8,405 results match your criteria Neurochemical research[Journal]


Reduction of Dimensionality in Monte Carlo Simulation of Diffusion in Extracellular Space Surrounding Cubic Cells.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

The real-time iontophoretic method has measured volume fraction and tortuosity of the interstitial component of extracellular space in many regions and under different conditions. To interpret these data computer models of the interstitial space (ISS) of the brain are constructed by representing cells as Basic Cellular Structures (BCS) surrounded by a layer of ISS and replicating this combination to make a 3D ensemble that approximates brain tissue with a specified volume fraction. Tortuosity in such models is measured by releasing molecules of zero size into the ISS and allowing them to execute random walks in the ISS of the ensemble using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02793-6DOI Listing

In Vivo Phenotyping of Familial Parkinson's Disease with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology - Stem Cells, Department of Neurobiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, 127 Vassilissis Sofias Avenue, 11521, Athens, Greece.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We have previously developed a disease-in-a-dish model for familial PD using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients carrying the p.A53T α-synuclein (αSyn) mutation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02781-wDOI Listing

Lidocaine Attenuates Cognitive Impairment After Isoflurane Anesthesia by Reducing Mitochondrial Damage.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun-Yat sen Memorial Hospital, Sun-Yat sen University, Guangzhou, 510120, Guangdong, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed to be one of the earliest triggering events in isoflurane-induced neuronal damage. Lidocaine has been demonstrated to attenuate the impairment of cognition in aged rats induced by isoflurane in our previous study. In this study, we hypothesized that lidocaine could attenuate isoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by reducing mitochondrial damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02799-0DOI Listing

AdipoRon Protects Against Secondary Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage via Alleviating Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Possible Involvement of AdipoR1-AMPK-PGC1α Pathway.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke subtype that is associated with high mortality and disability rate. Mitochondria plays a crucial role in neuronal survival after ICH. This study first showed that activation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) by AdipoRon could attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction after ICH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02794-5DOI Listing

Primary Coenzyme Q deficiency Due to Novel ADCK3 Variants, Studies in Fibroblasts and Review of Literature.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Genetic and Metabolic Diseases, Monique and Jacques Roboh Department of Genetic Research, Hadassah Medical Center, 9112001, Jerusalem, Israel.

Primary deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ubiquinone), is classified as a mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder with phenotypic variability. The clinical manifestation may involve one or multiple tissue with variable severity and presentation may range from infancy to late onset. ADCK3 gene mutations are responsible for the most frequent form of hereditary CoQ10 deficiency (Q10 deficiency-4 OMIM #612016) which is mainly associated with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia (ARCA2, SCAR9). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02786-5DOI Listing
April 2019
2.593 Impact Factor

Mammalian STE20-like Kinase 1 Knockdown Attenuates TNFα-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disease by Repressing the JNK Pathway and Mitochondrial Stress.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Neurology Department, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Neuroinflammation has been acknowledged as a primary factor contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inflammation stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is not fully understood. The aim of our study was to explore the influence of mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) in neuroinflammation using TNFα and CATH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02791-8DOI Listing

Molecular Docking and Cognitive Impairment Attenuating Effect of Phenolic Compound Rich Fraction of Trianthema portulacastrum in Scopolamine Induced Alzheimer's Disease Like Condition.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sam Higginbottom University of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences (SHUATS), Allahabad, 211007, India.

Dementia is considered as the frequent cause of neurodegenerative mental disorder such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) amongst elderly people. Free radicals as well as cholinergic deficit neurons within nucleus basalis magnocellularis demonstrated to attribute with aggregation of β amyloid which further acts as an essential hallmark in AD. Various phenolic phytoconstituents exists in Trianthema portulastrum (TP) leaves have been reported as active against various neurological disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02792-7DOI Listing

The negative effect of magnetic nanoparticles with ascorbic acid on peritoneal macrophages.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Neuroregeneration, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, Vídeňská 1083, 142 20, Prague 4, Czech Republic.

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOn) are widely used as a contrast agent for cell labeling. Macrophages are the first line of defense of organisms in contact with nanoparticles after their administration. In this study we investigated the effect of silica-coated nanoparticles (γ-FeO-SiO) with or without modification by an ascorbic acid (γ-FeO-SiO-ASA), which is meant to act as an antioxidative agent on rat peritoneal macrophages. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02790-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02790-9DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Differentially Expressed miRNAs Influence Metabolic Processes in Pituitary Oncocytoma.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Momentum Hereditary Endocrine Tumours Research Group, Semmelweis University, 46 Szentkiralyi Street, Budapest, 1088, Hungary.

Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCO) of the pituitary are rare tumors accounting for 0.1-0.4% of all sellar tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02789-2DOI Listing

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Affects Behaviour and Monoamine Levels in Mice.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Molecular Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 046, India.

Iron oxide (FeO) nanoparticles (NPs) attract the attention of clinicians for its unique magnetic and paramagnetic properties, which are exclusively used in neurodiagnostics and therapeutics among the other biomedical applications. Despite numerous research findings has already proved neurotoxicity of FeO-NPs, factors affecting neurobehaviour has not been elucidated. In this study, mice were exposed to FeO-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) by oral intubation daily for 30 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02774-9DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Vitronectin is Involved in the Morphological Transition of Neurites in Retinoic Acid-Induced Neurogenesis of Neuroblastoma Cell Line Neuro2a.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, Otsuka 2-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Vitronectin (Vtn), one of the extracellular matrix proteins, has been reported to result in cell cycle exit, neurite formation, and polarization of neural progenitor cells during neurogenesis. The underlying mechanism, however, has not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the roles of Vtn and its integrin receptors, during the transition of neurites from multipolar to bipolar morphology, accompanying the cell cycle exit in neural progenitor cells. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02787-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02787-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
2.593 Impact Factor

Inhibition of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IIα Suppresses Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Ischemic Rats Through Targeting Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Neurological Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, No. 1 Eastern Jianshe Road, Zhengzhou, 450000, Henan, China.

Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and oxidative stress plays a significant role in the ischemia stage and reperfusion stage. Previous studies have indicated that both calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) are involved in the oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the roles of CaMKIIα, an important isoform of CaMKII, and G6PD in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02785-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Induces Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Key Laboratory for Cellular Physiology of Ministry of Education, Department of Physiology, National Key Disciplines, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030001, Shanxi, China.

Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, Gelatinase B), an extracellular-acting Zn-dependent endopeptidase, are involved in brain pathologies including ischemia, glioma, and epilepsy. Recent studies suggested that MMP-9 plays an important role in neuronal plasticity, specifically in learning and memory. To determine whether and how MMP-9 plays role in alcohol-related behaviors, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure for 4 weeks, following which we collected tissue samples from the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala at different stages (acute and chronic exposure) during alcohol exposure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02783-8DOI Listing

PKM2 Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis on Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy in Neonatal Rats.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China.

Pyruvate Kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2) is a glycolytic enzyme involved in glycolysis that decarboxylates phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate and generates ATP. PKM2 also plays a significant role in tumor growth, in cell division, angiogenesis, apoptosis and metastasis. In this study, we have investigated the role of PKM2 in cortical neurons which suffered hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn rats. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02784-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02784-7DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Echinacoside Alleviates Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rat by Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibiting Apoptosis.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pharmacology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 750004, People's Republic of China.

Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a leading cause of death and disability in neonatal or perinatal all over the world, seriously affecting children, families and society. Unfortunately, only few satisfactory therapeutic strategies have been developed. It has been demonstrated that Echinacoside (ECH), the major active component of Cistanches Herba, exerts many beneficial effects, including antioxidative, anti-apoptosis, and neuroprotective in the traditional medical practice in China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02782-9DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Potential Circadian Rhythms in Oligodendrocytes? Working Together Through Time.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Oligodendrocytes (OL) are the only myelinating cells of the central nervous system thus interferences, either environmental or genetic, with their maturation or function have devastating consequences. Albeit so far neglected, one of the less appreciated, nevertheless possible, regulators of OL maturation and function is the circadian cycle. Yet, disruptions in these rhythms are unfortunately becoming a common "disorder" in the today's world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02778-5DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Succinylation Links Metabolism to Protein Functions.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, Burke Neurological Institute, 785 Mamaroneck Avenue, White Plains, NY, 10605, USA.

Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important regulators of protein function, and integrate metabolism with physiological and pathological processes. Phosphorylation and acetylation are particularly well studied PTMs. A relatively recently discovered novel PTM is succinylation in which metabolically derived succinyl CoA modifies protein lysine groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02780-xDOI Listing

Mitochondrial Dynamics Impairment in Dexamethasone-Treated Neuronal Cells.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, 10700, Bangkok, Thailand.

Dexamethasone is an approved steroid for clinical use to activate or suppress cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory enzymes and adhesion molecules. It enters the brain, by-passing the blood brain barrier, and acts through genomic mechanisms. High levels of dexamethasone are able to induce neuronal cell loss, reduce neurogenesis and cause neuronal dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02779-4DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Special Issue in Honour of Anthony J (Tony) Turner.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 19. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02770-zDOI Listing

Relationships Between Catecholamine Levels and Stress or Intelligence.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Emotional Information and Communication Technology Association, 508, Samseong-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Catecholamines, including epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), are associated with the response to stressful conditions. However, the relationships of catecholamines with intelligence and their interactions with stress remain unclear. This study assessed stress, intelligence quotient (IQ), and catecholamine levels in 70 healthy subjects to elucidate associations between catecholamines and stress, and between catecholamines and IQ. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02762-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02762-zDOI Listing
March 2019
11 Reads

ECS Dynamism and Its Influence on Neuronal Excitability and Seizures.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, 450 Clarkson Avenue, Brooklyn, NY, 11203, USA.

Seizure activity is governed by changes in normal neuronal physiology that lead to a state of neuronal hyperexcitability and synchrony. There is a growing body of research and evidence suggesting that alterations in the volume fraction (α) of the brain's extracellular space (ECS) have the ability to prolong or even initiate seizures. These ictogenic effects likely occur due to the ECS volume being critically important in determining both the concentration of neuroactive substances contained within it, such as ions and neurotransmitters, and the effect of electric field-mediated interactions between neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02773-wDOI Listing

Inhibition of microRNA-34a Suppresses Epileptiform Discharges Through Regulating Notch Signaling and Apoptosis in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Jinan Central Hospital, Shandong University, Number 105, Jiefang Road, Lixia District, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, China.

Epilepsy is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures and some seizures can cause neuronal apoptosis, which is possible to make contributions to the epilepsy phenotype, impairments in cognitive function or even epileptogenesis. Moreover, many studies have indicated that microRNA-34a (miRNA-34a) is involved in apoptosis through regulating Notch signaling. However, whether miRNA-34a participates in neuronal apoptosis after seizures remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02772-xDOI Listing
March 2019
2.593 Impact Factor

Spinal Orexin-2 Receptors are Involved in Modulation of the Lateral Hypothalamic Stimulation-Induced Analgesia.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Neuroscience Research Center, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O.Box: 19615-1178, Tehran, Iran.

Role of the orexinergic system in pain modulation is well studied and involvement of the spinal orexin-1 receptors is well documented. In this study, we examined role of the spinal orexin-2 receptors in modulation of inflammatory pain in rat. Fifty-one adult male Wistar rats were implanted unilaterally with a guide cannula into the LH and intrathecal tubing in the lumbar space between L4 and L5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02749-wDOI Listing

MicroRNAs and Regeneration in Animal Models of CNS Disorders.

Authors:
Tamara Roitbak

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 15. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, 1101 Yale Blvd, Albuquerque, NM, 87106-3834, USA.

microRNAs (miRNAs) are recently identified small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression and significantly influence the essential cellular processes associated with CNS repair after trauma and neuropathological conditions including stroke and neurodegenerative disorders. A number of specific miRNAs are implicated in regulating the development and propagation of CNS injury, as well as its subsequent regeneration. The review focuses on the functions of the miRNAs and their role in brain recovery following CNS damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02777-6DOI Listing

Intranasal Delivery of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Protects against Hippocampal Neuron Death in the Lithium-Pilocarpine Rat Model.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neurology, Anyang Area Hospital, Anyang, 455000, Henan Province, People's Republic of China.

Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) block the release of a series of neurotransmitters, which are pivotal for neuron action. Intrahippocampal administration of BoNTs inhibits glutamate release, protects neurons against cell death, and attenuates epileptic seizures. Compared with intrahippocampal administration, intranasal delivery is less invasive and more practical for chronic drug administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02775-8DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Role of Cdk5 in Kalirin7-Mediated Formation of Dendritic Spines.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

College of Life Science, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062, Shaanxi, China.

A majority of excitatory synapses in the brain are localized on the dendritic spines. Alterations of spine density and morphology are associated with many neurological diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying spine formation is important for understanding these diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02771-yDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Tribulusterine Containing Tribulus terrestris Extract Exhibited Neuroprotection Through Attenuating Stress Kinases Mediated Inflammatory Mechanism: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Pharmacology, PSG College of Pharmacy, Peelamedu, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641004, India.

The present study has been aimed to explore the different secondary messengers of the inflammatory pathway NF-κB, kinases (JNK, P38MAPK, GSK3β/βcatenin), apoptosis pathway (Caspase-3 and AIF), and neuronal survival pathway (BDNF) in order to understand the neuroprotective mechanism of aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris (AQTT). In primary cortical neurons, the ischemic condition was induced through oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Anti-inflammatory activity of AQTT was evaluated in formalin induced inflammation model and carrageenan-induced paw edema test. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02768-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02768-7DOI Listing
March 2019
6 Reads

Sex Differences in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: The Role of Mitochondrial Permeability Transition.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 12. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, 407 East 61st St., RR506, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Brain and heart ischemia are among the leading causes of death and disability in both men and women, but there are significant sex differences in the incidence and severity of these diseases. Ca dysregulation in response to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) is a well-recognized pathogenic mechanism leading to the death of affected cells. Excess intracellular Ca causes mitochondrial matrix Ca overload that can result in mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which can have severe consequences for mitochondrial function and trigger cell death. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02769-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02769-6DOI Listing
March 2019
8 Reads

Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase 1 Mediates the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain after Chronic Constriction Injury in Rats.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, 226001, China.

Neuropathic pain (NP) has complicated pathogenesis as it mainly involves a lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system and its clinical treatment remains challenging. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) model is a widely used neuropathic pain model and involved in mechanisms including both nerve inflammatory and injury. Cytokines and their receptors play essential roles in the occurrence and persistence of neuropathic pain, but the underlying mechanisms have not well been understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02767-8DOI Listing
March 2019
2.593 Impact Factor

Targeted Oligodendrocyte Apoptosis in Optic Nerve Leads to Persistent Demyelination.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC, 20037, USA.

The optic nerve represents one of the simplest regions of the CNS and has been useful in developing an understanding of glial development and myelination. While the visual system is frequently affected in demyelinating conditions, utilizing the optic nerve to model demyelination/remyelination studies has been difficult due to its accessibility, relatively small size, and dense nature that makes direct injections challenging. Taking advantage of the lack of oligodendrocytes and myelination in the mouse retina, we have developed a model in which the induction of apoptosis in mature oligodendrocytes allows for the selective, non-invasive generation of demyelinating lesions in optic nerve. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02754-zDOI Listing

The Actin Cytoskeleton in Myelinating Cells.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

Myelinating cells of both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNSs) undergo dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization in order to differentiate and produce myelin. Myelinating oligodendrocytes in the CNS show a periodic actin pattern, demonstrating tight regulation of actin. Furthermore, recent data demonstrate that actin polymerization drives early cell differentiation and that actin depolymerization drives myelin wrapping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02753-0DOI Listing

Human 2-Oxoglutarate Dehydrogenase and 2-Oxoadipate Dehydrogenase Both Generate Superoxide/HO in a Side Reaction and Each Could Contribute to Oxidative Stress in Mitochondria.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Ave, Bronx, NY, 10641-2304, USA.

According to recent findings, the human 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (hOGDHc) could be an important source of the reactive oxygen species in the mitochondria and could contribute to mitochondrial abnormalities associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease, and Parkinson's disease. The human 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (hE1a) is a novel protein, which is encoded by the DHTKD1 gene. Both missence and nonsense mutations were identified in the DHTKD1 that lead to alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-oxoadipic aciduria, a metabolic disorder with a wide variety of the neurological abnormalities, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2Q, an inherited neurological disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02765-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02765-wDOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

An Updated View on the Molecular Pathomechanisms of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Light of Novel Crystallographic Evidence.

Authors:
Attila Ambrus

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, MTA-SE Laboratory for Neurobiochemistry, Semmelweis University, 37-47 Tuzolto Street, Budapest, 1094, Hungary.

Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LADH, E3) deficiency is a rare (autosomal, recessive) genetic disorder generally presenting with an onset in the neonatal age and early death; the highest carrier rate has been found among Ashkenazi Jews. Acute clinical episodes usually involve severe metabolic decompensation and lactate acidosis that result in neurological, cardiological, and/or hepatological manifestations. Clinical severity is due to the fact that LADH is a common E3 subunit to the alpha-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, alpha-ketoadipate, and branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complexes, and is also a constituent in the glycine cleavage system, thus a loss in LADH function adversely affects multiple key metabolic routes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02766-9DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Proteomic Analysis of the Maternal Preoptic Area in Rats.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

MTA-ELTE Laboratory of Molecular and Systems Neurobiology, Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and Eötvös Loránd University and Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/C, 1117, Hungary.

The behavior of female rats changes profoundly as they become mothers. The brain region that plays a central role in this regulation is the preoptic area, and lesions in this area eliminates maternal behaviors in rodents. The molecular background of the behavioral changes has not been established yet; therefore, in the present study, we applied proteomics to compare protein level changes associated with maternal care in the rat preoptic area. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02755-yDOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Missing in Action: Dysfunctional RNA Metabolism in Oligodendroglial Cells as a Contributor to Neurodegenerative Diseases?

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 6. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Cellular Neurobiology, Institute for Developmental Biology and Neurobiology, Johannes Gutenberg-University of Mainz, Anselm-Franz-von-Bentzelweg 3, 55128, Mainz, Germany.

The formation of myelin around axons by oligodendrocytes (OL) poses an enormous synthetic and energy challenge for the glial cell. Local translation of transcripts, including the mRNA for the essential myelin protein Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) at the site of myelin deposition has been recognised as an efficient mechanism to assure proper myelin sheath assembly. Oligodendroglial precursor cells (OPCs) form synapses with neurons and may localise many additional mRNAs in a similar fashion to synapses between neurons. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11064-019-02763-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02763-yDOI Listing
March 2019
13 Reads

Iron is Responsible for Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Regulating Vasopressin Expression in the Mouse Paraventricular Nucleus.

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 4. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Anatomy, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungdae-ro 1, Seowon-gu, Cheongju, Chungbuk, 28644, Republic of Korea.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as signaling molecules for maintaining homeostasis, particularly in the regulation of body-fluid balance in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. However, there has been little discussion regarding the source of ROS generation in this hypothalamic region. Because iron is the most abundant metal in the brain, we hypothesized that iron may act as a source of ROS, which regulate vasopressin (VP) expression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02764-xDOI Listing
March 2019
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Moderate- and Low-Dose of Atorvastatin Alleviate Cognition Impairment Induced by High-Fat Diet via Sirt1 Activation.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Neurology, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200120, China.

Mounting evidences have demonstrated that diet-induced obesity is associated with cognition impairment via increasing oxidative stress and inflammation in the brain. Atorvastatin (Ator, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor) is a cholesterol lowering drug. Studies have reported that Ator can ameliorate the development and progression of cognition impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02738-zDOI Listing
February 2019
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Coenzyme Q Alleviated Behavioral Dysfunction and Bioenergetic Function in an Animal Model of Depression.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 28. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Zanjan Applied Pharmacology Research Center, Zanjan University of Medical sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a natural compound, is involved in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain (ETC) and plays an important pattern in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Amelioration of ATP is related to abnormalities in cognitive function and psychiatric diseases. Previous studies have shown that depression is accompanied by the induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways and amelioration of antioxidant status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02761-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of Exercise Interventions on Kainate Induced Status Epilepticus and Associated Co-morbidities; A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Institute of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, 76 West Yanta Road, Xi'an city, 710061, China.

Purpose: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies testing the effect of exercise in Kainic-acid (KA) induced status-epilepticus (SE) and to quantify the efficacy of exercise strategies in the prognosis of SE and co-morbidities.

Methods: Two authors searched online databases (Pubmed and Web of Science) independently for studies testing the efficacy of exercise programs in KA-induced SE models. Reviewers autonomously extracted data on models used, exercise interventions and prognosis in all reported outcomes (behavioral, histological, biochemical and cognitive outcomes). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02758-9DOI Listing
February 2019
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The Effect of 2-Ketobutyrate on Mitochondrial Substrate-Level Phosphorylation.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 27. Epub 2019 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Semmelweis University, Tuzolto st. 37-47, Budapest, 1094, Hungary.

The reaction catalyzed by succinate-CoA ligase in the mitochondrial matrix yields a high-energy phosphate when operating towards hydrolysis of the thioester bond of succinyl-CoA, known as mitochondrial substrate-level phosphorylation (mSLP). The catabolism of several metabolites converge to succinyl-CoA but through different biochemical pathways. Among them, threonine, serine and methionine catabolize to succinyl-CoA through the common intermediate, 2-ketobutyrate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02759-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Exposure of Cultured Astrocytes to Menadione Triggers Rapid Radical Formation, Glutathione Oxidation and Mrp1-Mediated Export of Glutathione Disulfide.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, Faculty 2 (Biology/Chemistry), University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334, Bremen, Germany.

Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a synthetic derivative of vitamin K that allows rapid redox cycling in cells and thereby generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). To test for the consequences of a treatment of brain astrocytes with menadione, we incubated primary astrocyte cultures with this compound. Incubation with menadione in concentrations of up to 30 µM did not affect cell viability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02760-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Powering Amyloid Beta Degrading Enzymes: A Possible Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

The accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain is believed to play a central role in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Revisions to the amyloid cascade hypothesis now acknowledge the dynamic equilibrium in which Aβ exists and the importance of enzymes involved in the production and breakdown of Aβ in maintaining healthy Aβ levels. However, while a wealth of pharmacological and immunological therapies are being generated to inhibit the Aβ-producing enzymes, β-site APP cleavage enzyme 1 and γ-secretase, the therapeutic potential of stimulating Aβ-degrading enzymes such as neprilysin, endothelin-converting enzyme-1 and insulin-degrading enzyme remains relatively unexplored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02756-xDOI Listing
February 2019

2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Exhibits Anti-seizure Effects by Mediating the Netrin-G1-KATP Signaling Pathway in Epilepsy.

Neurochem Res 2019 Apr 25;44(4):994-1004. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Neurology, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. The glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) has been reported to exert antiepileptic effects by upregulating KATP subunits (kir6.1 and kir6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02734-3DOI Listing
April 2019
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β-Asarone Regulates ER Stress and Autophagy Via Inhibition of the PERK/CHOP/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 16, Jichang Road, Guangzhou, 510405, China.

β-Asarone (1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-[(Z)-prop-1-enyl]benzene) is an essential component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott volatile oil. Previous research has observed that β-asarone effectively attenuated symptoms in parkinsonian rats and improved their performance, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Other research has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02757-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Introduction to the Special Issue in Honor of Graham L Collingridge.

Authors:
Elek Molnár

Neurochem Res 2019 Mar 22;44(3):513-515. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Centre for Synaptic Plasticity, School of Physiology, Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of Bristol, Biomedical Sciences Building, University Walk, Bristol, BS8 1TD, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02751-2DOI Listing

Post Translational Modulation of β-Amyloid Precursor Protein Trafficking to the Cell Surface Alters Neuronal Iron Homeostasis.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK.

Cell surface β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is known to have a functional role in iron homeostasis through stabilising the iron export protein ferroportin (FPN). Mechanistic evidence of this role has previously only been provided through transcriptional or translational depletion of total APP levels. However, numerous post-translational modifications of APP are reported to regulate the location and trafficking of this protein to the cell surface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02747-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Astroglial Mechanisms of Ketamine Action Include Reduced Mobility of Kir4.1-Carrying Vesicles.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 22. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Celica BIOMEDICAL, Tehnološki park 24, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The finding that ketamine, an anaesthetic, can elicit a rapid antidepressant effect at low doses that lasts for weeks in patients with depression is arguably a major achievement in psychiatry in the last decades. However, the mechanisms of action are unclear. The glutamatergic hypothesis of ketamine action posits that ketamine is a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist modulating downstream cytoplasmic events in neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02744-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Consequences of a Metabolic Glucose-Depletion on the Survival and the Metabolism of Cultured Rat Astrocytes.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Centre for Biomolecular Interactions Bremen, Faculty 2 (Biology/Chemistry), University of Bremen, P.O. Box 330440, 28334, Bremen, Germany.

Brain astrocytes are considered to be highly glycolytic, but these cells also produce ATP via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. To investigate how a metabolic depletion of glucose will affect the metabolism of astrocytes, we applied glucose at an initial concentration of 2 mM to cultured primary astrocytes and monitored the cell viability and various metabolic parameters during an incubation for up to 2 weeks. Already within 2 days of incubation the cells had completely consumed the applied glucose and lactate had accumulated in the medium to a concentration of around 3 mM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02752-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Astroglia in Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.

Cellular pathophysiology of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly characterised. Brain pathology in SAE, which is manifested by impaired perception, consciousness and cognition, results from multifactorial events, including high levels of systemic cytokines, microbial components and endotoxins, which all damage the brain barriers, instigate neuroinflammation and cause homeostatic failure. Astrocytes, being the principal homeostatic cells of the central nervous system contribute to the brain defence against infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02743-2DOI Listing
February 2019
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Resveratrol Abrogates Hypoxia-Induced Up-Regulation of Exosomal Amyloid-β Partially by Inhibiting CD147.

Neurochem Res 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 301 Middle Yanchang Road, Shanghai, 200072, China.

Hypoxia promotes both total extracellular and exosomal amyloid-β (Aβ) production and aggravates Alzheimer's disease (AD). Resveratrol (RSV) has been proved to be neuroprotective in AD models, and down-regulated the expression of CD147, an additional subunit of γ-secretase. In this study, we aimed to explore the role and mechanisms of RSV in hypoxia-induced upregulation of Aβ, especially exosomal Aβ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-019-02742-3DOI Listing
February 2019