18,740 results match your criteria Neurochemical research[Journal]
Biol Lett 2018 Dec 5;14(12). Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Social and Evolutionary Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Anna Watts Building, Radcliffe Observatory, Woodstock Road, Quarter, Oxford OX2 6GG, UK.
The ratio between the second and fourth digits (2D:4D) has been widely used as a proxy for fetal exposure to androgens and has been linked to a number of sociosexual traits in humans. However, the role of genes in this equation remains unknown. Here ( = 474), we test, firstly, for associations between 2D:4D and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine neurochemical receptor genes (), and secondly, whether digit ratios mediate the relationship between genetic variation and sociosexuality. Read More
Metab Brain Dis 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Neurochemistry and Biochemical Neuropharmacology Research Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.
Environmental toxin rotenone has been associated to with increased Parkinson's disease (PD) prevalence in population. Depression is one of the main non-motor symptoms of PD. Curcumin exhibits neuroprotective action in neurodegenerative diseases. Read More
Nat Hum Behav 2018 Jul 9;2(7):507-513. Epub 2018 Jul 9.
Department of Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University, 190 Thayer Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA. TEL: +1-403-5379, FAX: +1- 401-863-2255.
Nat Biomed Eng 2017 Nov 10;1(11):862-877. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
The use of implants that can electrically stimulate or record electrophysiological or neurochemical activity in nervous tissue is rapidly expanding. Despite remarkable results in clinical studies and increasing market approvals, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of neuroprosthetic and neuromodulation devices, as well as their side effects and reasons for their failure, remain poorly understood. A major assumption has been that the signal-generating neurons are the only important target cells of neural-interface technologies. Read More
Front Mol Neurosci 2018 16;11:419. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Behavioral Neuroscience, Experimental and Biological Psychology, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
Genetic defects in the three SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains (SHANK) genes (, and ) are associated with multiple major neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia (SCZ), and bipolar disorder (BPD). Psychostimulant-induced hyperactivity is a commonly applied paradigm to assess behavioral phenotypes related to BPD and considered to be the gold standard for modeling mania-like elevated drive in mouse models. Therefore, the goal of our present study was to test whether plays a role in the behavioral effects of psychostimulants and whether this is associated with genotype-dependent neurochemical alterations. Read More
Front Mol Neurosci 2018 16;11:418. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
The disorders of the glutamatergic neurotransmission have been associated with pathogenesis of autism. In this study we evaluated the impact of the and test methodology on measurements of levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in hippocampus of rats for valproic acid- (VPA) and thalidomide- (THAL) induced models of autism. The main goal was to compare the changes in concentrations of glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln) and GABA between both autistic groups and the control, measured and in homogenates. Read More
J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.
Gobiida is a basal subseries of percomorphs in teleost fishes, holding a useful position for comparisons with other orders of Percomorpha as well as other cohort of teleosts. Here, we describe a telencephalic atlas of a Gobiida species Rhinogobius flumineus (Mizuno, Memoirs of the College of Science, University of Kyoto, Series B: Biology, 1960; 27, 3), based on cytoarchitectural observations, combined with analyses of the distribution patterns of neurochemical markers and transcription factors. The telencephalon of R. Read More
Front Cell Neurosci 2018 20;12:439. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y de la Salud, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad CEU-San Pablo, Madrid, Spain.
The negative impact of obesity on neurocognitive functioning is an issue of increasing clinical interest. Over the last decade, a number of studies have analyzed the influence of high-fat diets (HFDs) on cognitive performance, particularly in adolescent individuals. Different approaches, including behavioral, neurochemical, electrophysiological and morphological studies, have been developed to address the effect of HFDs on neural processes interfering with learning and memory skills in rodents. Read More
Neuropharmacology 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; CEITEC - Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; National Institute Mental Health, Klecany, Czech Republic. Electronic address:
In agreement with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia, prenatal exposure of rats to the antimitotic agent methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 produced long-lasting behavioral alterations such as social withdrawal and cognitive impairment in the social interaction test and in the novel object recognition test, respectively. At molecular level, an increased cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) mRNA and protein expression which might be due to a reduction in DNA methylation at gene promoter in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), coincided with deficits in the social interaction test and in the novel object recognition test in MAM rats. Both schizophrenia-like phenotype and altered transcriptional regulation of CB1 receptors were reversed by peripubertal treatment (from PND 19 to PND 39) with the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (30 mg/kg/day), or, in part, by treatment with the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (0. Read More
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Sensory contact model (SCM) permits the evolution of diverse psychopathological states by the repeated antagonistic interactions between male mice. Biphenyl dimethyl dicarboxylate (DDB) is used as a hepatoprotective agent. The present work aimed to study the possible effects of DDB on social behavior developed by SCM by studying its effects on the transformation process to aggressive and submissive behaviors. Read More
Mov Disord 2018 Nov;33(11):1740-1749
Behavioral Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychology, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York, USA.
Background: The serotonergic system is a well-established modulator of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. To date, targeting serotonin transporters or serotonin receptor subtype 1A (5-HT ) reduces l-dopa-induced dyskinesia in animal models; however, these strategies have failed to translate clinically. Ideally, a compound acting at both known antidyskinetic sites could optimize serotonin-mediated approaches. Read More
PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0207038. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States of America.
The mechanisms by which probiotics may influence host physiology are still incompletely understood. Microbial endocrinology, a field representing the union of microbiology, endocrinology and neurobiology, has theorized that microorganisms have the capacity to serve as neurochemical delivery vehicles . According to microbial endocrinology, neurochemicals can serve as a common language between host and bacterium, enabling bidirectional communication. Read More
Hormones (Athens) 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Brain and Neurodegenerative Disorders Research Laboratory, Department of Medical Biology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, 34098, Istanbul, Turkey.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder seen mostly in the elderly population. While to date AD research has focused on either neurochemical disruptions, genetic studies, or the pathological hallmarks, little has been done to establish a novel approach that would encompass all three aspects, one that would overcome the current barriers in AD research and determine the cause of AD and, eventually, discover a treatment. Meanwhile, there have been strong indications in recent years that vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, and its receptors are fundamentally involved in neurodegenerative mechanisms. Read More
Neuroscience 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Departamento de Farmacociências, Laboratório de Neuropsicofarmacologia, Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre - UFCSPA, Rua Sarmento Leite 245, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Curso de Farmácia, Centro Universitário Metodista do IPA, Rua Coronel Joaquim Pedro Salgado 80, 90420-060 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid implicated in mood disorders such as depression and anxiety. It acts as a GABA receptor (GABAR)-positive allosteric modulator and changes the expression of GABAR subunits and of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in different brain regions. It has been demonstrated that such neurochemical changes may have an asymmetrical pattern regarding brain hemispheres. Read More
J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2018 Mar 6;2(1):55-65. Epub 2018 Mar 6.
Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría "Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz", Subdirección de Investigaciones Clínicas, Laboratorio de Neurofarmacología, CDMX, México.
There is evidence demonstrating that 5-mg of fast-release melatonin significantly reduces nocturnal sleep onset in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the physiological mechanism that could promote sleep installation by melatonin in patients with AD is still poorly understood. The present pilot study was designed to analyze the effects of melatonin on cortical activity during the sleep onset period (SOP) in eight mild-to-moderate AD patients treated with 5-mg of fast-release melatonin. Read More
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, 8 Lewisham Way, New Cross, London, SE14 6NW, UK.
Rationale: Previous research demonstrating that lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) produces alterations in time perception has implications for its impact on conscious states and a range of psychological functions that necessitate precise interval timing. However, interpretation of this research is hindered by methodological limitations and an inability to dissociate direct neurochemical effects on interval timing from indirect effects attributable to altered states of consciousness.
Methods: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study contrasting oral administration of placebo with three microdoses of LSD (5, 10, and 20 μg) in older adults. Read More
Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Center for Behavioural Sciences and Mental Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, I-00161 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:
Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, whose availability is regulated by the dopamine transporter (DAT). Deletion of DAT gene leading to hyperdopaminergia was previously performed on mouse models. This enabled recapitulation of the core symptoms of Attention-Deficit / Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD), which include hyperactivity, inattention and cognitive impairment. Read More
Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Nov 20;110:145-154. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Electronic address:
Background And Purpose: Insulin resistance (IR) and obesity predispose diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Beta-caryophyllene (BCP), a natural sesquiterpene, exerts neuroprotective, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects via its selective agonism to cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). BCP was shown to have an anti-diabetic effect, however, the implication of CB2R is yet to be elucidated. Read More
Neuropharmacology 2018 Nov 20;146:128-137. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioquímica e Bioprospecção (PPGBBio), Grupo de Pesquisa em Neurobiotecnologia - GPN, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, UFPel, 96010-900, Pelotas, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biotecnologia (PPGB), Grupo de Pesquisa em Neurobiotecnologia- GPN, Biotecnologia/Centro de Desenvolvimento Tecnológico, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:
The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin derived from gram-negative bacteria, which induces inflammation. The aims of this study were to evaluate the possible α-(phenylselanyl) acetophenone (PSAP) activity in reducing comorbid hyperalgesia, depressive-like and anxiogenic-like symptoms induced by LPS in mice. In additional, investigated physical chemical properties of PSAP through in silico analysis by ADMET predictor software. Read More
Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 20;359:428-439. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA; Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Center for Neuroscience, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA; Veterans Health Administration, Rocky Mountain Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC), Denver, CO 80220, USA; Military and Veteran Microbiome Consortium for Research and Education (MVM-CoRE), Denver, CO 80220, USA. Electronic address:
Evidence suggests that affective disorders are associated with altered thermoregulation, and it has been hypothesized that therapeutic strategies targeting body-to-brain thermosensory systems may be effective for treating depression. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has suggested that infrared whole-body hyperthermia has therapeutic potential for the treatment of depression. Preclinical models may help uncover the mechanism(s) underlying the antidepressant-like effects of whole-body heating. Read More
Adv Funct Mater 2018 Mar 11;28(12). Epub 2017 Dec 11.
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 5057 Biomedical Science Tower 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are important tools for investigating functional neural circuits and treating neurological diseases. Precise modulation of neural activity may be achieved by controlled delivery of neurochemicals directly from coatings on MEA electrode sites. In this study, a novel dual-layer conductive polymer/acid functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) microelectrode coating is developed to better facilitate the loading and controlled delivery of the neurochemical 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX). Read More
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Radiology, Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.
Objective: To determine whether proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) can detect neurochemical changes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with heterogeneous functional decline.
Methods: Nineteen participants with early-stage ALS and 18 age-matched and sex ratio-matched controls underwent ultra-high field H-MRS scans of the upper limb motor cortex and pons, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R total, upper limb and bulbar) and upper motor neuron burden assessments in a longitudinal observational study design with follow-up assessments at 6 and 12 months. Slopes of neurochemical levels over time were compared between patient subgroups classified by the rate of upper limb or bulbar functional decline. Read More
Physiol Behav 2018 Nov 19;199:118-126. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Histology and Neurobiology, Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan. Electronic address:
It is well known that an abusive environment in childhood is related to individual anxiety behavior in adulthood. Though an imbalance of adrenocorticosteroid receptors and a dysfunction of monoaminergic neuron systems have been proposed, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address these problems, we recently developed a new model of shaking brain injury (SBI) in neonatal rats. Read More
PLoS One 2018 21;13(11):e0207750. Epub 2018 Nov 21.
Drug Discovery Research, Astellas Pharma Inc., Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N'-phenyl-N"-(pyrimidin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine [ASP2905] is a potent and selective inhibitor of the potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 3 (KCNH3) that was originally identified in our laboratory. KCNH3 is concentrated in the forebrain, and its overexpression in mice leads to cognitive deficits. In contrast, Kcnh3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced performance in cognitive tasks such as attention. Read More
Front Psychiatry 2018 6;9:559. Epub 2018 Nov 6.
Laboratory of Behavioural Neuroscience, Ceinge Biotecnologie Avanzate, Naples, Italy.
Besides d-serine, another d-amino acid with endogenous occurrence in the mammalian brain, d-aspartate, has been recently shown to influence NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission. d-aspartate is present in the brain at extracellular level in nanomolar concentrations, binds to the agonist site of NMDARs and activates this subclass of glutamate receptors. Along with its direct effect on NMDARs, d-aspartate can also evoke considerable l-glutamate release in specific brain areas through the presynaptic activation of NMDA, AMPA/kainate and mGlu5 receptors. Read More
Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
Instituto de Fisiología y Biofísica Prof. Bernardo Houssay (IFIBIO-Houssay), Universidad de Buenos Aires y Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
Retinal injuries and diseases are major causes of human disability involving vision impairment by the progressive and permanent loss of retinal neurons. During development, assembly of this tissue entails a successive and overlapping, signal-regulated engagement of complex events that include proliferation of progenitors, neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical differentiation and synaptogenesis. During retinal damage, several of these events are re-activated with both protective and detrimental consequences. Read More
Expert Opin Drug Discov 2018 Nov 20:1-9. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
e Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience Program, Harvard Medical School , McLean Hospital , Belmont , USA.
Introduction: Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant drug approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. It is formulated into tablets and has a dose range of 5-20 mg. The recommended starting dose is 10 mg administered orally once daily without the need for food. Read More
Brain Struct Funct 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92697-4475, USA.
Hippocampal inhibitory interneurons comprise an anatomically, neurochemically and electrophysiologically diverse population of cells that are essential for the generation of the oscillatory activity underlying hippocampal spatial and episodic memory processes. Here, we aimed to characterize a population of interneurons that express the stress-related neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) within existing interneuronal categories through the use of combined electrophysiological and immunocytochemical approaches. Focusing on CA1 strata pyramidale and radiatum of mouse hippocampus, CRH interneurons were found to exhibit a heterogeneous neurochemical phenotype with parvalbumin, cholecystokinin and calretinin co-expression observed to varying degrees. Read More
Neuroscience 2018 Nov;393:369-380
Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, United States. Electronic address:
Diet-induced obesity induces peripheral inflammation accompanied by a loss of myenteric neurons. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) on either the development of myenteric neurons or prior to the occurrence of obesity. The present study assessed the effects of maternal HFD on the density and neurochemical phenotype of myenteric ganglia in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Read More
Handb Clin Neurol 2018 ;156:281-303
Department of Neurological Surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States. Electronic address:
The fundamental central neural circuits for thermoregulation orchestrate behavioral and autonomic repertoires that maintain body core temperature during thermal challenges that arise from either the ambient or the internal environment. This review summarizes our understanding of the neural pathways within the fundamental thermoregulatory reflex circuitry that comprise the efferent (i.e. Read More
Brain Res Bull 2018 Nov 16;144:58-67. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Sección de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, Ciudad de México, C.P. 11340, Mexico; Laboratorio Integrativo para el Estudio de Sustancias Inhalables Adictivas, Dirección de Investigaciones en Neurociencias, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Calzada México Xochimilco 101, Ciudad de México, C.P. 14370, Mexico. Electronic address:
Inhalants are widely used as recreational drugs, and toluene is the main chemical compound present in most inhalants used for these purposes. Previous studies have shown that repeated toluene exposure produces cellular death and memory impairment, while environmental enrichment (EE) rescues from those effects. However, the mechanisms involved in those responses are unclear. Read More
Synapse 2018 Nov 18:e22081. Epub 2018 Nov 18.
Department of Pharmacology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan.
Cholinergic neurons in the nucleus accumbens contain GABA and GABA receptors that are thought to inhibit neural activity. We analyzed the roles of GABA and GABA receptors in regulating accumbal acetylcholine efflux of freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. The effects of GABA receptor ligands on the accumbal dopamine efflux were also analyzed because accumbal cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons could mutually interact. Read More
J Mol Neurosci 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.
Neuro-innovation Technology & Brain Mapping Laboratory, Federal University of Piauí, Av. São Sebastião n°2819, Nossa Sra. de Fátima, Parnaíba, PI, 64202-020, Brazil.
Studies at the molecular level aim to integrate genetic and neurobiological data to provide an increasingly detailed understanding of phenotypes related to the synchronization ability and brain oscillations in time perception. Genetic variation as a modifying factor at cellular and neurochemical levels permeates several neurofunctional aspects in time-lapse duration concentrating from milliseconds to hours. Thus, the review presents the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism association in a dynamic frame of brain neurotrophic factor expression in the adaptation, integrity, and neuronal synchronism processes in the ability to estimate multisensory stimuli at different time intervals. Read More
Metab Brain Dis 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, 11795, Egypt.
Due to its ability to cross blood brain barrier and placenta, dibutyl phthalate (di-n-butyl phthalate, DBP) is expected to cause severe side effects to the central nervous system of animals and humans. A little data is available about the potential DBP neurotoxicity; therefore, this work was designed to investigate the brain tissue injury induced by DBP exposure. Forty Wister albino rats were allocated randomly into 4 groups (10 rats each). Read More
Handb Exp Pharmacol 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Wisconsin Institute for Sleep and Consciousness, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
Sleep and wakefulness are highly complex processes that are elegantly orchestrated by fine-tuned neurochemical changes among neuronal and non-neuronal ensembles, nuclei, and networks of the brain. Important neurotransmitters and neuromodulators regulating the circadian and homeostatic facets of sleep-wake physiology include melatonin, γ-aminobutyric acid, hypocretin, histamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and adenosine. Dysregulation of these neurochemical systems may cause sleep-wake disorders, which are commonly classified into insomnia disorder, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders, central disorders of hypersomnolence, sleep-related movement disorders, and sleep-related breathing disorders. Read More
Pharmacol Ther 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Pharmacology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:
Due to the limited efficacy of existing medications for addictive disorders including alcohol use disorder (AUD), the need for additional medications is substantial. Potential new medications for addiction can be identified through investigation of the neurochemical substrates mediating the ability of drugs of abuse such as alcohol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine system. Interestingly, recent studies implicate neuropeptides of the gut-brain axis as modulators of reward and addiction processes. Read More
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Nov 12;96:10-20. Epub 2018 Nov 12.
University of Basel, Department of Psychiatry (UPK), Switzerland. Electronic address:
In this meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the evidence from neuroimaging studies for chronic alterations in the brains of MDMA users. The databases PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for studies published from inception to August 24, 2018, without any language restriction. Sixteen independent studies comprising 356 MDMA users and 311 controls were included. Read More
Invest Radiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of increased spatial resolution of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 T for the detection of neurochemical changes in multiple sclerosis (MS)-related brain lesions.
Materials And Methods: This prospective, institutional review board-approved study was performed in 20 relapsing-remitting MS patients (9 women/11 men; mean age ± standard deviation, 30.8 ± 7. Read More
Birth Defects Res 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Washington University in St Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri.
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. Read More
Dev Neurobiol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Institute of Neuroscience, National Cheng-Chi University, Taipei 11605, Taiwan.
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a monogenic neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Patients with RTT develop symptoms after 6-18 months of age, exhibiting characteristic movement deficits, such as ambulatory difficulties and loss of hand skills, in addition to breathing abnormalities and intellectual disability. Given the striking psychomotor dysfunction, numerous studies have investigated the underlying neurochemical and circuit mechanisms from different aspects. Read More
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Guwahati, Assam, India.
Background: Fisetin, a plant active polyphenol, is well known for its antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. The present study was designed to explore the detailed molecular mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effects.
Methods: The young male mice were either administered a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (0. Read More
Front Psychiatry 2018 30;9:537. Epub 2018 Oct 30.
Neurochemical Research Unit and Bebensee Schizophrenia Research Unit, Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
Schizophrenia is a very complex syndrome that involves widespread brain multi-dysconnectivity. Neural circuits within specific brain regions and their links to corresponding regions are abnormal in the illness. Theoretical models of dysconnectivity and the investigation of connectomics and brain network organization have been examined in schizophrenia since the early nineteenth century. Read More
Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Sep 27;9(10). Epub 2018 Sep 27.
Department of Bioengineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Implantable devices to measure neurochemical or electrical activity from the brain are mainstays of neuroscience research and have become increasingly utilized as enabling components of clinical therapies. In order to increase the number of recording channels on these devices while minimizing the immune response, flexible electrodes under 10 µm in diameter have been proposed as ideal next-generation neural interfaces. However, the representation of motion artifact during neurochemical or electrophysiological recordings using ultra-small, flexible electrodes remains unexplored. Read More
Nutrients 2018 Nov 10;10(11). Epub 2018 Nov 10.
Laboratorio Nacional de Microscopía Avanzada, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México 06720, Mexico.
It has been widely described that chronic intake of fructose causes metabolic alterations which can be associated with brain function impairment. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fructose intake on the sleep⁻wake cycle, locomotion, and neurochemical parameters in Wistar rats. The experimental group was fed with 10% fructose in drinking water for five weeks. Read More
Addict Biol 2018 Nov 13. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Neuroscience, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
Deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), enzyme responsible for degrading endocannabinoids, increases alcohol consumption and preference. However, there is a lack of data on neurochemical events in mice exposed to alcohol in the absence of FAAH. Extracellular levels of endocannabinoids and relevant neurotransmitters were measured by in vivo microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of FAAH knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice during an ethanol (EtOH; 2 g/kg, ip) challenge in EtOH-naive and repeated (r) EtOH-treated mice. Read More
Curr Med Chem 2018 Nov 11. Epub 2018 Nov 11.
University Institute of Molecular Pathology Biomarkers, UNEx. ARADyAL Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Cáceres. Spain.
Background: The pathophysiology and neurochemical mechanisms of essential tremor (ET) are not fully understood, because only a few post-mortem studies have been reported, and the lack of a good experimental model for this disease.
Objective: The main aim of this review is to update data regarding the neurochemical features of ET. Alterations of certain catecholamine systems, the dopaminergic, serotonergic, GABAergic, noradrenergic, and adrenergic systems have been described, and are the object of this revision. Read More
Front Behav Neurosci 2018 26;12:240. Epub 2018 Oct 26.
Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, United States.
It has been well recognized that exposure to stress can lead to the onset of psychosocial disorders such as depression. While there are a number of antidepressant therapies currently available and despite producing immediate neurochemical alterations, they require weeks of continuous use in order to exhibit antidepressant efficacy. Moreover, up to 30% of patients do not respond to typical antidepressants, suggesting that our understanding of the pathophysiology underlying stress-induced depression is still limited. Read More
Neuroimmunomodulation 2018 9;25(3):163-175. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, School of Psychology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.
Objectives: Gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation and GI integrity deficits are common comorbidities of neuropsychiatric disorders. Ongoing research suggests that these aberrations may be contributing to heightened immune signals that have the potential to disrupt neuronal homeostasis and exacerbate behavioural deficits. The current study aimed to determine whether the well-characterized animal model of neuropsychopathology, the maternal immune activation (MIA) model, produced GI inflammation and integrity disruptions in association with anxiety-like behaviour. Read More
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Dec 8;89:159-168. Epub 2018 Nov 8.
UAS Laboratories, LLC, 555 N 72nd Avenue, Wausau, WI 54401, United States of America.
Phenytoin (Dilantin) is an orally active, use-dependent voltage-gated sodium channel inhibitor and is a potent, economical, and widely used anticonvulsant agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of the combined treatment of naringin (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) and phenytoin on prevention of seizure attacks, development of kindling, oxidative stress, cognitive impairment, and neurochemicals in the frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus, and morphological changes in the hippocampus. Treatment with the high dose of naringin (80 mg/kg) along with phenytoin has shown to offer protection against seizures, development of kindling, and cognition enhancement through Y-maze test and improved % conditioned avoidance response (% CAR) through pole climbing test in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling model. Read More
Neuroimage 2018 Nov 9;186:234-244. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. Electronic address:
Aging is typically associated with declines in sensorimotor performance. Previous studies have linked some age-related behavioral declines to reductions in network segregation. For example, compared to young adults, older adults typically exhibit weaker functional connectivity within the same functional network but stronger functional connectivity between different networks. Read More