95,105 results match your criteria Neurobiology of disease[Journal]


Proteomic analysis of olfactory bulb suggests CACNA1E as a promoter of CREB signaling in microbiota-induced depression.

J Proteomics 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China; Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorders impact approximately 17% of the population worldwide, whose high morbidity and considerable adversity have resulted in enormous social and economic burden. In addition, clinically depressed patients often show reduced volume of olfactory bulb (OB) and decreased olfactory sensitivity. Although mounting evidence conveyed that the gut microbiota may implicate the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) via the microbe-gut-brain axis, knowledge about its distinctive molecular mechanism is rudimentary. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Loss of K607 and E877 interaction is a key reason for JAK2 K607N mutation caused acute myeloid leukemia.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Blood Diseases Institute, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China; Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Oncogenic activation of tyrosine kinase signaling pathway is recurrent in human leukemia. The acquired Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) K607N somatic mutation was detected in about 6.8% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
2.858 Impact Factor

5-Azido-8-ethynyl-NAADP: A bifunctional, clickable photoaffinity probe for the identification of NAADP receptors.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota Medical School, 312 Church St., Minneapolis, MN 55455-0217, United States of America. Electronic address:

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate is an evolutionarily conserved second messenger, which mobilizes Ca from acidic stores. The molecular identity of the NAADP receptor has yet to be defined. In pursuit of isolating and identifying NAADP-binding proteins, we synthesized and characterized a bifunctional probe that incorporates both a photoactivatable crosslinking azido moiety at the 5-position of the nicotinic ring and a 'clickable' ethynyl moiety to the 8-adenosyl position in NAADP. Read More

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December 2018

CNB-001, a pleiotropic drug is efficacious in embolized agyrencephalic New Zealand white rabbits and ischemic gyrencephalic cynomolgus monkeys.

Exp Neurol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Cellular Neurobiology Laboratories, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Ischemic stroke is an acute neurodegenerative disease that is extremely devastating to patients, their families and society. Stroke is inadequately treated even with endovascular procedures and reperfusion therapy. Using an extensive translational screening process, we have developed a pleiotropic cytoprotective agent with the potential to positively impact a large population of brain ischemia patients and revolutionize the process used for the development of new drugs to treat complex brain disorders. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

An Unbiased View of Neural Networks: More than Meets the Eye.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1019-1021

Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; BioX, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Neuron, Macé et al. (2018) use whole-brain functional ultrasound imaging in mice to unveil the circuits involved reflexive eye movements. They separated the sensory and motor networks and discovered that certain eye movements robustly suppress the amygdala. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Astrocytes "Chordinate" Synapse Maturation and Plasticity.

Neuron 2018 Dec;100(5):1010-1012

Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (DIBS), Durham, NC 27710, USA. Electronic address:

A key step in excitatory synapse maturation is the switch in AMPA receptor subunit composition to GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable receptors. Now, Blanco-Suarez et al. (2018) demonstrate that astrocyte-secreted chordin-like 1 drives this process, enabling synapse maturation and limiting plasticity. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Magnetic resonance imaging quantification of dehydration and rehydration in vocal fold tissue layers.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208763. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Otolaryngology, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

Clinicians commonly recommend increased hydration to patients with voice disorders. However, effects on clinical voice outcome measures have been inconsistent. Hydration-induced change within different layers of vocal fold tissue is currently unknown. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Electrophysiological Properties of Identified Oxytocin and Vasopressin Neurons.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 6:e12666. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO.

To understand the contribution of intrinsic membrane properties to the different firing patterns of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) neurons in vivo, in vitro studies are needed, where stable intracellular recordings can be made. Combining immunochemistry for OT and VP and intracellular dye injections allows characterization of identified OT and VP neurons, and several differences between the two cell types have emerged. These include a greater transient K current that delays spiking to stimulus onset, and a higher Na current density leading to greater spike amplitude and a more stable spike threshold, in VP neurons. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Challenges of Differential Placebo Effects in Contemporary Medicine: The Example of Brain Stimulation.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation and Division of Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

'Differential placebo effects' is the concept that different types of placebos (e.g. inert pill versus sham device) may yield different magnitudes of placebo effects. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia: gain-of-function mechanisms revealed by new transgenic mouse.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy.

Mutations of the SPAST gene, which encodes the microtubule-severing protein spastin, are the most common cause of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia. Haploinsufficiency is the prevalent opinion as to the mechanism of the disease, but gain-of-function toxicity of the mutant proteins is another possibility. Here, we report a new transgenic mouse (termed SPASTC448Y mouse) that is not haploinsufficient but expresses human spastin bearing the HSP pathogenic C448Y mutation. Read More

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December 2018

Mindfulness is positively related to socioeconomic job status and income and independently predicts mental distress in a long-term perspective: Danish validation studies of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire.

Psychol Assess 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Neurobiology Research Unit, The Neuroscience Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark, and Center for Integrated Molecular Brain Imaging.

The Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) measures 5 factor-analytically derived mindfulness aspects (Observe, Describe, Non-Judgment, Non-Reactivity, and Acting with Awareness) and is commonly used as an indicator of mindfulness in population surveys and studies of mindfulness-based interventions (MBI). Outside MBI, FFMQ scores are hypothesized to reflect relatively stable human dispositions of importance to psychological health. However, the long-term test-retest reliability of FFMQ scores is virtually untested and it remains unknown whether FFMQ scores predict psychological health after controlling for standardized socioeconomic status classifications. Read More

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December 2018

Solving for X: Evidence for sex-specific autism biomarkers across multiple transcriptomic studies.

Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Pattern Recognition and Data Analytics (PRaDA), Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a markedly heterogeneous condition with a varied phenotypic presentation. Its high concordance among siblings, as well as its clear association with specific genetic disorders, both point to a strong genetic etiology. However, the molecular basis of ASD is still poorly understood, although recent studies point to the existence of sex-specific ASD pathophysiologies and biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Extensive branching of radially-migrating neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas & Universidad Miguel Hernández, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Excitatory neurons of the cerebral cortex migrate radially from their place of birth to their final position in the cortical plate during development. Radially-migrating neurons display a single leading process that establishes the direction of movement. This leading process has been described as being unbranched, and the occurrence of branches proposed to impair radial migration. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Nervous system characterization during the development of a basal echinoderm, the feather star Antedon mediterranea.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Environmental Science and Policy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy.

Neural development of echinoderms has always been difficult to interpret, as larval neurons degenerate at metamorphosis and a tripartite nervous system differentiates in the adult. Despite their key phylogenetic position as basal echinoderms, crinoids have been scarcely studied in developmental research. However, since they are the only extant echinoderms retaining the ancestral body plan of the group, crinoids are extremely valuable models to clarify neural evolution in deuterostomes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Validation of the Targeted Metabolomic Pathway in the Hippocampus and Comparative Analysis with the Prefrontal Cortex of Social Defeat Model Mice.

J Neurochem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Neurology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

The proportion of major depressive disorder (MDD) patients around the world has increased remarkably. Although many studies of MDD have been conducted based on classic hypotheses, like alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis or monoamine neurotransmitters, the mechanisms underlying MDD remain unclear. Aiming to further investigate the mechanisms of MDD, liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was employed to measure target metabolites in the hippocampus (HIPPO) of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model mice. Read More

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December 2018

Structure and function of dual-source cholinergic modulation in early vision.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurobiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina.

Behavioral states such as arousal and attention have profound effects on sensory processing, determining how - even whether - a stimulus is perceived. This state-dependence is believed to arise, at least in part, in response to inputs from subcortical structures that release neuromodulators such as acetylcholine, often non-synaptically. The mechanisms that underlie the interaction between these non-synaptic signals and the more point-to-point synaptic cortical circuitry are not well understood. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Complex Dysfunction in MeCP2 Knock-Down Astrocytes: Protective Effects of Quercetin Hydrate.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Division of Neurobiology, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

Astrocytes play the central role in CNS metabolism to support neuronal functions. Mehyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is the global transcription factor with differential expression in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. MeCP2 mutation and downstream detrimental effects have been reported in astrocytes also in MeCP2-associated neurodevelopmental disorder-Rett syndrome. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Brain Networks Reorganization During Maturation and Healthy Aging-Emphases for Resilience.

Front Psychiatry 2018 21;9:601. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Neurology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Maturation and aging are important life periods that are linked to drastic brain reorganization processes which are essential for mental health. However, the development of generalized theories for delimiting physiological and pathological brain remodeling through life periods linked to healthy states and resilience on one side or mental dysfunction on the other remains a challenge. Furthermore, important processes of preservation and compensation of brain function occur continuously in the cerebral brain networks and drive physiological responses to life events. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Overuse of methylphenidate: an analysis of Swedish pharmacy dispensing data.

Clin Epidemiol 2018 9;10:1657-1665. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Unit for Social Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden,

Purpose: To identify overuse of methylphenidate and to investigate patterns of overuse in relation to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

Patients And Methods: Swedish national, pharmacy dispensing data were analyzed for all 56,922 individuals aged 6-79 years, who filled a methylphenidate prescription between 2010 and 2011. Overuse was defined as having above 150% days covered by the dispensed amount during 365 days from the first prescription fill, assuming use at the maximum recommended daily dose. Read More

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November 2018

Targeting of chondrocyte plasticity via connexin43 modulation attenuates cellular senescence and fosters a pro-regenerative environment in osteoarthritis.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Dec 5;9(12):1166. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

CellCOM research Group, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC), Servizo Galego de Saúde (SERGAS), Universidade da Coruña (UDC), Xubias de Arriba, 84, 15006 A, Coruña, Spain.

Osteoarthritis (OA), a chronic disease characterized by articular cartilage degeneration, is a leading cause of disability and pain worldwide. In OA, chondrocytes in cartilage undergo phenotypic changes and senescence, restricting cartilage regeneration and favouring disease progression. Similar to other wound-healing disorders, chondrocytes from OA patients show a chronic increase in the gap junction channel protein connexin43 (Cx43), which regulates signal transduction through the exchange of elements or recruitment/release of signalling factors. Read More

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December 2018

p73 regulates ependymal planar cell polarity by modulating actin and microtubule cytoskeleton.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Dec 5;9(12):1183. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Instituto de Biomedicina (IBIOMED) and Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad de León, Campus de Vegazana, 24071, León, Spain.

Planar cell polarity (PCP) and intercellular junctional complexes establish tissue structure and coordinated behaviors across epithelial sheets. In multiciliated ependymal cells, rotational and translational PCP coordinate cilia beating and direct cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Thus, PCP disruption results in ciliopathies and hydrocephalus. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

NR2C2-uORF targeting UCA1-miR-627-5p-NR2C2 feedback loop to regulate the malignant behaviors of glioma cells.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Dec 5;9(12):1165. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, 110004, Shenyang, China.

Accumulating evidence has highlighted the potential role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and upstream open-reading frames (uORFs) in the biological behaviors of glioblastoma. Here, we elucidated the function and possible molecular mechanisms of the effect of some ncRNAs and NR2C2-uORF on the biological behaviors of gliomas. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to profile the cell expression of lnc-UCA1 and microRNA-627-5p (miR-627-5p) in glioma tissues and cells. Read More

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December 2018

Epigenetic dysregulation of Oxtr in Tet1-deficient mice has implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

JCI Insight 2018 Dec 6;3(23). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University Program in Genetics and Genomics and.

OXTR modulates a variety of behaviors in mammals, including social memory and recognition. Genetic and epigenetic dysregulation of OXTR has been suggested to be implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While the involvement of DNA methylation is suggested, the mechanism underlying epigenetic regulation of OXTR is largely unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Pregnancy-associated cancers and birth outcomes in children: a Danish and Swedish population-based register study.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 4;8(12):e022946. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objectives: This study aims to estimate the association between pregnancy-associated maternal cancers, diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally, and birth outcomes.

Design: Population-based register study.

Setting: National registers of Denmark and Sweden. Read More

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December 2018

Brain networks' functional connectivity separates aphasic deficits in stroke.

Neurology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

From IRCCS NEUROMED (A.B.), Pozzilli, IS, Italy; Departments of Neurology (N.V.M., G.L.S., M.C.), Radiology (M.C.), Anatomy & Neurobiology (M.C.), and Bioengineering (M.C.), Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, MO; Department of Neuroscience (M.C.), University of Padua; and Padua Neuroscience Center (M.C.), Italy.

Objective: To investigate whether different language deficits are distinguished by the relative strengths of their association with the functional connectivity (FC) at rest of the language network (LN) and cingulo-opercular network (CON) after aphasic stroke.

Methods: In a group of patients with acute stroke and left-hemisphere damage, we identified 3 distinct, yet correlated, clusters of deficits including comprehension/lexical semantic, grapheme-phoneme knowledge, and verbal executive functions. We computed partial correlations in which the contributions of a behavioral cluster and network FC of no interest were statistically regressed out. Read More

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December 2018

DNA Methyltransferase 1 Controls Nephron Progenitor Cell Renewal and Differentiation.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

III. Department of Medicine,

Background: Nephron number is a major determinant of long-term renal function and cardiovascular risk. Observational studies suggest that maternal nutritional and metabolic factors during gestation contribute to the high variability of nephron endowment. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have been unclear. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Do caregiver profiles predict the use of dementia care services? Findings from the Actifcare study.

Aging Ment Health 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

a Alzheimer Centre Limburg , Maastricht , Netherlands.

Objectives: Previously developed dementia caregiver profiles defined by caregiver age and burden, have been associated with caregiver quality of life, depression and perseverance time. The current aim was to investigate whether these caregiver profiles could predict subsequent service use. In addition, non-personal (e. Read More

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December 2018

Age-dependent behavioral and biochemical characterization of single APP knock-in mouse (APP) model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Aging 2018 Nov 5;75:25-37. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Canadian Center for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Saito et al developed a novel amyloid precursor protein (APP) knock-in mouse model (APP) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) to overcome the problem of overexpression of APP in available transgenic mouse models. However, this new mouse model for AD is not fully characterized age-dependently with respect to behavioral and biochemical changes. Therefore, in the present study, we performed an age-dependent behavioral and biochemical characterization of this newly developed mouse model. Read More

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November 2018

Preliminary validation of natural depression in macaques with acute treatments of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine.

Authors:
Xunxun Chu

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Interdisciplinary Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310012, PR China; Center for Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology of the Ministry of Health of China, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China.

Non-human primates have become one of the most important model animals for the investigation of brain diseases because they share a wide-range of genetics and social similarities with human beings. Naturally-evoked depression models in macaques may offer a full spectrum of similarity to human depression states, but they require validation and corroboration of specific phenotypes to depression-associated states before they can be used in research into more effective interventions. It is reported here that depressed cynomolgus monkeys developed in the natural condition display higher levels of typical depressive-like huddling behavior than healthy monkeys. Read More

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November 2018

Brain tumor necrosis factor-α mediates anxiety-like behavior in a mouse model of severe obesity.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

INRA, Nutrition and Integrative Neurobiology, UMR 1286, 33076 Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux, Nutrition and Integrative Neurobiology, UMR 1286, 33076 Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Although the high prevalence of anxiety in obesity increasingly emerges as significant risk factor for related severe health complications, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Considering that chronic inflammation is a key component of obesity and is well known to impact brain function and emotional behavior, we hypothesized that it may similarly contribute to the development of obesity-related anxiety. This hypothesis was experimentally tested by measuring whether chronic food restriction, a procedure known to reduce inflammation, or chronic anti-inflammatory treatment with ibuprofen improved anxiety-like behavior and concomitantly decreased peripheral and/or hippocampal inflammation characterizing a model of severe obesity, the db/db mice. Read More

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November 2018

Distinct functional roles of Vps41-mediated neuroprotection in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease models of neurodegeneration.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 Dec;27(24):4176-4193

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA.

Commonalities and, in some cases, pathological overlap between neurodegenerative diseases have led to speculation that targeting of underlying mechanisms might be of potentially shared therapeutic benefit. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the formation of plaques, composed primarily of the amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ) peptide in the brain, resulting in neurodegeneration. Previously, we have shown that overexpression of the lysosomal-trafficking protein, human Vps41 (hVps41), is neuroprotective in a transgenic worm model of Parkinson's disease, wherein progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration is induced by α-synuclein overexpression. Read More

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December 2018

Prehabilitation: The Emperor's New Clothes or a New Arena for Physical Therapists?

Phys Ther 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, and Research and Development Unit for the Elderly, FOU nu, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.

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December 2018

Improving transparency and scientific rigor in academic publishing.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 2:e01141. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, UK.

Progress in basic and clinical research is slowed when researchers fail to provide a complete and accurate report of how a study was designed, executed, and the results analyzed. Publishing rigorous scientific research involves a full description of the methods, materials, procedures, and outcomes. Investigators may fail to provide a complete description of how their study was designed and executed because they may not know how to accurately report the information or the mechanisms are not in place to facilitate transparent reporting. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative analyses of genes associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Radiotherapy, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, PR China.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), characterized by irreversible scarring and progressive destruction of the lung tissue, is one of the most common types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia worldwide. However, there are no reliable candidates for curative therapies. Hence, elucidation of the mechanisms of IPF genesis and exploration of potential biomarkers and prognostic indicators are essential for accurate diagnosis and treatment of IPF. Read More

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December 2018

Improving transparency and scientific rigor in academic publishing.

J Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

John Wiley & Sons, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Progress in basic and clinical research is slowed when researchers fail to provide a complete and accurate report of how a study was designed, executed, and the results analyzed. Publishing rigorous scientific research involves a full description of the methods, materials, procedures, and outcomes. Investigators may fail to provide a complete description of how their study was designed and executed because they may not know how to accurately report the information or the mechanisms are not in place to facilitate transparent reporting. Read More

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December 2018

FRET-based imaging of intracellular ATP in organotypic brain slices.

J Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institute of Neurobiology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Active neurons require a substantial amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to re-establish ion gradients degraded by ion flux across their plasma membranes. Despite this fact, neurons, in contrast to astrocytes, do not contain any significant stores of energy substrates. Recent work has provided evidence for a neuro-metabolic coupling between both cell types, in which increased glycolysis and lactate production in astrocytes support neuronal metabolism. Read More

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December 2018

Aberrant accrual of BIN1 near Alzheimer's disease amyloid deposits in transgenic models.

Brain Pathol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurobiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

BIN1 is the most significant late-onset Alzheimer's Disease (AD) susceptibility locus identified via genome-wide association studies. BIN1 is an adaptor protein that regulates membrane dynamics in the context of endocytosis and membrane remodeling. An increase in BIN1 expression and changes in the relative levels of alternatively-spliced BIN1 isoforms have been reported in the brains of patients with AD. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Effect of DJ-1 on the neuroprotection of astrocytes subjected to cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pathology, Chongqing Medical University, Yixueyuan Road 1, 400016, Chongqing, People's Republic of China.

Astrocytes are involved in neuroprotection, and DJ-1 is an important antioxidant protein that is abundantly expressed in reactive astrocytes. However, the role of DJ-1 in astrocytes' neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury and its potential mechanism is unclear. Thus, to explore effects and mechanisms of DJ-1 on the neuroprotection of astrocytes, we used primary co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes under oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation in vitro and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in vivo to mimic ischemic reperfusion insult. Read More

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November 2018

MRI findings in liquor hypotension syndrome.

Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

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November 2018

Validation of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool to assess vocal cord motion in an animal feasibility study.

Gland Surg 2018 Oct;7(5):433-439

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Post-thyroidectomy dysphonia can result from recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury. Confirmation of postoperative recurrent nerve function has prompted many surgeons to advocate laryngoscopic examination. Indirect and flexible laryngoscopy permit visualization of vocal cord motion, but not all thyroid surgeons are skilled in these techniques. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

c-Abl Inhibition Exerts Symptomatic Antiparkinsonian Effects Through a Striatal Postsynaptic Mechanism.

Front Pharmacol 2018 16;9:1311. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Neurodegenerative Disorders Research, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by a progressive degeneration of nigral dopaminergic cells leading to striatal dopamine deficiency. From the perspective of antiparkinsonian drug mechanisms, pharmacologic treatment of PD can be divided into symptomatic and disease-modifying (neuroprotective) therapies. An increase in the level and activity of the Abelson non-receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) has been identified in both human and mouse brains under PD conditions. Read More

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November 2018

D1 receptor hypersensitivity in mice with low striatal D2 receptors facilitates select cocaine behaviors.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Laboratory on the Neurobiology of Compulsive Behaviors, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Intramural Research Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Vulnerability for cocaine abuse in humans is associated with low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in the striatum. The mechanisms driving this vulnerability are poorly understood. In this study, we found that downregulating D2R expression selectively in striatal indirect-pathway neurons triggers a multitude of changes in D1 receptors (D1R)-expressing direct-pathway neurons, which comprise the other main subpopulation of striatal projection neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Ankyrin-G regulates forebrain connectivity and network synchronization via interaction with GABARAP.

Mol Psychiatry 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

GABAergic circuits are critical for the synchronization and higher order function of brain networks. Defects in this circuitry are linked to neuropsychiatric diseases, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. Work in cultured neurons has shown that ankyrin-G plays a key role in the regulation of GABAergic synapses on the axon initial segment and somatodendritic domain of pyramidal neurons, where it interacts directly with the GABA receptor-associated protein (GABARAP) to stabilize cell surface GABA receptors. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Adipocyte OGT governs diet-induced hyperphagia and obesity.

Nat Commun 2018 Nov 30;9(1):5103. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Program in Integrative Cell Signaling and Neurobiology of Metabolism and Department of Comparative Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA.

Palatable foods (fat and sweet) induce hyperphagia, and facilitate the development of obesity. Whether and how overnutrition increases appetite through the adipose-to-brain axis is unclear. O-linked beta-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) couples nutrient cues to O-GlcNAcylation of intracellular proteins at serine/threonine residues. Read More

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November 2018

A sensorimotor pathway via higher-order thalamus.

J Neurosci 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Neurobiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 60637

We now appreciate that sensory processing in cortex occurs not only via direct communication between primary to secondary areas but also via their parallel cortico-thalamo-cortical (i.e., transthalamic) pathways. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Spatial and temporal inhibition of FGFR2b ligands reveals continuous requirements and novel targets in mouse inner ear morphogenesis.

Development 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-5330, USA

Morphogenesis of the inner ear epithelium requires coordinated deployment of several signaling pathways, and disruptions cause abnormalities of hearing and/or balance. The FGFR2b ligands, FGF3 and FGF10, are expressed throughout otic development and are required individually for normal morphogenesis, but their prior and redundant roles in otic placode induction complicates investigation of subsequent combinatorial functions in morphogenesis. To interrogate these roles and identify new effectors of FGF3 and FGF10 signaling at the earliest stages of otic morphogenesis, we used conditional gene ablation after otic placode induction, and temporal inhibition of signaling with a secreted, dominant-negative FGFR2b ectodomain. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Pre- and postoperative predictors of phantom limb pain.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Clinical and Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Heidelberg, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Phantom limb (PLP) as well as residual limb pain (RLP) are still a very significant problem after amputations and their causes are only partially known. Here we tested whether the predisposition for the frequency, duration and intensity of PLP and RLP is shared with other prior chronic pains and/or the presence of postamputation subacute pain. A week preoperatively we collected data using validated questionnaires, a pain diary and interviews on past chronic pain conditions, acute pain, depression, anxiety, pain interference, life control, social support and affective distress and pain ratings one day before the amputation in 52 patients scheduled for limb amputation. Read More

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November 2018

Animal models of congenital hypoalgesia: untapped potential for assessing pain-related plasticity.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Departamento de Biomedicina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular - IBMC, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde - i3S, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Over the last 20 years a large number of transgenic mouse models have been produced showing different degrees of congenital hypoalgesia; some of these models mimic known human conditions while others seemingly have no human counterpart. However, very little significant contributions to our understanding of pain neurobiology were obtained from this multitude of animal models; in most cases the study of these animals was limited to the characterization of its pain perception without addressing the long term consequences of their hypoalgesic condition. In this review we discuss the untapped potential that these animal models of congenital hypoalgesia hold for future studies addressing brain plasticity during permanent conditions of reduced pain perception, and that may result in important insights on the interplay between pain, emotion, and cognition. Read More

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November 2018

"Let the patient decide" - person-centered postoperative follow-up contacts, initiated via a phone app after day surgery: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Int J Surg 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division of Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institute, and Perioperative Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Patients undergoing day surgery are expected to manage their recovery on their own. Follow-up routines differ, but many patients have expressed a need for more professional support during recovery. The aim of this study was to describe how many follow-up contacts were initiated, and when and why, via a digital solution. Read More

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November 2018

Target Population for Clinical Trials on Multimorbidity: Is Disease Count Enough?

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Centro di Medicina dell'Invecchiamento, Department of Geriatrics, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma and IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico "A. Gemelli", Rome, Italy.

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November 2018