198,908 results match your criteria Neuroimaging Clinics of North America[Journal]


Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

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December 2018

Synaptic potentiation and rapid antidepressant response to ketamine in treatment-resistant major depression: A replication study.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Sep 12;283:64-66. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Experimental Therapeutics and Pathophysiology Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Preclinical and clinical evidence has demonstrated that ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects. Studies using pre-treatment with an AMPA inhibitor suggest that enhancing AMPA throughput is crucial to ketamine's effects, including increases in both basal and evoked gamma power. This study sought to replicate previous findings of increased gamma response to a somatosensory stimulus at 230 min and Day 1 in ketamine responders versus non-responders in 31 depressed subjects and 25 healthy controls. Read More

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September 2018

Is ventromedial prefrontal cortex critical for behavior change without external reinforcement?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Cue-approach training (CAT) is a novel paradigm that has been shown to induce preference changes towards items without external reinforcements. In the task, the mere association of a neutral cue and a speeded button response has been shown to induce a behavioral choice preference change lasting for months. This paradigm includes several phases: after the training of individual items, behavior change is manifested in binary choices of items with similar initial values. Read More

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December 2018

Oxycodone Exposure: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Response to Acute and Chronic Oxycodone Treatment in Rats.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Northeastern Univ, Center for Translational NeuroImaging, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to use blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging to "fingerprint" the change in activity in response to oxycodone (OXY) in drug naïve rats before and after repeated exposure to OXY. It was hypothesized that repeated exposure to OXY would initiate adaptive changes in brain organization that would be reflected in an altered response to opioid exposure. Male rats exposed to OXY repeatedly showed conditioned place preference, evidence of drug seeking behavior and putative neuroadaptation. Read More

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December 2018

Asymmetrical interference between number and item size perception provides evidence for a domain specific impairment in dyscalculia.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209256. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/I2BM, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Dyscalculia, a specific learning disability that impacts arithmetical skills, has previously been associated to a deficit in the precision of the system that estimates the approximate number of objects in visual scenes (the so called 'number sense' system). However, because in tasks involving numerosity comparisons dyscalculics' judgements appears disproportionally affected by continuous quantitative dimensions (such as the size of the items), an alternative view linked dyscalculia to a domain-general difficulty in inhibiting task-irrelevant responses. To arbitrate between these views, we evaluated the degree of reciprocal interference between numerical and non-numerical quantitative dimensions in adult dyscalculics and matched controls. Read More

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December 2018

Phenotypic variability and neuropsychological findings associated with C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208383. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Karolinska Institutet, Dept NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Bioclinicum, Akademiska stråket, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.

Methods And Findings: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed. Read More

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December 2018

The impact of Aβ and tau on prospective cognitive decline in older individuals.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Harvard Aging Brain Study, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objectives: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau pathologies are commonly observed among clinically normal older individuals at post-mortem and can now be detected with in vivo neuroimaging. The association and interaction of these proteinopathies with prospective cognitive decline in normal aging and preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be fully elucidated.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-seven older individuals (age=76. Read More

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December 2018

Regional multimodal relationships between tau, hypometabolism, atrophy, and fractional anisotropy in atypical Alzheimer's disease.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) can present with atypical clinical forms where the prominent domain of deficit is not memory, that is, atypical AD. Atypical AD patients show cortical atrophy on MRI, hypometabolism on [ F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, tau uptake on [ F]AV-1451 PET, and white matter tract degeneration on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). How these disease processes relate to each other locally and distantly remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

MEG imaging of recurrent gliomas reveals functional plasticity of hemispheric language specialization.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biomagnetic Imaging Lab, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, California.

In patients with gliomas, changes in hemispheric specialization for language determined by magnetoencephalography (MEG) were analyzed to elucidate the impact of treatment and tumor recurrence on language networks. Demonstration of reorganization of language networks in these patients has significant implications on the prevention of postoperative functional loss and recovery. Whole-brain activity during an auditory verb generation task was estimated from MEG recordings in a group of 73 patients with recurrent gliomas. Read More

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December 2018

MP2RAGEME: T , T , and QSM mapping in one sequence at 7 tesla.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging generates images of meaningful physical or chemical variables measured in physical units that allow quantitative comparisons between tissue regions and among subjects scanned at the same or different sites. Here, we show that we can acquire quantitative T , T , and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) information in a single acquisition, using a multi-echo (ME) extension of the second gradient-echo image of the MP2RAGE sequence. This combination is called MP2RAGE ME, or MP2RAGEME. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of sex and reproductive status on memory circuitry structure and function in early midlife using structural covariance analysis.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Research on age-related memory alterations traditionally targets individuals aged ≥65 years. However, recent studies emphasize the importance of early aging processes. We therefore aimed to characterize variation in brain gray matter structure in early midlife as a function of sex and menopausal status. Read More

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December 2018

ROI and phobias: The effect of ROI approach on an ALE meta-analysis of specific phobias.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Lucca, Italy.

About 90% of fMRI findings on specific phobias (SP) include analysis of region of interest (ROI). This approach characterized by higher sensitivity may produce inflated results, particularly when findings are aggregated in meta-analytic maps. Here, we conducted a systematic review and activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on SP, testing the impact of the inclusion of ROI-based studies. Read More

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December 2018

Dissociation in awareness of memory and language decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Memory and Attention Disorders, Neurological Institute, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine awareness of decline in memory and in language in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), by comparing participant and informant ratings, as well as these ratings and actual test performance.

Methods: We analyzed data from 149 individuals with AD enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who filled the Everyday Cognition questionnaire, and performed memory and language tasks.

Results: Participants provided significantly lower assessments of decline than did informants for both memory and language. Read More

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December 2018

Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment May be Stratified by Advanced Diffusion Metrics and Neurocognitive Testing.

J Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background And Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a prevalent disorder, with a subset of patients progressing to dementia each year. Although MCI may be subdivided into amnestic or vascular types as well as into single or multiple cognitive domain involvement, most prior studies using advanced diffusion imaging have not accounted for these categories. The purpose of the current study was to determine if the pattern of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) correlate to specific cognitive domain impairments. Read More

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December 2018
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Mapping Genetic Influences on Brain Shape using Multi-Atlas Fluid Image Alignment.

Proc Front Converg Biosci Inf Technol (2007) 2007 Oct 16;2007:482-489. Epub 2008 May 16.

UCLA Laboratory of NeuroImaging, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA.

In this pilot study, we developed a set of computer vision based surface segmentation and statistical shape analysis algorithms to study genetic influences on brain structure in a database of brain MRI scans of normal twins. A set of manually delineated 3D parametric surfaces, representing the lateral ventricles, was deformed, using a Navier-Stokes fluid image registration algorithm, onto all the images in the database. The geometric transformations thus obtained were used to propagate the segmentation labels to all the other images. Read More

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October 2007

Correction to: Brief training in mindfulness may normalize a blunted error-related negativity in chronically depressed patients.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dahlem Center for Neuroimaging of Emotions, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Maria Fissler and Emilia Winnebeck also are affiliated at Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. Read More

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December 2018

Single-center experience using the 3MAX or 4MAX reperfusion catheter for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke with distal arterial occlusions in patients not eligible for intravenous fibrinolysis.

Radiol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Unit of Neuroimaging and Neurointervention (NINT), Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, Policlinico "Santa Maria alle Scotte", Viale M. Bracci 2, Siena, Italy.

Background: In acute stroke, distal cerebrovascular occlusions can be linked to severe clinical symptoms, and treatment by mechanical thrombectomy may have an important clinical impact. When intravenous fibrinolytic therapy is firmly contraindicated, it remains the only treatment option.

Methods: A total of 42 patients with isolated distal arterial occlusions and absolute contraindication for intravenous fibrinolytic therapy were retrospectively included. Read More

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December 2018

ABO Blood Type and Hematoma Expansion After Intracerebral Hemorrhage: An Exploratory Analysis.

Neurocrit Care 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background/purpose: Blood type has become an increasingly recognized risk factor for coagulopathy. We explored the association between blood type and hematoma expansion (HE) after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: Spontaneous ICH patients prospectively enrolled in an ongoing ICH cohort study at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from 2009 to 2016 were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018
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Pediatric neuroimaging at a university hospital in Rwanda: a pictorial essay.

Pediatr Radiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, University Teaching Hospital of Kigali, University of Rwanda School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Kigali, Rwanda.

Rwanda is a country of 12 million people with 41% of its population under the age of 14 years. Despite major improvements in health care since the 1994 genocide, pediatric neuroimaging in Rwanda remains challenging. Prenatal and advanced imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are not widespread. Read More

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December 2018

A Case of Mistaken Identity: Glutaric Aciduria Type I Masquerading as Postmeningitic Hydrocephalus.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:50. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology and Imaging, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India.

We report the characteristic neuroimaging features of a rare metabolic leukodystrophy in an 8-year-old boy, born of consanguineous parenthood. The child presented with macrocrania, regression of milestones, and dystonia. The patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging with a clinical diagnosis of postmeningitic hydrocephalus. Read More

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November 2018

Review of the Major and Minor Salivary Glands, Part 1: Anatomy, Infectious, and Inflammatory Processes.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:47. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA.

The major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck are important structures that contribute to many of the normal physiologic processes of the aerodigestive tract. The major salivary glands are routinely included within the field of view of standard neuroimaging, and although easily identifiable, salivary pathology is relatively rare and often easy to overlook. Knowledge of the normal and abnormal imaging appearance of the salivary glands is critical for forming useful differential diagnoses, as well as initiating proper clinical workup for what are often incidental findings. Read More

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November 2018

Chudley-McCullough Syndrome.

J Clin Imaging Sci 2018 15;8:45. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiology, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Chudley-McCullough syndrome (CMS), an autosomal recessive condition first reported by Chudley et al., in 1997, comprises profound sensorineural hearing loss and specific brain abnormalities. The hearing loss may be congenital or early onset. Read More

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November 2018
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Late adult-onset adrenomyeloneuropathy evolving with atypical severe frontal lobe syndrome: Importance of neuroimaging.

Radiol Case Rep 2019 Mar 5;14(3):309-314. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medical, Surgical, Neurological, Metabolic Sciences, and Aging, 2nd Division of Neurology, Center for Rare Diseases and InterUniversity Center for Research in Neurosciences, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Via Sergio Pansini, 80131 Naples, Italy.

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare inherited metabolic disease affecting the nervous system and the adrenal glands. It is caused by a mutation of the gene, resulting in the impaired degradation of very long-chain fatty acids and their subsequent accumulation in several organs and tissues. X-ALD is notable for its high phenotypical variability, that includes isolated adrenocortical insufficiency, slowly progressive myelopathy with paraparesis, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy to severe childhood cerebral forms. Read More

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Surgical strategy for temporal lobe epilepsy with dual pathology and incomplete evidence from EEG and neuroimaging.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 19;16(6):4886-4892. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning 116000, P.R. China.

Coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and a temporal neocortical lesion, including focal cortical dysplasia, vascular malformations or benign primary brain tumors, is defined as dual pathology. In the majority of cases, the complete evidence based on electroencephalogram (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for each of the dual pathological lesions is difficult to obtain. As a result, patients with dual pathology are poor surgical candidates due to potential incomplete resection of the epileptogenic zone. Read More

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December 2018

Constructing treatment decision rules based on scalar and functional predictors when moderators of treatment effect are unknown.

J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 2018 Nov 16;67(5):1331-1356. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Wright State University, Dayton, U. S. A.

Treatment response heterogeneity poses serious challenges for selecting treatment for many diseases. To better understand this heterogeneity and to help in determining the best patient-specific treatments for a given disease, many clinical trials are collecting large amounts of patient-level data prior to administering treatment in the hope that some of these data can be used to identify moderators of treatment effect. These data can range from simple scalar values to complex functional data such as curves or images. Read More

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November 2018

Low back pain.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2018 Dec 13;4(1):52. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Center for Health and Medical Psychology, School of Law, Psychology, and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Low back pain affects individuals of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Despite advancements in assessment and treatment methods, the management of low back pain remains a challenge for researchers and clinicians alike. One reason for the limited success in identifying effective treatments is the large variation in the manifestations, possible causes, precipitating and maintaining factors, course, prognosis and consequences in terms of activity interference and quality of life. Read More

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December 2018

Reduced resting-state connectivity in areas involved in processing of face-related social cues in female adolescents with atypical anorexia nervosa.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 13;8(1):275. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) has a high incidence in adolescents and can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Neuroimaging could improve our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of eating disorders (EDs), however research on adolescents with EDs is limited. To date no neuroimaging studies have been conducted to investigate brain functional connectivity in atypical AN. Read More

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December 2018
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Brain β-Amyloid and Atrophy in Individuals at Increased Risk of Cognitive Decline.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Clinical Neurosciences (N.K., J.O.R.), Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background And Purpose: The relationship between brain β-amyloid and regional atrophy is still incompletely understood in elderly individuals at risk of dementia. Here, we studied the associations between brain β-amyloid load and regional GM and WM volumes in older adults who were clinically evaluated as being at increased risk of cognitive decline based on cardiovascular risk factors.

Materials And Methods: Forty subjects (63-81 years of age) were recruited as part of a larger study, the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability. Read More

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December 2018
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A 17-Year-Old Boy With High-Functioning Autism, Gastrointestinal Illness, and Seizures.

Pediatrics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and

A healthy 17-year-old boy with a high-functioning pervasive developmental disorder presented to the emergency department after having a 4-minute episode of seizure-like activity in the setting of presumed viral gastroenteritis. Within an hour of emergency department arrival, he developed a forehead-sparing facial droop, right-sided ptosis, and expressive aphasia, prompting stroke team assessment and urgent neuroimaging. Laboratory results later revealed a serum sodium of 119 mmol/L. Read More

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December 2018
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Action-Outcome Knowledge Dissociates From Behavior in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Following Contingency Degradation.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), actions persist despite being inappropriate to the situation and without relationship to the overall goal. Dysfunctional beliefs have traditionally been postulated to underlie this condition. More recently, OCD has been characterized in terms of an imbalance between the goal-directed and the habit systems. Read More

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October 2018

The cortical face network of the prosopagnosic patient PS with fast periodic stimulation in fMRI.

Cortex 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Psychological Sciences Research Institute, Institute of Neuroscience, University of Louvain, Belgium; Université de Lorraine, CNRS, CRAN, Nancy, France; Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Service de Neurologie, Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Following brain damage, the patient PS suffers from selective impairment in recognizing individuals by their faces, i.e., prosopagnosia. Read More

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November 2018

Using a birth cohort to study brain health and preclinical dementia: recruitment and participation rates in Insight 46.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 13;11(1):885. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRC Unit for Lifelong Health and Ageing at UCL, London, UK.

Objective: Identifying and recruiting people with early pre-symptomatic Alzheimer's disease to neuroimaging research studies is increasingly important. The extent to which results of these studies can be generalised depends on the recruitment and representativeness of the participants involved. We now report the recruitment and participation patterns from a neuroscience sub-study of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, "Insight 46". Read More

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December 2018

Simultaneous multi-slice MR imaging of the hip at 3 T to reduce acquisition times and maintain image quality.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2018 Dec 13;19(1):440. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama, 350-0495, Japan.

Background: Newly developed simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) scans are now being introduced as a clinical application in neuroimaging. We examined the feasibility of SMS scans for joint imaging. The purpose of the present study was to prospectively compare the resolution and specific absorption rate (SAR) obtained using SMS to those of conventional methods in hip joint magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and establish whether imaging times may be reduced using SMS in 3 T MRI and if image quality is affected. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroendoscopic fenestration of glioependymal cysts to the ventricle: report of 3 cases.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 1:1-5. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Glioependymal cysts are rare congenital lesions of the central nervous system. Reported surgical treatments of these lesions have varied and yielded mixed results, and the optimal surgical strategy is still controversial. The authors here report the clinical and surgical outcomes for three adult patients successfully treated with neuroendoscopic fenestration into the ventricular system. Read More

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November 2018

Pretherapeutic resting-state fMRI profiles are associated with MR signature volumes after stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy for essential tremor.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Dec;129(Suppl1):63-71

OBJECTIVEEssential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard stereotactic deep brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy or, alternatively, minimally invasive techniques, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and high-intensity focused ultrasound, at the level of the ventral intermediate nucleus (Vim). The aim of the present study was to evaluate potential correlations between pretherapeutic interconnectivity (IC), as depicted on resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and MR signature volume at 1 year after Vim SRS for tremor, to be able to potentially identify hypo- and hyperresponders based only on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data. Read More

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December 2018

Making Sense of Connectivity.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Austria.

In addition to the assessment of local alterations of specific brain regions, the investigation of entire networks with in vivo neuroimaging techniques has gained increasing attention. In general, connectivity analysis refers to the investigation of links between brain regions, with the aim to characterize their interactions and information transfer. These may represent or relate to different physiological characteristics (structural, functional or metabolic information) and can be calculated across different levels of granularity (two regions vs. Read More

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December 2018

Depression, auditory-verbal hallucinations, and delusions in patients with schizophrenia: Different patterns of association with prefrontal gray and white matter volume.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 4;283:55-63. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Esplugues de Llobregat, Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

Structural brain abnormalities, including decreased gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume, have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. These decrements were found to be associated with positive and negative symptoms, but affective symptoms (depression and anxiety) were poorly explored. We hypothesized that abnormalities in GM and WM volume might also be related to affective symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

Exploring the potential role of mesocorticolimbic circuitry in motivation for and adherence to chronic pain self-management interventions.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, 5510 Nathan Shock Drive, Suite 101, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Adherence to pain self-management strategies is associated with favorable psychobehavioral outcomes among individuals with chronic pain. Substantive adherence to treatments teaching these adaptive skills proves challenging, resulting in poor individual and societal outcomes. Evidence demonstrates motivation for behavior change as a key predictor of treatment adherence. Read More

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December 2018

Gray matter volumes of insular subregions are not correlated with smoking cessation outcomes but negatively correlated with nicotine dependence severity in chronic smokers.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Radiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

The insula, a cortical region that integrates heterogeneous signals about internal states and contributes to executive functions, has been implicated as an important role in the maintenance of nicotine dependence. Previous studies have indicated that insula damage may contribute to quitting smoking successfully, but few studies have examined whether quitting successfully is related to cortical structural integrity of insular subregions before smoking cessation treatment. Moreover, although prior researches have shown group differences in insular cortex structure in chronic cigarette smokers compared to nonsmokers, less is known about how cortical structural integrity of insular subregions relate to smoking behaviors in smokers. Read More

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December 2018

Air pollution and brain health: defining the research agenda.

Curr Opin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The literature on air pollution and brain health is rapidly expanding and it is a universal finding that greater exposure to air pollution is associated with worse outcomes, whatever the measure of brain health used (clinical dementia, neuroimaging correlates, or cognitive impairment). However, there are a number of important questions which the studies currently published are not able to answer: when in the life course does exposure to air pollution most have the most impact?; which pollutant(s) or components are most important?; and since dementia describes a heterogeneous group of conditions, which is most affected by exposure to air pollution?

Recent Findings: We briefly review and discuss the nine articles which have been published so far in 2018, so recently that they were not included in the four review articles also published this year. We highlight the variation in estimates of air pollution used but the consistency in deriving them from residential address (with or without some knowledge of an individual's previous home locations). Read More

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December 2018

A norming study of high-quality video clips of pantomimes, emblems, and meaningless gestures.

Behav Res Methods 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Center for Mind/Brain Science (CIMeC), University of Trento, 38068, Rovereto, TN, Italy.

Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in behavioral and neuroimaging studies on the processing of symbolic communicative gestures, such as pantomimes and emblems, but well-controlled stimuli have been scarce. This study describes a dataset of more than 200 video clips of an actress performing pantomimes (gestures that mimic object-directed/object-use actions; e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Thinking about thinking: A coordinate-based meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of metacognitive judgements.

Brain Neurosci Adv 2018 13;2:2398212818810591. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK.

Metacognition supports reflection upon and control of other cognitive processes. Despite metacognition occupying a central role in human psychology, its neural substrates remain underdetermined, partly due to study-specific differences in task domain and type of metacognitive judgement under study. It is also unclear how metacognition relates to other apparently similar abilities that depend on recursive thought such as theory of mind or mentalising. Read More

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November 2018

Immunosuppression-associated posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in an acute leukemia case.

Hematol Rep 2018 Nov 6;10(4):7257. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was described in 1996. Herein, we aimed to report an immunosuppression- related PRES case. A 34-year-old woman was diagnosed as t-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was performed. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of a 12-Week Aerobic Spin Intervention on Resting State Networks in Previously Sedentary Older Adults.

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2376. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

VA Rehabilitation R&D Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VA Health Care, Decatur, GA, United States.

We have previously demonstrated that aerobic exercise improves upper extremity motor function concurrent with changes in motor cortical activity using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is currently unknown how a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention affects resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in motor networks. Previous work has shown that over a 6-month or 1-year exercise intervention, older individuals show increased resting state connectivity of the default mode network and the sensorimotor network (Voss et al. Read More

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November 2018

Oxytocin Receptor Polymorphism Decreases Midline Neural Activations to Social Stimuli in Anorexia Nervosa.

Front Psychol 2018 13;9:2183. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas at Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, United States.

Oxytocin is a neurotransmitter related to both feeding and social behavior; anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric illness defined by reduced food intake, weight loss, and problems in social perceptions. Oxytocin receptor single nucleotide polymorphisms rs2254298 or rs53576 and neural responses to social stimuli were evaluated in adult women with or recovered from anorexia nervosa using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Carriers of the A allele for rs2254298 (2 AA and 10 AG) showed significantly reduced activation of portions of the posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for social stimuli as well as greater negative connectivity between the posterior cingulate and the occipital lobe relative to the GG subjects for rs2254298. Read More

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November 2018

fMRI BOLD Correlates of EEG Independent Components: Spatial Correspondence With the Default Mode Network.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 27;12:478. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

: We aimed to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) signal fluctuations within independent components (ICs) that correlate to spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activity in regions of the default mode network (DMN) during eyes-closed resting state. : We analyzed simultaneously acquired EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) eyes-closed resting state data in a convenience sample of 30 participants. IC analysis (ICA) was used to decompose the EEG time-series and common ICs were identified using data-driven IC clustering across subjects. Read More

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November 2018

Is Empathy for Pain Unique in Its Neural Correlates? A Meta-Analysis of Neuroimaging Studies of Empathy.

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 27;12:289. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative, and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, United States.

Empathy is an essential component of our social lives, allowing us to understand and share other people's affective and sensory states, including pain. Evidence suggests a core neural network-including anterior insula (AI) and mid-cingulate cortex (MCC)-is involved in empathy for pain. However, a similar network is associated to empathy for non-pain affective states, raising the question whether empathy for pain is unique in its neural correlates. Read More

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November 2018

Imbalance of Functional Connectivity and Temporal Entropy in Resting-State Networks in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Machine Learning Approach.

Front Neurosci 2018 27;12:869. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Two approaches to understanding the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) involve network level functional connectivity (FC) and the dynamics of neuronal signaling. The former approach has revealed both increased and decreased FC in individuals with ASD. The latter approach has found high frequency EEG oscillations and higher levels of epilepsy in children with ASD. Read More

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November 2018

Antiepileptic Drug of Levetiracetam Decreases Centrotemporal Spike-Associated Activation in Rolandic Epilepsy.

Front Neurosci 2018 27;12:796. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Southern Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The objective was to study the modulation effects of levetiracetam on the fMRI activation/deactivation patterns associated with centrotemporal spikes (CTS) in Rolandic epilepsy. Forty patients with Rolandic epilepsy, including levetiracetam-medicated patients ( = 20) and drug-naive patients ( = 20), were studied. Single and sequential hemodynamic response functions-based EEG-fMRI analysis was performed to detect dynamic activation/deactivation associated with CTS. Read More

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November 2018