39,935 results match your criteria Neuroblastoma Imaging


Resistance to Epigenetic-Targeted Therapy Engenders Tumor Cell Vulnerabilities Associated with Enhancer Remodeling.

Cancer Cell 2018 Dec;34(6):922-938.e7

Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

Drug resistance represents a major challenge to achieving durable responses to cancer therapeutics. Resistance mechanisms to epigenetically targeted drugs remain largely unexplored. We used bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibition in neuroblastoma as a prototype to model resistance to chromatin modulatory therapeutics. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular scaffolds as double targeting agents for the diagnosis and treatment of Neuroblastoma.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Farmacia, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040, Madrid, SPAIN.

The selective delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents to tumoral cells has been postulated as some of the most important challenges in nanomedicine field. The cellular selectivity of nanocarriers is usually achieved by their surface decoration with targeting moieties able to recognize these cells in a specific manner. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extra-cranial pedriatic tumor, almost incurable at advanced stages. Read More

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December 2018

50-Hz MF does not affect global DNA methylation of SH-SY5Y cells treated with the neurotoxin MPP.

Bioelectromagnetics 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Health Protection Technologies, ENEA-Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development, Rome, Italy.

Exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) has been associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. The underlying mechanisms, however, are still debated. Since epigenetics play a key role in the neurodegenerative process, we investigated whether exposure to ELF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT) might affect global DNA methylation of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic-like neuroblastoma cells. Read More

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December 2018

Preclinical evaluation of the first intravenous small molecule MDM2 antagonist alone and in combination with temozolomide in neuroblastoma.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Wolfson Childhood Cancer Research Centre, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

High-risk neuroblastoma, a predominantly TP53 wild-type (wt) tumour, is incurable in >50% patients supporting the use of MDM2 antagonists as novel therapeutics. Idasanutlin (RG7388) shows in vitro synergy with chemotherapies used to treat neuroblastoma. This is the first study to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of the intravenous idasanutlin prodrug, RO6839921 (RG7775), both alone and in combination with temozolomide in TP53 wt orthotopic neuroblastoma models. Read More

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December 2018

Utility of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients receiving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for primary treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Past research established that surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy (S + AR) improves overall survival (OS) in esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB). However, it is unknown if the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) further improves survival. The primary objective of this study was to compare survival among patients treated with S + AR alone to patients who underwent S + AR + AC. Read More

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December 2018

MiRNA influences in mesenchymal stem cell commitment to neuroblast lineage development.

Noncoding RNA Res 2018 Dec 15;3(4):232-242. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Centre for Molecular Medicine and Biobanking, University of Malta, Msida MSD2080, Malta.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are widely used in therapeutic applications. Their plasticity and predisposition to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including those of the neuronal lineage, makes them ideal to study whether a selection of miRNAs may direct the differentiation of MSCs into neuroblasts or neuroblastoma to mature neurons. Following a short-listing, miR-107, 124 and 381 were selected as the most promising candidates for this differentiation. Read More

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December 2018

Distillation of the clinical algorithm improves prognosis by multi-task deep learning in high-risk Neuroblastoma.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(12):e0208924. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Trento, Italy.

We introduce the CDRP (Concatenated Diagnostic-Relapse Prognostic) architecture for multi-task deep learning that incorporates a clinical algorithm, e.g., a risk stratification schema to improve prognostic profiling. Read More

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December 2018

Phosphorylation of nuclear Tau is modulated by distinct cellular pathways.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 7;8(1):17702. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Laboratory for Biomedical Neurosciences, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Ente Cantonale Ospedaliero, Torricella-Taverne, Switzerland.

Post-translational protein modification controls the function of Tau as a scaffold protein linking a variety of molecular partners. This is most studied in the context of microtubules, where Tau regulates their stability as well as the distribution of cellular components to defined compartments. However, Tau is also located in the cell nucleus; and is found to protect DNA. Read More

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December 2018

Proton beam therapy in pediatric oncology.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted.

Recent Findings: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Divergent Cytotoxic and Metabolically Stimulative Functions of Sigma-2 Receptors: Structure-activity Relationships of 6-acetyl-3-(4-(4-(4-fluorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl)butyl)benzo[d]oxazol-2(3H)-one (SN79) Derivatives.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Brown University;

Sigma-2 receptors, recently identified as TMEM97, have been implicated in cancer and neurodegenerative disease. Structurally distinct sigma-2 receptor ligands induce cell death in tumor cells, linking sigma-2 receptors to apoptotic pathways. Recently, we reported that sigma-2 receptors can also stimulate glycolytic hallmarks; effects consistent with a pro-survival function and upregulation in cancer cells. Read More

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December 2018

Long-term effects after treatment with platinum compounds, cisplatin and [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)]: Autophagy activation in rat B50 neuroblastoma cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology "L. Spallanzani", University of Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Cisplatin (cisPt), among the best known components of multi-drug front-line therapies used for the treatments of solid tumors, such as the childhood neuroblastoma, acts through DNA linking. Nevertheless, the cisPt effectiveness is compromised by the onset of severe side effects, including neurotoxicity that results in neurodegeneration, cell death, and drug-resistance. In the field of experimental oncology, aimed at overcoming cytotoxicity and chemoresistance, great efforts are devoted to the synthesis of new platinum-based drugs, such as [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] (PtAcacDMS), which shows a specific reactivity with sulfur residues of enzymes involved in apoptosis. Read More

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December 2018

Parecoxib, a selective blocker of cyclooxygenase-2, directly inhibits neuronal delayed-rectifier K current, M-type K current and Na current.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan City, Taiwan; Department of Physiology, National Cheng Kung University Medical College, Tainan City, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Parecoxib, a prodrug of valdecoxib, is a selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 and widely used for traumatic and postoperative patients to avoid opioid-induced side effects. It is a potent analgesic and has a role in multimodal analgesic and enhanced recovery after surgery. Whether parecoxib exerts any actions on these types of ionic currents remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Nuclear RXRα and RXRβ receptors exert distinct and opposite effects on RA-mediated neuroblastoma differentiation.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600 - Anexo, Porto Alegre, RS CEP 90035-003, Brazil.

Retinoic acid (RA) promotes differentiation in multiple neurogenic cell types by promoting gene reprogramming through retinoid receptors and also by inducing cytosolic signaling events. The nuclear RXR receptors are one of the main mediators of RA cellular effects, classically by joining the direct receptors of RA, the nuclear RAR receptors, in RAR/RXR dimers which act as transcription factors. Distinct RXR genes lead to RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ subtypes, but their specific roles in neuronal differentiation remain unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Kinetically selective and potent inhibitors of HDAC8.

Biol Chem 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Applied Sciences Darmstadt, 64295 Darmstadt, Germany.

HDAC8 is an established and validated target for T-cell lymphoma and childhood neuroblastoma. The active site binding pocket of HDAC8 is highly conserved among all zinccontaining representatives of the histone deacetylase family. This explains that most HDACs are unselectively recognized by similar inhibitors featuring a zinc binding group (ZBG), a hydrophobic linker and a head group. Read More

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December 2018

Functional Polymorphisms in Gene and Neuroblastoma Risk in Chinese Children.

J Cancer 2018 31;9(23):4521-4526. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pathology, Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital, Hefei 230051, Anhui, China.

Neuroblastoma is a lethal tumor of the sympathetic nervous system. 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OH-dG) formation is a common seen type of oxidative DNA damage, which could be repaired by human oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1). To explore the contributing role of gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in neuroblastoma risk, we performed a case-control study by genotyping three SNPs (rs1052133 G>C, rs159153 T>C, rs293795 A>G) in gene. Read More

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October 2018

Tumor-suppressive function of SIRT4 in neuroblastoma through mitochondrial damage.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 9;10:5591-5603. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Children's Rehabilitation, Shangqiu First People's Hospital of Henan, Shangqiu, Henan, China.

Background: SIRT4 is a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes located in the mitochondria, and is involved in regulating energy metabolism, stress response, and cellular lifespan in mammalian cells. However, its function in human neuroblastoma (NB) remains unexplored.

Methods: Expression of SIRT4 in 158 pairs of human NB tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues collected from March 2009 to October 2012 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. Read More

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November 2018

Circulating microRNA biomarkers for metastatic disease in neuroblastoma patients.

JCI Insight 2018 Dec 6;3(23). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Medical Genetics, Department of Biomolecular Medicine, and.

In this study, the circulating miRNome from diagnostic neuroblastoma serum was assessed for identification of noninvasive biomarkers with potential in monitoring metastatic disease. After determining the circulating neuroblastoma miRNome, 743 miRNAs were screened in 2 independent cohorts of 131 and 54 patients. Evaluation of serum miRNA variance in a model testing for tumor stage, MYCN status, age at diagnosis, and overall survival revealed tumor stage as the most significant factor impacting miRNA abundance in neuroblastoma serum. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative conformational profiling of kinase inhibitors reveals origins of selectivity for Aurora kinase activation states.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455;

Protein kinases undergo large-scale structural changes that tightly regulate function and control recognition by small-molecule inhibitors. Methods for quantifying the conformational effects of inhibitors and linking them to an understanding of selectivity patterns have long been elusive. We have developed an ultrafast time-resolved fluorescence methodology that tracks structural movements of the kinase activation loop in solution with angstrom-level precision, and can resolve multiple structural states and quantify conformational shifts between states. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

The antimicrobial peptide CopA3 inhibits toxin A-induced viability loss and apoptosis in neural cells.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Divison of Life Science and Chemistry, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido, South Korea.

Numerous studies have reported that enteric neurons involved in controlling neurotransmitter secretion and motility in the gut critically contribute to the progression of gut inflammation. toxins, which cause severe colonic inflammation, are also known to affect enteric neurons. Our previous study showed that toxin A directly induces neural cell toxicities, such as viability loss and apoptosis. Read More

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November 2018

Patterns of failures after surgical resection in olfactory neuroblastoma.

J Neurooncol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Patterns of failure in patients with olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) according to two surgical approaches, craniofacial resection (CFR) and endoscopic surgery (ENDO), have yet to be analyzed.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients with surgically treated ONB between January 1995 and October 2017. Fourteen (50. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Scintigraphic evaluation of colonic transit in children with constipation using Ga-citrate.

World J Nucl Med 2018 Oct-Dec;17(4):249-252

Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal - Nuclear Medicine Service, Brasília, Brasil.

The aim of this study was to assess the colonic transit in children and teenagers with chronic constipation. Twenty patients from 1.5 to 16 years old were included (mean age = 6. Read More

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December 2018

A rare case of solitary unifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis with orbital extension: Diagnostic dilemma.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):284-287

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is rarely encountered in ophthalmology practice. It is a spectrum of disorder characterized by accumulation of histiocytes in various tissues. Diagnosis is challenging as it may simulate periorbital hematoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma. Read More

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December 2018

In silico discovery of a FOXM1 driven embryonal signaling pathway in therapy resistant neuroblastoma tumors.

Sci Rep 2018 Nov 30;8(1):17468. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center for Medical Genetics (CMGG), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Chemotherapy resistance is responsible for high mortality rates in neuroblastoma. MYCN, an oncogenic driver in neuroblastoma, controls pluripotency genes including LIN28B. We hypothesized that enhanced embryonic stem cell (ESC) gene regulatory programs could mark tumors with high pluripotency capacity and subsequently increased risk for therapy failure. Read More

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November 2018

2-Oxo-histidine-containing dipeptides are functional oxidation products.

J Biol Chem 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan.

Imidazole-containing dipeptides (IDPs), such as carnosine and anserine, are found exclusively in various animal tissues, especially in the skeletal muscles and nerves. IDPs have antioxidant activity owing to their metalchelating and free radical-scavenging properties. However, the underlying mechanisms that would fully explain IDPs' antioxidant effects remain obscure. Read More

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November 2018

Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activities of the flavonoid isoliquiritigenin in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Nov 28;299:77-87. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Redox Biology, Discipline of Pathology, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia. Electronic address:

Neuroblastoma is a common childhood cancer with high mortality. We evaluated the capacity of the flavonoid, isoliquiritigenin (4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone; ISL) to inhibit cellular proliferation and migration in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Incubation of cultured SH-SY5Y cells with 20-100 μM ISL decreased cell confluency (15-70%) after 24 h incubation, while 10-100 μM ISL (24 h) depleted intracellular ATP stores (15-90% vs vehicle-treated control) after 24 h incubation. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Long-term analysis of children with metastatic neuroblastoma treated in the ENSG5 randomised clinical trial.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Dec 5:e27565. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Children and Young People's Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom (retired).

Background: The European Neuroblastoma Study Group 5 (ENSG5) trial showed that time-intensive "rapid" induction chemotherapy (COJEC) was superior to "standard" 3-weekly chemotherapy for children with high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma. Long-term outcomes of the ENSG5 trial were analysed.

Procedure: Patients with metastatic neuroblastoma aged ≥12 months were randomly assigned to "standard" or "rapid" induction, receiving the same chemotherapy drugs and doses. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

RNA-binding proteomics reveals MATR3 interacting with lncRNA SNHG1 to enhance neuroblastoma progression.

J Proteome Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The interaction of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with one or more RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are important to a plethora of cellular and physiological processes. The lncRNA SNHG1 was reported to be aberrantly expressed and associated with poor patient prognosis in several cancers, including neuroblastoma. However, the interacting RBPs and biological functions associated with SNHG1 in neuroblastoma remains unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Sympathetic Neurons: A Potential Model for Understanding Neuroblastoma Pathogenesis.

Stem Cells Int 2018 1;2018:4391641. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Wolfson Childhood Cancer Research Centre, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, UK.

Background And Aims: Previous studies modelling human neural crest differentiation from stem cells have resulted in a low yield of sympathetic neurons. Our aim was to optimise a method for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to sympathetic neuron-like cells (SN) to model normal human SNS development.

Results: Using stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) of PA6 cells plus BMP4 and B27 supplements, the H9 hESC line was differentiated to neural crest stem-like cells and SN-like cells. Read More

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November 2018

Congenital Ewing's Sarcoma, a Rare and Difficult Diagnosis: A Case Report.

Eurasian J Med 2018 Oct;50(3):202-203

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Atatürk University School of Medicine, Erzurum, Turkey.

We have interestedly read the article written by Thalia Wong BS in July 2015, which is about Pediatric Blood Cancer, including clinical findings and results of infants <1 year of age with Ewing sarcoma. We report a case with congenital Ewing's sarcoma that easily interfered with rabdomyosarcoma in a pregnant woman. A 32-year-old multigravida with a big neck mass at 35 weeks was referred to our clinic. Read More

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October 2018

50-Hz Magnetic Field Impairs the Expression of Iron-related Genes in the in vitro SOD1 Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Dec 4:1-28. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

a Division of Health Protection Technologies , ENEA-Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development , 00123 Rome , Italy ;

Purpose: we characterized the response to the extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in an in vitro model of familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (fALS), carrying two mutant variants of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene.

Materials And Methods: SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, stably over-expressing the wild type, the G93A or the H46R mutant SOD1 cDNA, were exposed to either the ELF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT) or the sham control field, up to 72 hours. Analysis of i) viability, proliferation and apoptosis, ii) reactive oxygen species generation, and iii) assessment of the iron metabolism, were carried out in all clones in response to the MF exposure. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

CGRPergic Nerve TRPA1 Channels Contribute to Epigallocatechin Gallate-Induced Neurogenic Vasodilation.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), promotes vasodilation and reduces blood pressure, mechanisms of which are not fully resolved. Recent reports suggested that EGCG can activate heterologously expressed mouse and zebrafish TRPA1 channels. Activation of TRPA1 in sensory neurons triggers the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator. Read More

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December 2018

Antioxidant potential of ganoderic acid in Notch-1 protein in neuroblastoma.

Mol Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Centre for Plant Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, 151001, India.

Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor arising from developing a sympathetic nervous system and causes around 10% of pediatric tumors. Despite advancement in the use of sophisticated techniques in molecular biology, neuroblastoma patient's survivability rate is very less. Notch pathway is significant in upholding cell maintenance and developmental process of organs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Novel Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Neuroblastoma and Malignant Melanoma.

J Immunol Res 2018 30;2018:8097398. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Laboratory of Experimental Therapies in Oncology, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, 16148 Genova, Italy.

Neuroblastoma (NB) and malignant melanoma (MM), tumors of pediatric age and adulthood, respectively, share a common origin, both of them deriving from the neural crest cells. Although NB and MM have a different behavior, in respect to age of onset, primary tissue involvement and metastatic spread, the prognosis for high stage-affected patients is still poor, in spite of aggressive treatment strategies and the huge amount of new discovered biological knowledge. For these reasons researchers are continuously attempting to find out new treatment options, which in a near future could be translated to the clinical practice. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

The Evidence for External Beam Radiotherapy in High-Risk Neuroblastoma of Childhood: A Systematic Review.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Aims: External beam radiotherapy is widely used in various ways in the management of neuroblastoma. Despite extensive clinical experience, the precise role of radiotherapy in neuroblastoma remains unclear. The purpose of this systematic review was to survey the published literature to identify, without bias, the evidence for the clinical effectiveness of external beam radiotherapy as part of the initial multimodality treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Design, synthesis and evaluation of pentacycloundecane and hexacycloundecane propargylamine derivatives as multifunctional neuroprotective agents.

Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 22;163:83-94. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535, South Africa. Electronic address:

The multifactorial pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders remains one of the main challenges in the design of a single molecule that may ultimately prevent the progression of these disorders in affected patients. In this article, we report on twelve novel polycyclic amine cage derivatives, synthesized with or without a propargylamine function, designed to possess inherent multifunctional neuroprotective activity. The MTT cytotoxicity assay results showed the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to be viable with the twelve compounds, particularly at concentrations less than 10 μM. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Factors Influencing Do-Not-Resuscitate Status in Children During Last Month of Life: Single Institution Experience.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Ruth Rappaport Children's Hospital, Rambam Health Care Campus, Haifa, Israel.

Background: It is currently expected that about 20% of children with cancer will ultimately die. Writing advanced life directives sufficiently long before the actual death of a child ensues allows both parents and medical staff to develop optimal treatment plans in the best interests of the child.

Aim Of The Study: The aim of the study was to evaluate factors that may influence the process of decision-making regarding Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR) status. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Treatment-related Focal Nodular Hyperplasia Mimicking Liver Metastases.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Departments of Radiology.

A 7-year-old patient with a stage 4 neuroblastoma underwent chemotherapy, surgery, myeloablative therapy, external beam radiotherapy, and Isoretinoin treatment. A posttreatment magnetic resonance examination performed administering gadoteric acid as contrast agent showed 2 new hypervascular hepatic lesions, suspicious for metastases. A second magnetic resonance imaging performed using a liver-specific contrast medium (gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid) demonstrated that these lesions were consistent with treatment-related focal nodular hyperplasia. Read More

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November 2018

Reduced extracellular matrix stiffness prompts SH-SY5Y cell softening and actin turnover to selectively increase Aβ(1-42) endocytosis.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by the extracellular deposition of dense amyloid beta plaques. Emerging evidence suggests that the production of these plaques is initiated by the intracellular uptake and lysosomal pre-concentration of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. All previous endocytosis studies assess Aβ uptake with cells plated on traditional tissue culture plastic; however, brain tissue is distinctly soft with a low-kPa stiffness. Read More

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November 2018

Different Efflux Transporter Affinity and Metabolism of Tc-2-Methoxyisobutylisonitrile and Tc-Tetrofosmin for Multidrug Resistance Monitoring in Cancer.

Pharm Res 2018 Nov 29;36(1):18. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

School of Health Sciences, Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Background: Little is known about the affinity and stability of Tc-labeled 2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (Tc-MIBI) and tetrofosmin (Tc-TF) for imaging of multiple drug resistance transporters in cancer. We examined the affinity of Tc-labeled compounds for these transporters and their stability.

Methods: Tc-MIBI and Tc-TF were incubated in vesicles expressing P-glycoprotein (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)1-4, or breast cancer resistance protein with and without verapamil (MDR1 inhibitor) or MK-571 (MRP inhibitor). Read More

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November 2018

Implications of Image-Defined Risk Factors and Primary Site Response on Local Control and Radiation Treatment Delivery in the Management of High Risk Neuroblastoma: Is there a Role for De-escalation of Adjuvant Primary Site Radiotherapy?

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Surgery, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: The predictive value of Image-Defined Risk Factors (IDRFs) developed by the International Neuroblastoma Risk Group (INRG) Task Force as it relates to primary site management is undefined and may aid patient selection for de-escalation of adjuvant radiotherapy to the primary site in high risk neuroblastoma (HRNB).

Methods: Patients (N=76) with HRNB treated on prospective trials at our institution from 1997 to 2014 were eligible for inclusion. IDRFs were defined based on pre-therapy imaging. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Assessment of the dicentric chromosome assay as a biodosimetry tool for more personalized medicine in a case of a high risk neuroblastoma I-mIBG treatment.

Int J Radiat Biol 2018 Nov 29:1-13. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

a Radiation Protection Service , Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe , Spain .

Purpose The aims of this study were to estimate the whole-body absorbed-dose with the Dicentric Chromosome Assay (DCA) (biodosimetry) for I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-mIBG) therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma, and to obtain an initial correlation with the physical dosimetry calculated as described by the Medical Internal Radiation Dosimetry formalism (MIRD). Together both objectives will aidobjectives will aid the optimization of personalized targeted radionuclide therapies. Material and Methods A 12 year-old child with relapsed high-risk neuroblastoma was treated with I-mIBG: a first administration with activity <444 MBq/kg was used as a tracer in order to calculate the activity needed in a second administration to achieve a whole body prescribed dose of approximately 4 Gy. Read More

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November 2018

Prognostic role of NRAS isoforms in Chinese melanoma patients.

Melanoma Res 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education), Department of Renal Cancer and Melanoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China.

Neuroblastoma rat-sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (NRAS) isoforms are expressed in melanoma tumor tissues, which have been described in Caucasian melanoma. However, the status and the clinical significance of NRAS isoforms in the Asian population have not been investigated on a large scale. We examined the expression levels of NRAS isoforms of 140 melanoma samples using quantitative real-time PCR. Read More

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November 2018

HNRNP Q suppresses polyglutamine huntingtin aggregation by post-transcriptional regulation of Vaccinia-related kinase 2.

J Neurochem 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH).

Misfolded proteins with abnormal polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion cause neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease (HD). Recently, it was found that polyQ aggregates accumulate due to vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2)-mediated degradation of TCP-1 ring complex (TRiC)/Chaperonin-containing TCP-1 (CCT), which has an essential role in the prevention of polyQ protein aggregation and cytotoxicity. The levels of VRK2 are known to be much higher in actively proliferating cells but are maintained at a low level in the brain via an unknown mechanism. Read More

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November 2018

Enhancement of neuroprotective activity of Sagunja-tang by fermentation with lactobacillus strains.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Nov 28;18(1):312. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Korean Medicine (KM) Application Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM), 70 Cheomdan-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu, 701-300, Republic of Korea.

Background: Sagunja-tang (SGT) is widely used in traditional herbal medicine to treat immune system and gastrointestinal disorders and reportedly has protective effects against inflammation, cancer, and osteoporosis. In this study, we fermented SGT with different Latobacillus strains and investigated the change in phytochemical compositions in SGT and enhancement of it neuroprotective effects in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma.

Methods: Marker components, including ginsenoside Rg, glycyrrhizin, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid, in SGT, were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Read More

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November 2018

FAK and S6K1 Inhibitor, Neferine, Dually Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in Human Neuroblastoma Cells.

Molecules 2018 Nov 28;23(12). Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Life Science and Institute of Biotechnology, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, Hualien 97401, Taiwan.

Human neuroblastoma cancer is the most typical extracranial solid tumor. Yet, new remedial treatment therapies are demanded to overcome its sluggish survival rate. Neferine, isolated from the lotus embryos, inhibits the proliferation of various cancer cells. Read More

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November 2018
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Minimally Invasive Surgery in Pediatric Surgical Oncology.

Children (Basel) 2018 Nov 26;5(12). Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

The application of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) to resect pediatric solid tumors offers the potential for reduced postoperative morbidity with smaller wounds, less pain, fewer surgical site infections, decreased blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and less disruption to treatment regimens. However, significant controversy surrounds the question of whether a high-fidelity oncologic resection of childhood cancers can be achieved through MIS. This review outlines the diverse applications of MIS to treat pediatric malignancies, up to and including definitive resection. Read More

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November 2018

Nobiletin Enhances Chemosensitivity to Adriamycin through Modulation of the Akt/GSK3β/β⁻Catenin/MYCN/MRP1 Signaling Pathway in A549 Human Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

Nutrients 2018 Nov 26;10(12). Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Subtropical/Tropical Organism Gene Bank, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea.

Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes in Adriamycin (ADR)-resistant NSCLC A549/ADR cells compared with parental A549 cells. Among the tested phytochemicals, nobiletin (NBT) is able to overcome the ADR resistance of A549/ADR cells. Read More

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November 2018

Carnosine modulates the Sp1-Slc31a1/Ctr1 copper sensing system and influences copper homeostasis in murine CNS-derived cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, University of Salento, Italy.

Carnosine (CAR) is an endogenous dipeptide physiologically present in excitable tissues, such as CNS and muscle. CAR is acknowledged as a substrate involved in many homeostatic pathways and mechanisms and, due to its biochemical properties, as a molecule intertwined with the homeostasis of heavy metals such as copper (Cu). In CNS, Cu excess and dysregulation imply oxidative stress, free-radical production and functional impairment leading to neurodegeneration. Read More

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November 2018
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MYCN is amplified during S phase, and c‑myb is involved in controlling MYCN expression and amplification in MYCN‑amplified neuroblastoma cell lines.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir 35340, Turkey.

Neuroblastoma derived from primitive sympathetic neural precursors is a common type of solid tumor in infants. MYCN proto‑oncogene bHLH transcription factor (MYCN) amplification and 1p36 deletion are important factors associated with the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Expression levels of MYCN and c‑MYB proto‑oncogene transcription factor (c‑myb) decline during the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells; E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) activates the MYCN promoter. Read More

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November 2018

Carbohydrate Targets for CAR T Cells in Solid Childhood Cancers.

Front Oncol 2018 12;8:513. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Children's Hospital Muenster, Muenster, Germany.

Application of the CAR targeting strategy in solid tumors is challenged by the need for adequate target antigens. As a consequence of their tissue origin, embryonal cancers can aberrantly express membrane-anchored gangliosides. These are carbohydrate molecules consisting of a glycosphingolipid linked to sialic acids residues. Read More

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November 2018
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