12,482 results match your criteria Neurochemistry International[Journal]


Upregulation of the lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 at the blood-brain barrier in a rat model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder suggests hyperactivity could be a form of self-treatment.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Brain and Muscle Energy Group, Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Oral Biology, University of Oslo, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway; Synaptic Neurochemistry and Amino Acid Transporters Labs, Division of Anatomy, Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IMB) and Healthy Brain Ageing Centre (SERTA), University of Oslo, NO-0317 Oslo, Norway; Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

The energy deficit hypothesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that low lactate production by brain astrocytes causes the symptoms of the disorder. Astrocytes are the main producers of lactate in the brain; however, skeletal muscles can produce the most lactate in the body. The lactate production by skeletal muscles increases with physical activity, as does the expression of the lactate transporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018

Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More

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December 2018

Nature and implications of sex differences in AD pathology.

Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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December 2018

The neurophysiological and neurochemical effects of alcohol on the brain are inconsistent with current evidence based models of sleepwalking.

Authors:
Mark R Pressman

Sleep Med Rev 2018 Nov 10;43:92-95. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Sleep Medicine Services, Lankenau Medical Center, Wynnewood, PA, USA; Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA, USA; Department of Medicine, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Charles Widger School of Law, Villanova University, Villanova, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The DSM-5 and ICSD-3 have removed alcohol from the list of potential triggers for sleepwalking due to the lack of empirical evidence. Recent imaging and EEG based studies of sleepwalking and confusional arousals have provided a more data-based method of examining if alcohol is compatible with what is known about the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of sleepwalking. These studies have demonstrated a deactivation of the frontal areas of the brain, while the cingulate or motor cortex remains active and characterized activation in the form of beta EEG. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Fluid and PET biomarkers for amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Molndal, Sweden; Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, University College, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid plaques and tau pathology (neurofibrillary tangles and neuropil threads). Amyloid plaques are primarily composed of aggregated and oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides ending at position 42 (Aβ42). The development of fluid and PET biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD), has allowed for detection of Aβ pathology in vivo and marks a major advancement in understanding the role of Aβ in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Age-related variability in decision-making: Insights from neurochemistry.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Despite dopamine's significant role in models of value-based decision-making and findings demonstrating loss of dopamine function in aging, evidence of systematic changes in decision-making over the life span remains elusive. Previous studies attempting to resolve the neural basis of age-related alteration in decision-making have typically focused on physical age, which can be a poor proxy for age-related effects on neural systems. There is growing appreciation that aging has heterogeneous effects on distinct components of the dopamine system within subject in addition to substantial variability between subjects. Read More

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December 2018

Children With Dyslexia and Typical Readers: Sex-Based Choline Differences Revealed Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Acquired Within Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 23;12:466. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Imaging Research Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Children with dyslexia exhibit slow and inaccurate reading, as well as problems in executive functions. Decreased signal activation in brain regions related to visual processing and executive functions has been observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging with reports of sex differences in brain patterns for visual processing regions. However, the underlying neurochemistry associated with deficits in executive functions for children with dyslexia has not been thoroughly evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Biomarkers for tau pathology.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

The aggregation of fibrils of hyperphosphorylated and C-terminally truncated microtubule-associated tau protein characterizes 80% of all dementia disorders, the most common neurodegenerative disorders. These so-called tauopathies are hitherto not curable and their diagnosis, especially at early disease stages, has traditionally proven difficult. A keystone in the diagnosis of tauopathies was the development of methods to assess levels of tau protein in vivo in cerebrospinal fluid, which has significantly improved our knowledge about these conditions. Read More

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December 2018
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A Novel ELISA for the Measurement of Cerebrospinal Fluid SNAP-25 in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden. Electronic address:

Synaptic degeneration is central in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and biomarkers to monitor this pathophysiology in living patients are warranted. We developed a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of the pre-synaptic protein SNAP-25 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and evaluated it as a biomarker for AD. CSF samples included a pilot study consisting of AD (N = 26) and controls (N = 26), and two independent clinical cohorts of AD patients and controls. Read More

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December 2018

Acute aluminum chloride toxicity revisited: Study on DNA damage and histopathological, biochemical and neurochemical alterations in rat brain.

Life Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Aims: Due to rapid increase in industrialization in the last few years, use of aluminum (Al) and its alloys have been increased in different industrial fields. Ample evidence supports the neurotoxic effects of chronic aluminum chloride (AlCl) administration in rats but acute Al toxicity has been less described so the present study was aimed to investigate the neurotoxic effects of acute AlCl.

Main Methods: To investigate such effects 12 male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and test rats. Read More

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December 2018

Is mitochondrial DNA copy number a good prognostic marker in resectable pancreatic cancer?

Pancreatology 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Surgical Research and Transplantology, Medical Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland; Clinical Department of Gastroenterological Surgery and Transplantation, Central Clinical Hospital of the MSWiA in Warsaw, Poland.

Background: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in a group of resectable pancreatic cancer (PC) tumor tissues and adjacent normal pancreatic tissues, and to explore the correlation between the mtDNA content in tissues and the clinicopathological parameters and the overall survival.

Methods: Relative mtDNA copy number was measured by the quantitative PCR-based assay. The tumors specimens (n = 43) originated from the patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who did not receive any neoadjuvant systemic therapy. Read More

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November 2018

Dietary intervention with an Okinawan-based Nordic diet in type 2 diabetes renders decreased interleukin-18 concentrations and increased neurofilament light concentrations in plasma.

Nutr Res 2018 Dec 19;60:13-25. Epub 2018 Aug 19.

Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Food may induce inflammation and favor development of metabolic diseases, which have been associated with increased inflammation and potential risk of cognitive impairment. It is customary to know whether food or disease promote inflammation. Our hypothesis was that Okinawan-based Nordic (O-BN) diet leads to decreased circulating concentrations of inflammatory and neural biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Transient increase in CSF GAP-43 concentration after ischemic stroke.

BMC Neurol 2018 Dec 7;18(1):202. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers reflect ongoing processes in the brain. Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is highly upregulated in brain tissue shortly after experimental ischemia suggesting the CSF GAP-43 concentration may be altered in ischemic brain disorders. CSF GAP-43 concentration is elevated in Alzheimer's disease patients; however, patients suffering from stroke have not been studied previously. Read More

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December 2018

Neurofilament Light in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid of Hip Fracture Patients with Delirium.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2018 12 6;46(5-6):346-357. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Oslo Delirium Research Group, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Delirium is associated with new-onset dementia, suggesting that delirium pathophysiology involves neuronal injury. Neurofilament light (NFL) is a sensitive biomarker for neuroaxonal injury.

Methods: NFL was measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 130), preoperative serum (n = 192), and postoperative serum (n = 280) in hip fracture patients, and in CSF (n = 123) and preoperative serum (n = 134) in cognitively normal older adults undergoing elective surgery. Read More

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December 2018
9 Reads

Development and biochemical characterization of a mouse model of Parkinson's disease bearing defective glucocerebrosidase activity.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 4;124:289-296. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Functional Neurochemistry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

GBA1 gene encodes for the lysosomal membrane protein glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 heterozygous mutations profoundly impair GCase activity and are currently recognized as an important risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Deficits in lysosomal degradation pathways may contribute to pathological α-synuclein accumulation, thereby favoring dopaminergic neuron degeneration and associated microglial activation. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Molecular cross-talk in a unique parasitoid manipulation strategy.

Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Life Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel; Zlotowski Center for Neuroscience, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel. Electronic address:

Envenomation of cockroach cerebral ganglia by the parasitoid Jewel wasp, Ampulex compressa, induces specific, long-lasting behavioural changes. We hypothesized that this prolonged action results from venom-induced changes in brain neurochemistry. Here, we address this issue by first identifying molecular targets of the venom, i. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Association of Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Light Protein Levels With Cognition in Patients With Dementia, Motor Neuron Disease, and Movement Disorders.

JAMA Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Importance: Neuronal and axonal destruction are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases, but it is difficult to estimate the extent and progress of the damage in the disease process.

Objective: To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) protein, a marker of neuroaxonal degeneration, in control participants and patients with dementia, motor neuron disease, and parkinsonian disorders (determined by clinical criteria and autopsy), and determine its association with longitudinal cognitive decline.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case-control study, we investigated NFL levels in CSF obtained from controls and patients with several neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Curcumin restores rotenone induced depressive-like symptoms in animal model of neurotoxicity: assessment by social interaction test and sucrose preference test.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Environmental toxin rotenone has been associated to with increased Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in population. Depression is one of the main non-motor symptoms of PD. Curcumin exhibits neuroprotective action in neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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November 2018

Oxidative stress damage circumscribed to the central temporal retinal pigment epithelium in early experimental non-exudative age-related macular degeneration.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 Nov 28;131:72-80. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Retinal Neurochemistry and Experimental Ophthalmology, Department of Human Biochemistry, School of Medicine/CEFyBO, University of Buenos Aires/CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (NE-AMD) represents the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. The macular retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lies in a high oxidative environment because its high metabolic demand, mitochondria concentration, reactive oxygen species levels, and macular blood flow. It has been suggested that oxidative stress-induced damage to the RPE plays a key role in NE-AMD pathogenesis. Read More

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November 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurofibrillary tangles and synaptic dysfunction are associated with longitudinal decline in white matter connectivity: A multi-resolution graph analysis.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA; Department of Computer Science, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

In addition to the development of beta amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the loss of connecting structures including degeneration of myelinated axons and synaptic connections. However, the extent to which white matter tracts change longitudinally, particularly in the asymptomatic, preclinical stage of AD, remains poorly characterized. In this study we used a novel graph wavelet algorithm to determine the extent to which microstructural brain changes evolve in concert with the development of AD neuropathology as observed using CSF biomarkers. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Lipocalin 2 contributes to brain iron dysregulation but does not affect cognition, plaque load, and glial activation in the J20 Alzheimer mouse model.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Nov 30;15(1):330. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES), University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, Groningen, 9747 AG, The Netherlands.

Background: Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is an acute-phase protein implicated in multiple neurodegenerative conditions. Interestingly, both neuroprotective and neurodegenerative effects have been described for Lcn2. Increased Lcn2 levels were found in human post-mortem Alzheimer (AD) brain tissue, and in vitro studies indicated that Lcn2 aggravates amyloid-β-induced toxicity. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

The Persisting Significance of Oligoclonal Bands in the Dawning Era of Kappa Free Light Chains for the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Nov 29;19(12). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Clinical Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

The latest revision of the McDonald criteria of 2017 considers the evidence of an intrathecal immunoglobulin (IgG) synthesis as a diagnostic criterion for dissemination in time in multiple sclerosis. While the detection of oligoclonal bands is considered as the gold standard, determination of kappa free light chains might be a promising tool as a less technically demanding and cost saving method. However, data on the direct comparison between kappa free light chains and oligoclonal bands are limited and no study to date has used the highly sensitive method of polyacrylamide gels with consecutive silver staining for the demonstration of oligoclonal bands. Read More

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November 2018

Current concepts on bibliometrics: a brief review about impact factor, Eigenfactor score, CiteScore, SCImago Journal Rank, Source-Normalised Impact per Paper, H-index, and alternative metrics.

Ir J Med Sci 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurochemistry, National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Understanding the impact of a publication by using bibliometric indices becomes an essential activity not only for universities and research institutes but also for individual academicians. This paper aims to provide a brief review of the current bibliometric tools used by authors and editors and proposes an algorithm to assess the relevance of the most common bibliometric tools to help the researchers select the fittest journal and know the trends of published submissions by using self-evaluation.

Methods: We present a narrative review answering at least two related consecutive questions triggered by the topics mentioned above. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Identification of Mild Cognitive Impairment From Speech in Swedish Using Deep Sequential Neural Networks.

Front Neurol 2018 15;9:975. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

The Swedish Language Bank, Department of Swedish, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

While people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) portray noticeably incipient memory difficulty in remembering events and situations along with problems in decision making, planning, and finding their way in familiar environments, detailed neuropsychological assessments also indicate deficits in language performance. To this day, there is no cure for dementia but early-stage treatment can delay the progression of MCI; thus, the development of valid tools for identifying early cognitive changes is of great importance. In this study, we provide an automated machine learning method, using Deep Neural Network Architectures, that aims to identify MCI. Read More

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November 2018

Feeding melancholic microbes: MyNewGut recommendations on diet and mood.

Clin Nutr 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA), National Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Valencia, Spain.

Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which exerts a major economic impact in all European countries. The brain-gut-microbiota axis has been described as a new paradigm for advancing understanding and treatment of the disorder. There is now over-whelming evidence to support the fact that gut microbes have a major impact on central neurochemistry and behaviour, especially stress related disorders such as depression. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Apolipoprotein E4 genotype compromises brain exosome production.

Brain 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, New York 10962, USA.

In addition to being the greatest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, expression of the ɛ4 allele of apolipoprotein E can lead to cognitive decline during ageing that is independent of Alzheimer's amyloid-β and tau pathology. In human post-mortem tissue and mouse models humanized for apolipoprotein E, we examined the impact of apolipoprotein E4 expression on brain exosomes, vesicles that are produced within and secreted from late-endocytic multivesicular bodies. Compared to humans or mice homozygous for the risk-neutral ɛ3 allele we show that the ɛ4 allele, whether homozygous or heterozygous with an ɛ3 allele, drives lower exosome levels in the brain extracellular space. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Early levels of GFAP and NF-L in predicting the outcome of mild TBI.

J Neurotrauma 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Neurosurgery, Turku, Finland ;

To correlate the early levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light protein (NF-L) with outcome in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). 107 patients with mTBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≥13] having the blood samples for GFAP and NF-L available within 24 hrs from arrival were included. Patients with mTBI were divided into computed tomography (CT)-positive and CT-negative groups. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Current state of Alzheimer's fluid biomarkers.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 28;136(6):821-853. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a complex and heterogeneous pathophysiology. The number of people living with AD is predicted to increase; however, there are no disease-modifying therapies currently available and none have been successful in late-stage clinical trials. Fluid biomarkers measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood hold promise for enabling more effective drug development and establishing a more personalized medicine approach for AD diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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December 2018

Diverse serotonin actions of vilazodone reduce l-3,4-dihidroxyphenylalanine-induced dyskinesia in hemi-parkinsonian rats.

Mov Disord 2018 Nov;33(11):1740-1749

Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, USA.

Background: The serotonergic system is a well-established modulator of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. To date, targeting serotonin transporters or serotonin receptor subtype 1A (5-HT ) reduces l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models; however, these strategies have failed to translate clinically. Ideally, a compound acting at both known antidyskinetic sites could optimize serotonin-mediated approaches. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Evidence of Müller Glia Conversion Into Retina Ganglion Cells Using Neurogenin2.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 12;12:410. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil.

Degenerative retinopathies are the leading causes of irreversible visual impairment in the elderly, affecting hundreds of millions of patients. Müller glia cells (MGC), the main type of glia found in the vertebrate retina, can resume proliferation in the rodent adult injured retina but contribute weakly to tissue repair when compared to zebrafish retina. However, postnatal and adult mouse MGC can be genetically reprogrammed through the expression of the transcription factor (TF) Achaete-scute homolog 1 (ASCL1) into induced neurons (iNs), displaying key hallmarks of photoreceptors, bipolar and amacrine cells, which may contribute to regenerate the damaged retina. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: fluid biomarkers.

Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;158:323-333

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neuropathologic condition that has been described in individuals who have been exposed to repetitive head impacts, including concussions and subconcussive trauma. CTE cannot currently be diagnosed during life. Clinical symptoms of CTE (including changes in mood, behavior, and cognition) are nonspecific and may develop after a latency phase following the injuries. Read More

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January 2018
1 Read

Head trauma in sports - clinical characteristics, epidemiology and biomarkers.

J Intern Med 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is clinically divided into a spectrum of severities, with mild TBI being the least severe form and a frequent occurrence in contact sports, such as ice hockey, American football, rugby, horse riding and boxing. Mild TBI is caused by blunt non-penetrating head trauma that causes movement of the brain and stretching and tearing of axons, with diffuse axonal injury being a central pathogenic mechanism. Mild TBI is in principle synonymous with concussion; both have similar criteria in which the most important elements are acute alteration or loss of consciousness and/or post-traumatic amnesia following head trauma and no apparent brain changes on standard neuroimaging. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

The Bri2 and Bri3 BRICHOS Domains Interact Differently with Aβ and Alzheimer Amyloid Plaques.

J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2018 Feb 16;2(1):27-39. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Center for Alzheimer Research, Division of Neurogeriatrics, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and there is no successful treatment available. Evidence suggests that fibril formation of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is a major underlying cause of AD, and treatment strategies that reduce the toxic effects of Aβ amyloid are sought for. The BRICHOS domain is found in several proteins, including Bri2 (also called integral membrane protein 2B (ITM2B)), mutants of which are associated with amyloid and neurodegeneration, and Bri3 (ITM2C). Read More

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February 2018
3 Reads

Resilience to cognitive impairment in the oldest-old: design of the EMIF-AD 90+ study.

BMC Geriatr 2018 Nov 26;18(1):289. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, PO Box 7057, 1007, MB, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The oldest-old (subjects aged 90 years and older) population represents the fastest growing segment of society and shows a high dementia prevalence rate of up to 40%. Only a few studies have investigated protective factors for cognitive impairment in the oldest-old. The EMIF-AD 90+ Study aims to identify factors associated with resilience to cognitive impairment in the oldest-old. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Rbfox3/NeuN Regulates Alternative Splicing of Tau Exon 10.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Neurochemistry, Inge Grundke-Iqbal Research Floor, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, NY, USA.

Alternative splicing of tau exon 10 generates tau isoforms with three or four microtubule-binding repeats, 3R-tau or 4R-tau, which are under developmental regulation. Dysregulation of tau exon 10 splicing is sufficient to cause neurodegenerative disorders. The RNA-binding Fox3 (Rbfox3), identified as NeuN, regulates RNA processing. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

HIV brain latency as measured by CSF BcL11b relates to disrupted brain cellular energy in virally suppressed HIV infection.

AIDS 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

School of Medical Sciences, UNSW Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW Australia.

Objective: We investigated whether HIV brain latency was associated with brain injury in virally suppressed HIV infection.

Design: observational cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

Methods: The study included 26 virally-suppressed HIV+ men (61. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Inside-out or outside-in, a new factor in MAG-mediated signaling in the nervous system: An Editorial for 'High-affinity heterotetramer formation between the large myelin-associated glycoprotein and the dynein light chain DYNLL1' on doi:10.1111/jnc.14598.

Authors:
Bert J C Janssen

J Neurochem 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Crystal and Structural Chemistry, Bijvoet Center for Biomolecular Research, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Our nervous system depends on protein-mediated cellular communication and connections for its formation and function. The transmembrane receptor Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) plays an important role in the wrapping process of myelin around axons and in life-long maintenance of this important bicellular structure. MAG organizes the adhesion and the signalling between the axon and the myelin. Read More

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November 2018

Report: Attenuation of apomorphine induced behavioral sensitization in rats pre-treated with tryptophan.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Nov;31(6):2561-2567

Dr. Panjwani Center for Molecular Medicine and Drug Research, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Psychostimulants substances, some of which are abused by humans, are generally believed to produce sensitization effects when they are repeatedly administered to animals. Apomorphine, a non-narcotic derivative of morphine, having agonistic property for dopamine in order to produce psycho stimulant-like effects. Meanwhile, chronic administration leads to behavioral sensitization. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor, APAU, protects dopaminergic neurons against rotenone induced neurotoxicity: Implications for Parkinson's disease.

Neurotoxicology 2018 Nov 22;70:135-145. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, and Comprehensive Cancer Research Center, University of California, Davis, United States.

Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), metabolites of arachidonic acid, play a crucial role in cytoprotection by attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. EETs are rapidly metabolised in vivo by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Increasing the half life of EETs by inhibiting the sEH enzyme is a novel strategy for neuroprotection. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

The renaissance in psychedelic research: What do preclinical models have to offer.

Authors:
Kevin S Murnane

Prog Brain Res 2018 5;242:25-67. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mercer University College of Pharmacy, Mercer University Health Sciences Center, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

Human research with psychedelics is making groundbreaking discoveries. Psychedelics modify enduring elements of personality and seemingly reduce anxiety, depression, and substance dependence in small but well-designed clinical studies. Psychedelics are advancing through pharmaceutical regulatory systems, and neuroimaging studies have related their extraordinary effects to select brain networks. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Neurocognitive effects of cannabis: Lessons learned from human experimental studies.

Prog Brain Res 2018 20;242:179-216. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The following chapter offers an overview of results of experimental studies conducted among healthy individuals examining the effects of acute administration of Δ9-THC and other cannabinoids, alone or in combination, on brain function and behavior, also as a function of previous cannabis exposure. In light of their methodological design, these studies have advanced the understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms increasing the risk of long-lasting cognitive dysfunction as well as psychosis in regular cannabis users. Also, direct and indirect evidence supports an alteration of different neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid, in modulating the manifestation of neurocognitive dysfunction and psychosis in the context of both acute and chronic cannabis exposure. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

Novel upregulation of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by microRNA-346 via targeting of APP mRNA 5'-untranslated region: Implications in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Psychiatry, Laboratory of Molecular Neurogenetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, 46202, USA.

In addition to the devastating symptoms of dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of the processing products of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide precursor protein (APP). APP's non-pathogenic functions include regulating intracellular iron (Fe) homeostasis. MicroRNAs are small (~ 20 nucleotides) RNA species that instill specificity to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads
14.500 Impact Factor

Interactions between whole-body heating and citalopram on body temperature, antidepressant-like behaviour, and neurochemistry in adolescent male rats.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 20;359:428-439. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Veterans Health Administration, Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Denver, CO 80220, USA; Military and Veteran Microbiome Consortium for Research and Education (MVM-CoRE), Denver, CO 80220, USA. Electronic address:

Evidence suggests that affective disorders are associated with altered thermoregulation, and it has been hypothesized that therapeutic strategies targeting body-to-brain thermosensory systems may be effective for treating depression. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has suggested that infrared whole-body hyperthermia has therapeutic potential for the treatment of depression. Preclinical models may help uncover the mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like effects of whole-body heating. Read More

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November 2018
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Toxicological evaluation of the biflavonoid, agathisflavone in albino Swiss mice.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 19;110:68-73. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Laboratory of Research in Experimental Neurochemistry, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, Brazil.

Agathisflavone (AGF) is a biflavonoid with a number of important biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective effects. However, its toxicological effects have not been fully investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of AGF in mice. Read More

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November 2018
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Angiopoietin like-4 as a novel vascular mediator in capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Brain 2018 Dec;141(12):3377-3388

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, The Netherlands.

Increasing evidence suggests that vascular dysfunction in the brain is associated with early stages of Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid-β deposition in the microvasculature of the brain, a process referred to as capillary cerebral amyloid angiopathy (capillary CAA), propagates vascular remodelling, which results in impaired function of the blood-brain barrier, reduced cerebral perfusion and increased hypoxia. While improving vascular function may be an attractive new way to fight capillary CAA, the underlying factors that mediate vascular alterations in Alzheimer's disease and capillary CAA pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018
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Craniofacial abnormality with skeletal dysplasia in mice lacking chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 20;8(1):17134. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Medical Cell Biology, School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan.

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycan is a major component of the extracellular matrix and plays an important part in organogenesis. To elucidate the roles of CS for craniofacial development, we analyzed the craniofacial morphology in CS N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (T1) gene knockout (KO) mice. T1KO mice showed the impaired intramembranous ossification in the skull, and the final skull shape of adult mice included a shorter face, higher and broader calvaria. Read More

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November 2018
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Vortioxetine: a novel antidepressant for the treatment of major depressive disorder.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2018 Nov 20:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

e Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School , McLean Hospital , Belmont , USA.

Introduction: Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant drug approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. It is formulated into tablets and has a dose range of 5-20 mg. The recommended starting dose is 10 mg administered orally once daily without the need for food. Read More

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November 2018
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Publisher Correction: Preclinical amyloid pathology biomarker positivity: effects on tau pathology and neurodegeneration.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Nov 19;8(1):250. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Centre for ageing and Health, AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.

The Article was originally published under a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license, but has now been made available under a CC BY 4.0 license. Read More

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November 2018
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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of GPR55 antagonists in LPS-activated primary microglial cells.

J Neuroinflammation 2018 Nov 19;15(1):322. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Neuroimmunology and Neurochemistry Research Group, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: Neuroinflammation plays a vital role in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative conditions. Microglia are the resident mononuclear immune cells of the central nervous system, and they play essential roles in the maintenance of homeostasis and responses to neuroinflammation. The orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) has been reported to modulate inflammation and is expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and microglia. Read More

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November 2018
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Opioid system modulators buprenorphine and samidorphan alter behavior and extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations in the Wistar Kyoto rat.

Neuropharmacology 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Alkermes, Inc., Biology, 852 Winter Street, Waltham, MA, 02451, USA; Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Risskov, Denmark.

Approximately two-thirds of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients do not respond adequately to current therapies. BUP/SAM (ALKS 5461), a combination of buprenorphine (BUP) and samidorphan (SAM), is a novel opioid system modulator in development as an adjunct treatment for MDD. Using a rat strain (Wistar Kyoto rat) that is predisposed to stress and has an inadequate response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), we investigated the effect of BUP and SAM, individually and in combination, in established nonclinical assays used to study antidepressants (the forced swim test, FST) and anxiolytics (marble burying test). Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads