Stimul 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychology, Sociology and Politics, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Dopaminergic activity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been implicated in the control of cognitive flexibility. Much of the evidence for a causative relationship between cognitive flexibility and dopamine has come from animal studies, whilst human data have largely been correlational.

Objective/hypothesis: The current study examines whether changes in dopamine levels through tyrosine administration and suppression of dlPFC activity via cathodal tDCS could be causally related to cognitive flexibility as measured by task switching and reversal learning. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on brain function during response inhibition.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Bonn, Kaiser-Karl-Ring 9, 53111 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine and the noradrenaline transporter inhibitor atomoxetine are widely studied substances due to their propensity to alleviate cognitive deficits in psychiatric and neurological patients and their beneficial effects on some aspects of cognitive functions in healthy individuals. However, despite growing evidence of acetylcholine-noradrenaline interactions, there are only very few direct comparisons of the two substances. Here, we investigated the effects of nicotine and atomoxetine on response inhibition in the stop-signal task and we characterised the neural correlates of these effects using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T. Read More

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December 2018
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Movies in the magnet: Naturalistic paradigms in developmental functional neuroimaging.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

The Child Study Center at New York University Langone Medical Center, 1 Park Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, United States; Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research, 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Orangeburg, NY, 10962, United States.

The use of movie-watching as an acquisition state for functional connectivity (FC) MRI has recently enabled multiple groups to obtain rich data sets in younger children with both substantial sample sizes and scan durations. Using naturalistic paradigms such as movies has also provided analytic flexibility for these developmental studies that extends beyond conventional resting state approaches. This review highlights the advantages and challenges of using movies for developmental neuroimaging and explores some of the methodological issues involved in designing pediatric studies with movies. Read More

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November 2018

Beyond diagnosis: Mentalization and mental health from a transdiagnostic point of view in adolescents from non-clinical population.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 21;270:755-763. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Department of Mental Health. Fundació Sanitària Sant Pere Claver, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

An increasing volume of evidence suggests that mentalization (MZ) can be an important factor in the transition from mental health to mental illness and vice versa. However, most studies are focused on the role of MZ in specific disorders. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between MZ and mental health as a trans-diagnostic process. Read More

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December 2018

Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

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December 2018

Synaptic potentiation and rapid antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: A replication study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Sep 12;283:64-66. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Preclinical and clinical evidence has demonstrated that ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects. Studies using pre-treatment with an AMPA inhibitor suggest that enhancing AMPA throughput is crucial to ketamine's effects, including increases in both basal and evoked gamma power. This study sought to replicate previous findings of increased gamma response to a somatosensory stimulus at 230 min and Day 1 in ketamine responders versus non-responders in 31 depressed subjects and 25 healthy controls. Read More

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September 2018
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Is ventromedial prefrontal cortex critical for behavior change without external reinforcement?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Cue-approach training (CAT) is a novel paradigm that has been shown to induce preference changes towards items without external reinforcements. In the task, the mere association of a neutral cue and a speeded button response has been shown to induce a behavioral choice preference change lasting for months. This paradigm includes several phases: after the training of individual items, behavior change is manifested in binary choices of items with similar initial values. Read More

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December 2018

Oxycodone Exposure: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Response to Acute and Chronic Oxycodone Treatment in Rats.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Northeastern Univ, Center for Translational NeuroImaging, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to use blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging to "fingerprint" the change in activity in response to oxycodone (OXY) in drug naïve rats before and after repeated exposure to OXY. It was hypothesized that repeated exposure to OXY would initiate adaptive changes in brain organization that would be reflected in an altered response to opioid exposure. Male rats exposed to OXY repeatedly showed conditioned place preference, evidence of drug seeking behavior and putative neuroadaptation. Read More

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December 2018

Asymmetrical interference between number and item size perception provides evidence for a domain specific impairment in dyscalculia.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209256. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/I2BM, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Dyscalculia, a specific learning disability that impacts arithmetical skills, has previously been associated to a deficit in the precision of the system that estimates the approximate number of objects in visual scenes (the so called 'number sense' system). However, because in tasks involving numerosity comparisons dyscalculics' judgements appears disproportionally affected by continuous quantitative dimensions (such as the size of the items), an alternative view linked dyscalculia to a domain-general difficulty in inhibiting task-irrelevant responses. To arbitrate between these views, we evaluated the degree of reciprocal interference between numerical and non-numerical quantitative dimensions in adult dyscalculics and matched controls. Read More

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December 2018

Phenotypic variability and neuropsychological findings associated with C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208383. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Karolinska Institutet, Dept NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Bioclinicum, Akademiska stråket, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.

Methods And Findings: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of Aβ and tau on prospective cognitive decline in older individuals.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at post-mortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-seven older individuals (age=76. Read More

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December 2018

Regional multimodal relationships between tau, hypometabolism, atrophy, and fractional anisotropy in atypical Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with atypical clinical forms where the prominent domain of deficit is not memory, that is, atypical AD. Atypical AD patients show cortical atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on [ F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, tau uptake on [ F]AV-1451 PET, and white matter tract degeneration on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). How these disease processes relate to each other locally and distantly remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

MEG imaging of recurrent gliomas reveals functional plasticity of hemispheric language specialization.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biomagnetic Imaging Lab, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California.

In patients with gliomas, changes in hemispheric specialization for language determined by magnetoencephalography (MEG) were analyzed to elucidate the impact of treatment and tumor recurrence on language networks. Demonstration of reorganization of language networks in these patients has significant implications on the prevention of postoperative functional loss and recovery. Whole-brain activity during an auditory verb generation task was estimated from MEG recordings in a group of 73 patients with recurrent gliomas. Read More

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December 2018

MP2RAGEME: T , T , and QSM mapping in one sequence at 7 tesla.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging generates images of meaningful physical or chemical variables measured in physical units that allow quantitative comparisons between tissue regions and among subjects scanned at the same or different sites. Here, we show that we can acquire quantitative T , T , and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) information in a single acquisition, using a multi-echo (ME) extension of the second gradient-echo image of the MP2RAGE sequence. This combination is called MP2RAGE ME, or MP2RAGEME. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of sex and reproductive status on memory circuitry structure and function in early midlife using structural covariance analysis.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Research on age-related memory alterations traditionally targets individuals aged ≥65 years. However, recent studies emphasize the importance of early aging processes. We therefore aimed to characterize variation in brain gray matter structure in early midlife as a function of sex and menopausal status. Read More

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December 2018

ROI and phobias: The effect of ROI approach on an ALE meta-analysis of specific phobias.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Lucca, Italy.

About 90% of fMRI findings on specific phobias (SP) include analysis of region of interest (ROI). This approach characterized by higher sensitivity may produce inflated results, particularly when findings are aggregated in meta-analytic maps. Here, we conducted a systematic review and activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on SP, testing the impact of the inclusion of ROI-based studies. Read More

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December 2018
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Dissociation in awareness of memory and language decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Memory and Attention Disorders, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine awareness of decline in memory and in language in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), by comparing participant and informant ratings, as well as these ratings and actual test performance.

Methods: We analyzed data from 149 individuals with AD enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who filled the Everyday Cognition questionnaire, and performed memory and language tasks.

Results: Participants provided significantly lower assessments of decline than did informants for both memory and language. Read More

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December 2018

Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment May be Stratified by Advanced Diffusion Metrics and Neurocognitive Testing.

J Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background And Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent disorder, with a subset of patients progressing to dementia each year. Although MCI may be subdivided into amnestic or vascular types as well as into single or multiple cognitive domain involvement, most prior studies using advanced diffusion imaging have not accounted for these categories. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the pattern of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) correlate to specific cognitive domain impairments. Read More

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December 2018
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Correction to: Brief training in mindfulness may normalize a blunted error-related negativity in chronically depressed patients.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dahlem Center for Neuroimaging of Emotions, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Maria Fissler and Emilia Winnebeck also are affiliated at Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. Read More

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December 2018

Single-center experience using the 3MAX or 4MAX reperfusion catheter for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with distal arterial occlusions in patients not eligible for intravenous fibrinolysis.

Radiol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention (NINT), Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico "Santa Maria alle Scotte", Viale M. Bracci 2, Siena, Italy.

Background: In acute stroke, distal cerebrovascular occlusions can be linked to severe clinical symptoms, and treatment by mechanical thrombectomy may have an important clinical impact. When intravenous fibrinolytic therapy is firmly contraindicated, it remains the only treatment option.

Methods: A total of 42 patients with isolated distal arterial occlusions and absolute contraindication for intravenous fibrinolytic therapy were retrospectively included. Read More

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December 2018

ABO Blood Type and Hematoma Expansion After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Exploratory Analysis.

Neurocrit Care 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background/purpose: Blood type has become an increasingly recognized risk factor for coagulopathy. We explored the association between blood type and hematoma expansion (HE) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: Spontaneous ICH patients prospectively enrolled in an ongoing ICH cohort study at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from 2009 to 2016 were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018
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Pediatric neuroimaging at a university hospital in Rwanda: a pictorial essay.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, University of Rwanda School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda is a country of 12 million people with 41% of its population under the age of 14 years. Despite major improvements in health care since the 1994 genocide, pediatric neuroimaging in Rwanda remains challenging. Prenatal and advanced imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not widespread. Read More

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December 2018

A Case of Mistaken Identity: Glutaric Aciduria Type I Masquerading as Postmeningitic Hydrocephalus.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:50. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology and Imaging, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

We report the characteristic neuroimaging features of a rare metabolic leukodystrophy in an 8-year-old boy, born of consanguineous parenthood. The child presented with macrocrania, regression of milestones, and dystonia. The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging with a clinical diagnosis of postmeningitic hydrocephalus. Read More

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November 2018

Review of the Major and Minor Salivary Glands, Part 1: Anatomy, Infectious, and Inflammatory Processes.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:47. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

The major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck are important structures that contribute to many of the normal physiologic processes of the aerodigestive tract. The major salivary glands are routinely included within the field of view of standard neuroimaging, and although easily identifiable, salivary pathology is relatively rare and often easy to overlook. Knowledge of the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the salivary glands is critical for forming useful differential diagnoses, as well as initiating proper clinical workup for what are often incidental findings. Read More

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November 2018

Chudley-McCullough Syndrome.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:45. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMS), an autosomal recessive condition first reported by Chudley et al., in 1997, comprises profound sensorineural hearing loss and specific brain abnormalities. The hearing loss may be congenital or early onset. Read More

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November 2018
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Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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Surgical strategy for temporal lobe epilepsy with dual pathology and incomplete evidence from EEG and neuroimaging.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4886-4892. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, P.R. China.

Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Read More

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December 2018

Constructing treatment decision rules based on scalar and functional predictors when moderators of treatment effect are unknown.

J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 2018 Nov 16;67(5):1331-1356. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Wright State University, Dayton, U. S. A.

Treatment response heterogeneity poses serious challenges for selecting treatment for many diseases. To better understand this heterogeneity and to help in determining the best patient-specific treatments for a given disease, many clinical trials are collecting large amounts of patient-level data prior to administering treatment in the hope that some of these data can be used to identify moderators of treatment effect. These data can range from simple scalar values to complex functional data such as curves or images. Read More

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November 2018

Low back pain.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Dec 13;4(1):52. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Health and Medical Psychology, School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Low back pain affects individuals of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Despite advancements in assessment and treatment methods, the management of low back pain remains a challenge for researchers and clinicians alike. One reason for the limited success in identifying effective treatments is the large variation in the manifestations, possible causes, precipitating and maintaining factors, course, prognosis and consequences in terms of activity interference and quality of life. Read More

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December 2018
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Reduced resting-state connectivity in areas involved in processing of face-related social cues in female adolescents with atypical anorexia nervosa.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13;8(1):275. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) has a high incidence in adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging could improve our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of eating disorders (EDs), however research on adolescents with EDs is limited. To date no neuroimaging studies have been conducted to investigate brain functional connectivity in atypical AN. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Brain β-Amyloid and Atrophy in Individuals at Increased Risk of Cognitive Decline.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Clinical Neurosciences (N.K., J.O.R.), Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background And Purpose: The relationship between brain β-amyloid and regional atrophy is still incompletely understood in elderly individuals at risk of dementia. Here, we studied the associations between brain β-amyloid load and regional GM and WM volumes in older adults who were clinically evaluated as being at increased risk of cognitive decline based on cardiovascular risk factors.

Materials And Methods: Forty subjects (63-81 years of age) were recruited as part of a larger study, the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability. Read More

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December 2018
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A 17-Year-Old Boy With High-Functioning Autism, Gastrointestinal Illness, and Seizures.

Pediatrics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and

A healthy 17-year-old boy with a high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder presented to the emergency department after having a 4-minute episode of seizure-like activity in the setting of presumed viral gastroenteritis. Within an hour of emergency department arrival, he developed a forehead-sparing facial droop, right-sided ptosis, and expressive aphasia, prompting stroke team assessment and urgent neuroimaging. Laboratory results later revealed a serum sodium of 119 mmol/L. Read More

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December 2018
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Action-Outcome Knowledge Dissociates From Behavior in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Following Contingency Degradation.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), actions persist despite being inappropriate to the situation and without relationship to the overall goal. Dysfunctional beliefs have traditionally been postulated to underlie this condition. More recently, OCD has been characterized in terms of an imbalance between the goal-directed and the habit systems. Read More

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October 2018
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The cortical face network of the prosopagnosic patient PS with fast periodic stimulation in fMRI.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, Belgium; Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRAN, Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Service de Neurologie, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Following brain damage, the patient PS suffers from selective impairment in recognizing individuals by their faces, i.e., prosopagnosia. Read More

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November 2018

Using a birth cohort to study brain health and preclinical dementia: recruitment and participation rates in Insight 46.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 13;11(1):885. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at UCL, London, UK.

Objective: Identifying and recruiting people with early pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's disease to neuroimaging research studies is increasingly important. The extent to which results of these studies can be generalised depends on the recruitment and representativeness of the participants involved. We now report the recruitment and participation patterns from a neuroscience sub-study of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, "Insight 46". Read More

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December 2018

Simultaneous multi-slice MR imaging of the hip at 3 T to reduce acquisition times and maintain image quality.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2018 Dec 13;19(1):440. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama, 350-0495, Japan.

Background: Newly developed simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) scans are now being introduced as a clinical application in neuroimaging. We examined the feasibility of SMS scans for joint imaging. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively compare the resolution and specific absorption rate (SAR) obtained using SMS to those of conventional methods in hip joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and establish whether imaging times may be reduced using SMS in 3 T MRI and if image quality is affected. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroendoscopic fenestration of glioependymal cysts to the ventricle: report of 3 cases.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 1:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Glioependymal cysts are rare congenital lesions of the central nervous system. Reported surgical treatments of these lesions have varied and yielded mixed results, and the optimal surgical strategy is still controversial. The authors here report the clinical and surgical outcomes for three adult patients successfully treated with neuroendoscopic fenestration into the ventricular system. Read More

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November 2018

Pretherapeutic resting-state fMRI profiles are associated with MR signature volumes after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy for essential tremor.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec;129(Suppl1):63-71

OBJECTIVEEssential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard stereotactic deep brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy or, alternatively, minimally invasive techniques, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and high-intensity focused ultrasound, at the level of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential correlations between pretherapeutic interconnectivity (IC), as depicted on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and MR signature volume at 1 year after Vim SRS for tremor, to be able to potentially identify hypo- and hyperresponders based only on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data. Read More

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December 2018

Making Sense of Connectivity.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

In addition to the assessment of local alterations of specific brain regions, the investigation of entire networks with in vivo neuroimaging techniques has gained increasing attention. In general, connectivity analysis refers to the investigation of links between brain regions, with the aim to characterize their interactions and information transfer. These may represent or relate to different physiological characteristics (structural, functional or metabolic information) and can be calculated across different levels of granularity (two regions vs. Read More

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December 2018

Depression, auditory-verbal hallucinations, and delusions in patients with schizophrenia: Different patterns of association with prefrontal gray and white matter volume.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 4;283:55-63. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Structural brain abnormalities, including decreased gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume, have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. These decrements were found to be associated with positive and negative symptoms, but affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) were poorly explored. We hypothesized that abnormalities in GM and WM volume might also be related to affective symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring the potential role of mesocorticolimbic circuitry in motivation for and adherence to chronic pain self-management interventions.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Suite 101, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Adherence to pain self-management strategies is associated with favorable psychobehavioral outcomes among individuals with chronic pain. Substantive adherence to treatments teaching these adaptive skills proves challenging, resulting in poor individual and societal outcomes. Evidence demonstrates motivation for behavior change as a key predictor of treatment adherence. Read More

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December 2018