88,857 results match your criteria Neurodegenerative Diseases[Journal]


The Challenge to Search for New Nervous System Disease Biomarker Candidates: the Opportunity to Use the Proteogenomics Approach.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Laboratory of Functional Genomics and Bioinformatics, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, prion diseases, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis are the most common nervous system diseases, affecting millions of people worldwide. The current scientific literature associates these pathological conditions to abnormal expression levels of certain proteins, which in turn improved the knowledge concerning normal and affected brains. However, there is no available cure or preventive therapy for any of these disorders. Read More

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December 2018

Italian recommendations for diagnosis and management of congenital myasthenic syndromes.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Neurology IV - Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta", Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are genetic disorders due to mutations in genes encoding proteins involved in the neuromuscular junction structure and function. CMS usually present in young children, but perinatal and adult onset has been reported. Clinical presentation is highly heterogeneous, ranging from mild symptoms to severe manifestations, sometimes with life-threatening respiratory episodes, especially in the first decade of life. Read More

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December 2018

Role of TLR4 in the gut-brain axis in Parkinson's disease: a translational study from men to mice.

Gut 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Recent evidence suggesting an important role of gut-derived inflammation in brain disorders has opened up new directions to explore the possible role of the gut-brain axis in neurodegenerative diseases. Given the prominence of dysbiosis and colonic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we propose that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal dysfunction could contribute to intestinal and central inflammation in PD-related neurodegeneration.

Design: To test this hypothesis we performed studies in both human tissue and a murine model of PD. Read More

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December 2018

FMRI correlates of olfactory processing in typically-developing school-aged children.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 Dec 2;283:67-76. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; Center on Human Development and Disability, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States; Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Human olfactory processing is understudied relative to other sensory modalities, despite its links to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. To address this limitation, we developed a fast, robust fMRI odor paradigm that is appropriate for all ages and levels of cognitive functioning. To test this approach, thirty-four typically developing children aged 7-12 underwent fMRI during brief, repeated exposure to phenylethyl alcohol, a flower-scented odor. Read More

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December 2018

The ketogenic diet as a potential treatment and prevention strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 10;60:118-121. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

The prevalence of Alzheimer's disease, a chronic neurodegenerative condition, is increasing as is the need for effective treatments and preventions. The underlying pathology of Alzheimer's is not yet fully understood, so existing research has focused on understanding the prominent features of the disease. These include amyloid plaques, which accumulate in the brains of those with Alzheimer's disease; impaired glucose metabolism; and neuronal cell death. Read More

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October 2018
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Association between short-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution and cause-specific mortality in Changzhou, China.

Environ Res 2018 Nov 28;170:7-15. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, PR China; Department of Hygiene Analysis and Detection, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 101 Longmian Avenue, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Extensive studies have linked ambient particulate matter (PM) to an increased mortality burden from a wide range of causes. However, the effects of PM on mortality rates from specific causes were unclear. This study aimed to estimate the detrimental effects of PM on cause specific deaths in Changzhou, China. Read More

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November 2018
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Evaluation of the protective effect of Myrtus communis in scopolamine-induced Alzheimer model through cholinergic receptors.

Gene 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder causing common health problem with increasing age. Evidences show that the key symptoms of AD are mainly caused by cholinergic system dysfunction which has a role in cognitive disorders. Cholinergic pathways especially muscarinic receptors like M subtype also have a major role in learning, memory, cognitive functions and emotional state. Read More

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December 2018

Proteomics turns functional.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Science and High Technology, Center of Bioinformatics, University of Insubria, Busto Arsizio, Italy. Electronic address:

Proteomics is acquiring a pivotal role in the comprehensive understanding of human biology. Biochemical processes involved in complex diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and cancer, can be identified by combining proteomics analysis and bioinformatics tools. In the last ten years, the main output of differential proteomics investigations evolved from long lists of proteins to the generation of new hypotheses and their functional verification. Read More

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December 2018

Low frequency pulse stimulation of Schaffer collaterals in Trpm4 knockout rats differently affects baseline BOLD signals in target regions of the right hippocampus but not BOLD responses at the site of stimulation.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Functional Neuroimaging Group, Deutsches Zentrum für neurodegenerative Erkrankungen (DZNE), Magdeburg, Germany; Leibniz Institute for Neurobiology (LIN), Magdeburg, Germany; Medical Faculty, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Electrical stimulation of right Schaffer collateral in Trpm4 knockout and wild type rats were used to study the role of Trpm4 channels for signal processing in the hippocampal formation. Stimulation induced neuronal activity was simultaneously monitored in the CA1 region by in vivo extracellular field recordings and in the entire brain by BOLD fMRI measurements. In wild type and Trpm4 knockout rats, consecutive 5 Hz pulse trains elicited similar neuronal responses in the CA1 region and similar BOLD responses in the stimulated right hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

Ligand binding domain interface: A tipping point for pharmacological agents binding with GluN1/2A subunit containing NMDA receptors.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Edward Via Virginia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Technical University, Darmstadt, Germany; Virginia-Maryland College of Veterinary MedicineVirginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA; School of Neuroscience, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA. Electronic address:

N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a crucial role in normal brain function, pathogenesis of neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Functional tetra-heteromeric NMDA receptor contains two obligatory GluN1 subunits and two identical or different non-GluN1 subunits that evolve from six different genes including four GluN2 (A-D) and two GluN3 (A-B) subunits. Since NMDA receptors confer varied physiological properties and spatiotemporal distributions in the brain, pharmacological agents that target NMDA receptors with specific GluN2 subunits have significant potential for therapeutic applications. Read More

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December 2018

Human olfactory stem cells: As a promising source of dopaminergic neuron-like cells for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Applied Biophotonics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

The production of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from stem cells holds a great promise for future clinical treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (OE-MSCs) derived from the adult human olfactory mucosa can be easily isolated and expanded in culture while maintaining their immense plasticity. In addition to reduced ethical concerns, OE-MSCs could be transplanted across allogeneic barriers, making them desirable stem cells for clinical applications. Read More

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December 2018

Resveratrol modulates fibrillogenesis in a poly‑l‑lysine peptide.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Wroclaw, F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 Wroclaw, Poland.

Resveratrol (Res) is an effective inhibitor of amyloid fibril formation and reduces neuron cell toxicity. The effect of Res on the fibrillogenesis of a polar polypeptide, poly‑l‑lysine (PLL), was studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, vibrational circular dichroism and transmission electron microscopy. Res molecules exhibited strong and specific inhibition of β-sheet-rich fibrils formed by PLL. Read More

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December 2018

Identification of a circulating miRNA signature in extracellular vesicles collected from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, 18 Antonine-Maillet Avenue, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9, Canada. Electronic address:

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. Read More

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December 2018

Baicalin alleviates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by down-regulation of microRNA-192-5p.

Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, China. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD), which was caused by neurodegenerative disorder, has no effective treatment until now. Baicalin was reported to have neuroprotective effects. Hence, we investigated the effects of baicalin on PD in an in vitro cell model by using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Read More

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December 2018

Muscle Expression of Type I and Type II Interferons Is Increased in Juvenile Dermatomyositis and Related to Clinical and Histological Features.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Rheumatology, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate expression of type I interferon (IFNα/β)- and type II IFN (IFNγ)-inducible genes in muscle biopsies of JDM patients and to correlate their expression levels with histological and clinical features.

Methods: Expression levels of IFN-inducible genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed by quantitative PCR in muscle biopsies of JDM patients (n = 39), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients (n = 24) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 4). Histological and immunofluorescence studies were performed on muscle biopsy sections. Read More

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December 2018

Genetically engineered animal models of Parkinson's disease: from worm to rodent.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, 27100, Italy.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by aberrant accumulation of insoluble proteins, including alpha-synuclein, and a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The extended neurodegeneration leads to a drop of striatal dopamine levels, responsible for disabling motor and non-motor impairments. Although the causes of the disease remain unclear, it is well accepted among the scientific community that the disorder may also have a genetic component. Read More

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December 2018
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Thymosin beta 4-Induced Autophagy Increases Cholinergic Signaling in PrP (106-126)-Treated HT22 Cells.

Neurotox Res 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Laboratory Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University, 79 Gobongro, Iksan, 54596, Republic of Korea.

Prion protein peptide (PrP) has been associated with neurotoxicity in brain cells and progression of prion diseases due to spongiform degeneration and accumulation of the infectious scrapie prion protein (PrP). Autophagy has been shown to provide protective functions for neurodegenerative diseases, including prion disease. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ) plays a key role in the nervous system, providing a neuronal growth effect that includes motility, neurite outgrowth, and proliferation. Read More

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December 2018
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Therapeutic potentials of the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the related mechanisms.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Datong University, Datong, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders are serious human health problems. Rho-kinase (ROCK) is emerging as a potentially important therapeutic target relevant to inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. This is supported by studies showing the beneficial effects of fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, in inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Transcriptional profiling of isogenic Friedreich ataxia neurons and effect of an HDAC inhibitor on disease signatures.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Scripps Research Institute, United States.

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by transcriptional silencing of the FXN gene, resulting in loss of the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the knowledge that a GAA•TTC  repeat expansion in the first intron of FXN induces heterochromatin, we previously showed that 2-aminobenzamide-type histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) increase FXN mRNA levels in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived FRDA neurons and in circulating lymphocytes from patients after HDACi oral administration. How the reduced expression of frataxin leads to neurological and other systemic symptoms in FRDA patients remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

APOPT1/COA8 assists COX assembly and is oppositely regulated by UPS and ROS.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

MRC-Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Loss-of-function mutations in , a gene exclusively found in higher eukaryotes, cause a characteristic type of cavitating leukoencephalopathy associated with mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency. Although the genetic association of APOPT1 pathogenic variants with isolated COX defects is now clear, the biochemical link between APOPT1 function and COX has remained elusive. We investigated the molecular role of APOPT1 using different approaches. Read More

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December 2018

Lymphatic Vascular Structures: A New Aspect in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Research Programs Unit, Genome-Scale Biology, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common diabetic microvascular complication and major cause of blindness in working-age adults. According to the level of microvascular degeneration and ischemic damage, DR is classified into non-proliferative DR (NPDR), and end-stage, proliferative DR (PDR). Despite advances in the disease etiology and pathogenesis, molecular understanding of end-stage PDR, characterized by ischemia- and inflammation-associated neovascularization and fibrosis, remains incomplete due to the limited availability of ideal clinical samples and experimental research models. Read More

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December 2018
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Overview on the Effects of -Acetylcysteine in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Molecules 2018 Dec 13;23(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo", Via Provinciale Palermo, Contrada Casazza, 98124 Messina, Italy.

-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an acetylated cysteine compound, has aroused scientific interest for decades due to its important medical applications. It also represents a nutritional supplement in the human diet. NAC is a glutathione precursor and shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Read More

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December 2018

The Genetic Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Therapeutic Perspectives.

Brain Sci 2018 Dec 13;8(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Evidence-Based Therapeutics Group, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Universidad de La Sabana, Chía 140013, Colombia.

Genetics has led to a new focus regarding approaches to the most prevalent diseases today. Ascertaining the molecular secrets of neurodegenerative diseases will lead to developing drugs that will change natural history, thereby affecting the quality of life and mortality of patients. The sequencing of candidate genes in patients suffering neurodegenerative pathologies is faster, more accurate, and has a lower cost, thereby enabling algorithms to be proposed regarding the risk of neurodegeneration onset in healthy persons including the year of onset and neurodegeneration severity. Read More

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December 2018

Jowiseungchungtang Inhibits Amyloid-β Aggregation and Amyloid-β-Mediated Pathology in 5XFAD Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 13;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Konyang University, 158, Gwanjeodong-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 35365, Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease, which is accompanied by memory loss and cognitive dysfunction. Although a number of trials to treat AD are in progress, there are no drugs available that inhibit the progression of AD. As the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain is considered to be the major pathology of AD, inhibition of Aβ aggregation could be an effective strategy for AD treatment. Read More

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December 2018
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Protective effect of Centella asiatica against -galactose and aluminium chloride induced rats: Behavioral and ultrastructural approaches.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 5;109:853-864. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the commonest cause of dementia among the aged people. -galactose (D-gal) is a senescence agent, while aluminium is a known neurotoxin linked to pathogenesis of AD. The combined administration of rats with d-gal and aluminium chloride (AlCl) is considered to be an easy and a cheap method to obtain an animal model of AD. Read More

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January 2019

Resveratrol: from enhanced biosynthesis and bioavailability to multitargeting chronic diseases.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 28;109:2237-2251. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biochemistry, BMS block-II, Sector 25, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Resveratrol, a phytoalexin with a wide range of pharmacological properties is synthesised by plants in response to stress, injury, infection or UV radiations. As it is a secondary metabolite with many health promoting properties, various methods employing microorganisms and genetic manipulation of different synthetic enzymes, have been comprehensively studied to increase its production. Its rapid metabolism and low bioavailability have been addressed by the use of bio enhancers and nano-formulations. Read More

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January 2019
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Anti-Parkinson activity of bioactive substances extracted from Holothuria leucospilota.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:1967-1977. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron loss and α-synuclein aggregation. Recent study revealed that the extracts from sea cucumber, Holothuroidea spp., exhibited neuroprotective and lifespan extension effects in Caenorhabditis elegans model. Read More

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January 2019
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Network localization of heterogeneous neuroimaging findings.

Brain 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Studies of the same disease often implicate different brain regions, contributing to a perceived reproducibility crisis in neuroimaging. Here, we leverage the normative human brain connectome to test whether seemingly heterogeneous neuroimaging findings localize to connected brain networks. We use neurodegenerative disease, and specifically Alzheimer's disease, as our example as it is one of the diseases that has been studied the most using neuroimaging. Read More

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December 2018

Targeting STATs in neuroinflammation: the Road Less Traveled!

Pharmacol Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

JAK/STAT transduction pathway is a highly conserved pathway implicated in regulating cellular proliferation, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Dysregulation of this pathway is involved in the onset of autoimmune, haematological, oncological, metabolic and neurological diseases. Over the last few years, the research of anti-neuroinflammatory agents has gained considerable attention. Read More

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December 2018
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TLR4 absence reduces neuroinflammation and inflammasome activation in Parkinson's diseases in vivo model.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmacological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, USA. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder. It has been shown Toll like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice protect against MPTP toxicity, suggesting that dopaminergic cell death is TLR4-dependent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate, in an in vivo model of PD, how TLR4 plays its important role in the pathogenesis of PD by using MPTP neurotoxin model (4 × 20 mg/kg, 2 hr apart, i. Read More

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December 2018
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Upregulated levels and pathological aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated Tau-Protein in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department for NMR-based Structural Biology, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Faßberg 11, 37077 Göttingen, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Von-Siebold-Str. 3a, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

The tubulin-associated unit (Tau) protein is an intrinsically disordered protein that plays a well-established role in promoting microtubule assembly and stabilization in neuronal axons at all stages of development. Identification of new interacting partners and different sub-cellular localizations of Tau in recent years led to the discovery of novel physiological functions in regulation of neuronal activity, neurogenesis, long-term depression, iron export and genomic integrity. In addition, Tau gene mutations, aberrant mRNA splicing and abnormal post-translational modifications, such as hyperphosphorylation, lead to formation of pathological, insoluble Tau aggregates that are a hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, collectively known as tauopathies. Read More

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December 2018

Cell Biology and Dynamics of Neuronal Na/K-ATPase in Health and Diseases.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

CNRS Neurodegenerative Diseases Laboratory (UMR9199), MiRCen, CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 18 route du Panorama, 92265, France.

Neuronal Na/K-ATPase is responsible for the maintenance of ionic gradient across plasma membrane. In doing so, in a healthy brain, Na/K-ATPase activity accounts for nearly half of total brain energy consumption. The α3-subunit containing Na/K-ATPase expression is restricted to neurons. Read More

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December 2018
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Comparative Flavivirus-Host Protein Interaction Mapping Reveals Mechanisms of Dengue and Zika Virus Pathogenesis.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1931-1945.e18

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute (QBI), University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; The J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are a growing public health concern. Systems-level analysis of how flaviviruses hijack cellular processes through virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides information about their replication and pathogenic mechanisms. We used affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to compare flavivirus-host interactions for two viruses (DENV and ZIKV) in two hosts (human and mosquito). Read More

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December 2018
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Drp1/Fis1-mediated mitochondrial fragmentation leads to lysosomal dysfunction in cardiac models of Huntington's disease.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances, is caused by CAG-repeat expansion in exon 1 of Huntingtin (HTT). However, in addition to the neurological disease, mutant HTT (mHTT), which is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, impairs other organ systems. Not surprisingly, cardiovascular dysautonomia as well as the deterioration of circadian rhythms are among the earliest detectable pathophysiological changes in individuals with HD. Read More

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December 2018
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Vitamin E - The Next 100 Years.

IUBMB Life 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Vascular Biology Laboratory, JM USDA-HNRCA at Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

α-Tocopherol is the only tocopherol that has been shown to prevent the human deficiency disease Ataxia with Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency (AVED), and thus it is the only one that, for humans, can be called vitamin E. Vitamin E in addition to preventing AVED has documented immune boosting properties and an activity against nonalcoholic hepatosteatosis and low-grade inflammation. Epidemiological studies indicating that vitamin E could prevent cardiovascular events, neurodegenerative disease, macular degeneration, and cancer were in general not confirmed by clinical intervention studies. Read More

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December 2018

Phenotypic variability and neuropsychological findings associated with C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0208383. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Karolinska Institutet, Dept NVS, Division for Neurogeriatrics, Bioclinicum, Akademiska stråket, Solna, Sweden.

Background: The GGGGCC repeat expansion in the C9orf72 gene was recently identified as a major cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in several European populations. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in a Bulgarian dementia cohort and to delineate the associated clinical features.

Methods And Findings: PCR-based assessments of the C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion in all study samples (including 82 FTD, 37 Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 16 other neurodegenerative/dementia disorder cases) were performed. Read More

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December 2018

Anesthesia in Patients With Multiple-System Atrophy: A Narrative Review and Practice Guidance.

A A Pract 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Multiple-system atrophy, a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, is associated with autonomic dysfunction, features of parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia. This article discusses multiple-system atrophy pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and perioperative issues pertinent to anesthesia. Read More

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December 2018

Gene mutations in a Han Chinese Alzheimer's disease cohort.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 14:e01180. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, China.

Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia characterized by memory loss at disease onset. The gene mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the frequent causes of AD. However, the clinical and genetic features of AD overlap with other neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Circadian disruption and human health: a bidirectional relationship.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Circadian rhythm disorders have been classically associated with disorders of abnormal timing of the sleep-wake cycle, however circadian dysfunction can play a role in a wide range of pathology, ranging from the increased risk for cardiometabolic disease and malignancy in shift workers, prompting the need for a new field focused on the larger concept of circadian medicine. The relationship between circadian disruption and human health is bidirectional, with changes in circadian amplitude often preceding the classical symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. As our understanding of the importance of circadian dysfunction in disease grows, we need to develop better clinical techniques for identifying circadian rhythms and also develop circadian based strategies for disease management. Read More

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December 2018

Cognitive and Pathological Influences of Tau Pathology in Lewy Body Disorders.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: To use digital histology in a large autopsy cohort of Lewy Body Disorder (LBD) patients with dementia to test the hypotheses that co-occurring Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology impacts the anatomic distribution of α-synuclein (SYN) pathology and that co-occurring neocortical tau pathology in LBD associates with worse cognitive performance and occurs in a pattern differing from AD.

Methods: Fifty-five autopsy-confirmed LBD (PDD: 36, DLB:19) patients and 25 AD patients were studied. LBD patients were categorized as having moderate/severe AD co-pathology (SYN+AD=20) or little/no AD co-pathology (SYN-AD=35). Read More

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December 2018

Review of rodent hypertensive glaucoma models.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong.

Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary risk factor for the development and progression of glaucoma. Rodent models of glaucoma have greatly improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma and served as a useful tool to investigate neuroprotective agents. Read More

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December 2018

Tadalafil: 15 years' journey in male erectile dysfunction and beyond.

Authors:
Nermin S Ahmed

Drug Dev Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, German University in Cairo, Cairo, Egypt.

Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Tadalafil, Cialis, Eli Lilly & Co./ICOS, (6R,12aR)-6-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-methyl-2,3,6,7,12,12a-hexahydropyrazino[1',2':1,6] pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1,4-dione, was first discovered in 2003. It was reported to have high diastereospecificity for phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitions. Read More

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December 2018
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Alcohol consumption and hospitalization burden in an adult Italian population: prospective results from the Moli-sani study.

Addiction 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, IRCCS NEUROMED, Pozzilli, Italy.

Background And Aims: Epidemiological evidence on the impact of different alcohol drinking patterns on health-care systems or hospitalizations is sparse. We investigated how the different average volumes of alcohol consumed relate to all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations.

Design: Prospective cohort study (baseline 2005-10) linked to a registry of hospital discharge records to identify hospitalizations at follow-up (December 2013). Read More

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December 2018

Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system: Symphony of glial cells.

Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important subject of neuroimmunological research. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is a key player in various neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and CNS injury. Neuroinflammation is a complex and well-orchestrated process by various groups of glial cells in CNS and peripheral immune cells. Read More

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December 2018
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Optical coherence tomography in the investigation of systemic neurologic disease.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a well-established technique for the clinical examination, diagnosis, severity staging and monitoring of ophthalmic disorders. The application of this technology has more recently been extended beyond ophthalmic disease, whereby it has been demonstrated that OCT can serve as an ophthalmic marker for a range of systemic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This review will focus on the clinical utility of OCT-derived retinal measures for the investigation of these conditions. Read More

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December 2018

miR-223 promotes regenerative myeloid cell phenotype and function in the demyelinated central nervous system.

Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of BioMedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

In the injured central nervous system, myeloid cells, including macrophages and microglia, are key contributors to both myelin injury and repair. This immense plasticity emphasizes the need to further understand the precise molecular mechanisms that contribute to the dynamic regulation of myeloid cell polarization and function. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-223 is upregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patient monocytes and the alternatively-activated and tissue-regenerating M2-polarized human macrophages and microglia. Read More

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December 2018

TREM2 triggers microglial density and age-related neuronal loss.

Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neural Regeneration, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University Hospital of Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

The microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signals via the activatory membrane adaptor molecule TYROBP. Genetic variants or mutations of TREM2 or TYROBP have been linked to inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. The typical aging process goes along with microglial changes and mild neuronal loss, but the exact contribution of TREM2 is still unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Obesity and inflammation.

Eur Cytokine Netw 2018 Sep;29(3):83-94

Department of Gastroenterology, Human Nutrition and Internal Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Fredry 10, Poznan 61-701, Poland.

The prevalence of obesity has recently increased dramatically and has contributed to the increasing prevalence of various pathological conditions, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, asthma, various types of cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and others. Accumulating evidence points to localized inflammation in adipose tissue, which, in turn, promotes systemic low-grade inflammation as a primary force contributing to the development of these pathologies. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms behind obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation is required to develop effective therapeutic or prophylactic strategies. Read More

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September 2018
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Preparation of lyophilized recombinant prion protein for TSE diagnosis by RT-QuIC.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 14;11(1):895. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Virus and Prion Research Unit, National Animal Disease Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Ames, IA, 50010, USA.

Objective: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of fatal neurodegenerative diseases, often referred as prion diseases. TSEs result from the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP) into a pathogenic form (PrP) that accumulates in the brain and lymphatic tissue. Amplification based assays such as real-time quaking induced conversion allow us to assess the conversion of PrP to PrP. Read More

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December 2018

MRI phenotypes of the brain are related to future stroke and mortality in patients with manifest arterial disease: The SMART-MR study.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2018 Dec 14:271678X18818918. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Neurodegenerative and neurovascular diseases lead to heterogeneous brain abnormalities. A combined analysis of these abnormalities by phenotypes of the brain might give a more accurate representation of the underlying aetiology. We aimed to identify different MRI phenotypes of the brain and assessed the risk of future stroke and mortality within these subgroups. Read More

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December 2018