95,258 results match your criteria Neurobiology of Learning and Memory [Journal]
Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:247-269
Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.
In this chapter, we highlight the applications of electron microscopes (EMs) in nanotoxicity assessment. EMs can provide detailed information about the size and morphology of nanomaterials (NMs), their localization in cells and tissues, the nano-bio interactions, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced by NMs exposure. Here, we share with the readers how we prepare the tissue sample, and the different types of EMs used among the nanotoxicologists. Read More
Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Sociograph Marketing Science Consulting, Valladolid, Spain.
Testing cognitive hypotheses in extinct species can be challenging, but it can be done through the integration of independent sources of information (e.g., anatomy, archaeology, neurobiology, psychology), and validated with quantitative and experimental approaches. Read More
J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Biochemistry, Western University, Medical Sciences Building, Rm 342, 1151 Richmond St. North, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) facilitates multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation and cellular physiology by activating the high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB. While it is known that both BDNF and TrkB modulate cellular processes involved in learning and memory, exactly how TrkB cross-talks and modulates signaling downstream of excitatory ionotropic receptors, such as the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), are not well understood. A model that we have investigated involves the signaling molecule RasGrf1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for both Ras and Rac. Read More
Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.
Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More
Sci Adv 2018 Dec 12;4(12):eaav0618. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan.
After brain injury, neural stem cell-derived neuronal precursors (neuroblasts) in the ventricular-subventricular zone migrate toward the lesion. However, the ability of the mammalian brain to regenerate neuronal circuits for functional recovery is quite limited. Here, using a mouse model for ischemic stroke, we show that neuroblast migration is restricted by reactive astrocytes in and around the lesion. Read More
Front Neurol 2018 28;9:1027. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Molecular Genetics Laboratory UILDM, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a neuromuscular disorder which is typically transmitted by an autosomal dominant pattern, although reduced penetrance and sporadic cases caused by mutations, are often observed. FSHD may be caused by a contraction of a repetitive element, located on chromosome 4 (4q35). This locus is named and consists of 11 to more than 100 repeated units (RU). Read More
Front Neurol 2018 28;9:960. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients exhibit deficits in oculomotor behavior, yet the results are inconsistent across studies. In addition, how these results are associated with clinical symptoms is unclear, especially in China. We designed a case-control study in China including 37 PD patients and 39 controls. Read More
Front Pharmacol 2018 28;9:1393. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Institute for Mental Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Antipsychotic drugs may lead to side effects such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease. The current systematic review and network meta-analysis analyzes and provides an update on the clinical performance of these add-ons in comparison to placebo on body weight and body mass index (BMI) reductions. A comprehensive literature search was performed on electronic databases: PubMed (1946-), Embase (1974-), Cochrane library (1992-), and OpenGrey (2000-) until 31 July 2018. Read More
Front Pharmacol 2018 28;9:1369. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) were first characterized as signal transducers that elicit downstream effects through modulation of guanine (G) nucleotide-binding proteins. The pharmacotherapeutic exploitation of this signaling paradigm has created a drug-based field covering nearly 50% of the current pharmacopeia. Since the groundbreaking discoveries of the late 1990s to the present day, it is now clear however that GPCRs can also generate productive signaling cascades through the modulation of β-arrestin functionality. Read More
Front Neural Circuits 2018 27;12:103. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.
The central complex (CX) is a midline-situated collection of neuropil compartments in the arthropod central brain, implicated in higher-order processes such as goal-directed navigation. Here, we provide a systematic genetic-neuroanatomical analysis of the ellipsoid body (EB), a compartment which represents a major afferent portal of the CX. The neuropil volume of the EB, along with its prominent input compartment, called the bulb, is subdivided into precisely tessellated domains, distinguishable based on intensity of the global marker DN-cadherin. Read More
J Exp Neurosci 2018 2;12:1179069518816088. Epub 2018 Dec 2.
Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA.
The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Read More
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Division of Clinical Neurosciences (N.K., J.O.R.), Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
Background And Purpose: The relationship between brain β-amyloid and regional atrophy is still incompletely understood in elderly individuals at risk of dementia. Here, we studied the associations between brain β-amyloid load and regional GM and WM volumes in older adults who were clinically evaluated as being at increased risk of cognitive decline based on cardiovascular risk factors.
Materials And Methods: Forty subjects (63-81 years of age) were recruited as part of a larger study, the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability. Read More
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Physiology and Shanghai Pudong New Area Mental Health Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:
Gut-derived 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is well known for its role in mediating colonic motility function. However, it is not very clear whether brain-derived 5-HT is involved in the regulation of colonic motility. In this study, we used central 5-HT knockout (KO) mice to investigate whether brain-derived 5-HT mediates colonic motility, and if so, whether it involves oxytocin (OT) production in the hypothalamus and OT receptor in the colon. Read More
BMC Evol Biol 2018 Dec 13;18(1):190. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, 10024, USA.
Background: In comparative neurobiology, major transitions in behavior are thought to be associated with proportional size changes in brain regions. Bird-line theropod dinosaurs underwent a drastic locomotory shift from terrestrial to volant forms, accompanied by a suite of well-documented postcranial adaptations. To elucidate the potential impact of this locomotor shift on neuroanatomy, we first tested for a correlation between loss of flight in extant birds and whether the brain morphology of these birds resembles that of their flightless, non-avian dinosaurian ancestors. Read More
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Korea.
Objectives: Factors predictive of the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy remain unclear. This study evaluated the association between neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and the severity of and recovery from Bell's palsy.
Methods: This retrospective study included 51 patients who were hospitalized with Bell's palsy from 2015 to 2017. Read More
Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 10;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Genomic and Post-Genomic Center, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
In the last decade, the advances made into the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) led to great improvements towards their use as models of diseases. In particular, in the field of neurodegenerative diseases, iPSCs technology allowed to culture in vitro all types of patient-specific neural cells, facilitating not only the investigation of diseases' etiopathology, but also the testing of new drugs and cell therapies, leading to the innovative concept of personalized medicine. Moreover, iPSCs can be differentiated and organized into 3D organoids, providing a tool which mimics the complexity of the brain's architecture. Read More
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e12959
Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University.
Background: The blood-brain barrier is impaired in patients with stroke. The release of protein markers such as Sirtuin1 (SIRTl) into circulation may be useful to assess the prognosis of patients with cerebrovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the predictive value of SIRT1 levels in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. Read More
Gigascience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
School of Electrical Engineering, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
Background: Monitoring the activity and morphology of Neuron-astrocyte networks in culture is powerful tool for studying dynamics, structure and communication in neuron-astrocyte networks independently or as a model of sub-brain network. These cultures are known to produce stereotypical patterns of activity e.g. Read More
Eur J Med Chem 2018 Nov 19;162:810-824. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 833 South Wood Street, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. Electronic address:
Pregnanolone and allopregnanolone-type ligands exert general anesthetic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects due to their positive modulatory interactions with the GABA receptors in the brain. Binding sites for these neurosteroids have been recently identified at subunit interfaces in the transmembrane domain (TMD) of homomeric β3 GABA receptors using photoaffinity labeling techniques, and in homomeric chimeric receptors containing GABA receptor α subunit TMDs by crystallography. Steroid binding sites have yet to be determined in human, heteromeric, functionally reconstituted, full-length, glycosylated GABA receptors. Read More
Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, Italy. Electronic address:
Understanding the mechanisms underlying conditioned avoidance is a critical step toward the development of novel treatments of anxiety. In this context, the two-way active avoidance (2WAA) task is a validated paradigm to investigate uncontrolled avoidance, a hallmark of anxiety disorders. The outbred Roman high- (RHA) and low-avoidance (RLA) rat lines are selected for respectively rapid vs. Read More
Gen Comp Endocrinol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States; Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, United States.
Ecdysis triggering hormone receptors (ETHR) regulate the behavioral sequence necessary for cuticle shedding. Recent reports have documented functions for ETHR signaling in adult Drosophila melanogaster. In this study, we report that ETHR silencing in local interneurons of the antennal lobes and fruitless neurons leads to sharply increased rates of male-male courtship. Read More
J Neurotrauma 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
University of Eastern Finalnd , Neulaniementie 2 , Kuopio, Finland , 70211 ;
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces seizures or status epilepticus (SE) in 20%-30% of patients during the acute phase. We hypothesized that severe TBI induced with lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI) triggers post-impact SE. Adult Sprague-Dawley male rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and randomized into sham-operated experimental control or lateral FPI-induced severe TBI groups. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 15;16(6):4951-4958. Epub 2018 Oct 15.
Key Laboratory of Acupuncture Clinical Neurobiology (Encephalopathy), Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150040, P.R. China.
β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation and tau hyperphosphorylation are considered to be the primary pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Targeted inhibition of these pathological processes may provide effective treatments for AD. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that ellagic acid (EA) exerts neuroprotective effects in several diseases. Read More
Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 5;16(6):4927-4942. Epub 2018 Oct 5.
Institute of Neurobiology, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of local hypothermia (beginning 30 min post-injury persisting for 5 h) on tissue preservation along the rostro-caudal axis of the spinal cord (3 cm cranially and caudally from the lesion site), and the prevention of injury-induced functional loss in a newly developed computer-controlled compression model in minipig (force of impact 18N at L3 level), which mimics severe spinal cord injury (SCI). Minipigs underwent SCI with two post-injury modifications (durotomy vs. intact dura mater) followed by hypothermia through a perfusion chamber with cold (epidural t≈15°C) saline, DMEM/F12 or enriched DMEM/F12 (SCI/durotomy group) and with room temperature (t≈24°C) saline (SCI-only group). Read More
Front Genet 2018 27;9:583. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Psychiatry, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.
Studies suggest that a functional polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polymorphism affects cognitive functions, however, the effect is unclear in bipolar II (BD-II) disorder. We used the Wechsler Memory Scale-third edition (WMS-III), the presence of the polymorphism, and plasma concentrations of BDNF to investigate the association between memory impairment and BDNF in BD-II disorder. We assessed the memory functions of 228 BD-II patients and 135 healthy controls (HCs). Read More
Front Neurol 2018 27;9:1012. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
To facilitate individualized assessment of unresponsive patients in the intensive care unit for signs of preserved consciousness after acute brain injury. Physicians and neuroscientists are increasingly recognizing a disturbing dilemma: Brain-injured patients who appear entirely unresponsive at the bedside may show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional MRI (fMRI) or electroencephalography (EEG). According to a recent meta-analysis, roughly 15% of behaviorally unresponsive brain-injured patients can participate in mental tasks by modifying their brain activity during EEG- or fMRI-based paradigms, suggesting that they are conscious and misdiagnosed. Read More
Front Synaptic Neurosci 2018 27;10:45. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Functional and Systems Neurobiology, Instituto Cajal (IC), CSIC, Madrid, Spain.
Research on glial cells over the past 30 years has confirmed the critical role of astrocytes in pathophysiological brain states. However, most of our knowledge about astrocyte physiology and of the interactions between astrocytes and neurons is based on the premises that astrocytes constitute a homogeneous cell type, without considering the particular properties of the circuits or brain nuclei in which the astrocytes are located. Therefore, we argue that more-sophisticated experiments are required to elucidate the specific features of astrocytes in different brain regions, and even within different layers of a particular circuit. Read More
Front Cell Neurosci 2018 27;12:431. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Animal Physiology Group, Department of Biology, University of Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in different brain regions form panglial networks and the topography of such networks can correlate with neuronal topography and function. Astrocyte-oligodendrocyte networks in the lateral superior olive (LSO)-an auditory brainstem nucleus-were found to be anisotropic with a preferred orientation orthogonally to the tonotopic axis. We hypothesized that such a specialization might be present in other tonotopically organized brainstem nuclei, too. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Eye Institute, Eye & ENT Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.
Serotonin receptor agonists are neuroprotective in central nervous system (CNS) injury models. However, the neuroprotective functional implications and synaptic mechanism of 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A) agonist, in an adult male Wistar rat model of chronic glaucoma model remain unknown. We found that ocular hypertension decreased 5-HT1A receptor expression in rat retinas, as the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was significantly reduced in rats with induced ocular hypertension relative to that in control retinas, and 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the RGC viability. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Ernest J. Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester NY 14642 USA
Attention is a critical component of visual perception, however the mechanisms of attention at the granular level are poorly understood. One possible mechanism by which attention modulates neuronal activity is to control the efficacy of communication between connected neurons, however it is unclear whether attention alters communication efficacy across a variety of neuronal circuits. In parallel, attentional modulation of neuronal firing rate is not uniform, but depends upon the match between neuronal feature selectivity and the feature required for successful task completion. Read More
J Exp Med 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Neuroscience Institute, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.
Glial cells serve as fundamental regulators of the central nervous system in development, homeostasis, and disease. Discoveries into the function of these cells have fueled excitement in glial research, with enthusiastic researchers addressing fundamental questions about glial biology and producing new scientific tools for the community. Here, we outline the pros and cons of in vivo and in vitro techniques to study astrocytes and microglia with the goal of helping researchers quickly identify the best approach for a given research question in the context of glial biology. Read More
Neurology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
From the Epilepsy Research Centre (D.R.M.V., B.J.S., R.B., M.F.B., S.F.B., M.S.H., I.E.S.), Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Australia; Departments of Genetics (D.R.M.V., C.M.A.v.R.-A.) and Neurology (D.R.M.V.), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands; Pediatric Neurology Unit and Laboratories (D.M., M.M.) and Pediatric Neurology (R.G.), Neurogenetics and Neurobiology Unit and Laboratories, A. Meyer Children's Hospital, University of Florence, Italy; Department of Pediatrics and Pediatric Epilepsy Centre (H.X., W.X.W., Y.J.), Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China; Department of Pediatrics (C.T.M., H.C.M.), Division of Genetic Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle; Population Health and Immunity Division (M.F.B.), Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medical Biology (M.F.B.), University of Melbourne, Australia; Caulfield (D.W.), Melbourne, Australia; Department of Clinical Genetics (S.M.M.), Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Genetics (A.S.B., G.M.S.M., I.M.B.H.v.d.L.), Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Genetics (J.M.v.H.), VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Tasmanian Health Service (T.L.W.), Women's and Children's Services, Launceston General Hospital, Tasmania, Australia; TY Nelson Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.I.W.) and Institute of Neuroscience and Muscle Research (R.I.W.), Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Department of Neurosciences (S.M.), Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; Department of Anatomical Pathology (R.M.K.), Austin Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation (F.S., R.G.), Pisa, Italy; Klinikum Oldenburg (G.C.K.), Zentrum für Kinder-und Jugendmedizin, Klinik für Neuropädiatrie u.angeborene Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Germany; Centre of Epilepsy (Y.J.), Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, China; Department of Paediatrics (I.E.S.), University of Melbourne, Royal Children's Hospital, Australia; and Florey Institute of Neurosciences and Mental Health (I.E.S.), Australia.
Objective: To delineate the epileptology, a key part of the phenotypic spectrum, in a large patient cohort.
Methods: Patients were recruited via investigators' practices or social media. We included patients with (likely) pathogenic variants or chromosome 6p21. Read More
J Am Med Dir Assoc 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.
INSERM-University of Toulouse UMR1027, Toulouse, France; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France.
Objectives: To explore older adults' reasons for participating in a multinational eHealth prevention trial, and compare motivations between countries.
Design: Cross-sectional mixed methods research using quantitative and qualitative approaches (the ACCEPT-HATICE study).
Setting And Participants: Substudy conducted during the recruitment phase of an 18-month RCT testing the efficacy of an eHealth intervention for self-management of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline in older adults in Finland, France, and the Netherlands. Read More
Neural Dev 2018 Dec 12;13(1):27. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 511 S. Floyd St, Louisville, KY, 40292, USA.
Background: The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the mouse has become a model system for understanding thalamic circuit assembly. While the development of retinal projections to dLGN has been a topic of extensive inquiry, how and when nonretinal projections innervate this nucleus remains largely unexplored. In this study, we examined the development of a major nonretinal projection to dLGN, the ascending input arising from cholinergic neurons of the brainstem. Read More
J Neurodev Disord 2018 Dec 13;10(1):37. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, One Magnolia Circle, Nashville, TN, USA.
Background: There is a substantial literature on the neurobiology of reading and dyslexia. Differences are often described in terms of individual regions or individual cognitive processes. However, there is a growing appreciation that the brain areas subserving reading are nested within larger functional systems, and new network analysis methods may provide greater insight into how reading difficulty arises. Read More
BMC Obes 2018 3;5:31. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
1Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center, Little Rock, AR USA.
Background: Understanding how normal weight and obese young children process high-calorie food stimuli may provide information relevant to the neurobiology of eating behavior contributing to childhood obesity. In this study, we used fMRI to evaluate whether brain activation to high-calorie food images differs between normal weight and obese young children.
Methods: Brain activation maps in response to high-calorie food images and non-food images for 22 healthy, 8-10-years-old children ( = 11/11 for normal weight/obese respectively) were generated and compared between groups. Read More
Front Genet 2018 22;9:565. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Psychiatry, Mental Diseases Prevention and Treatment Institute of PLA, PLA 91st Central Hospital, Jiaozuo, China.
Numerous genetic risk loci are found to associate with major neuropsychiatric disorders represented by schizophrenia. The pathogenic roles of genetic risk loci in psychiatric diseases are further complicated by the association with cell lineage- and/or developmental stage-specific epigenetic alterations. Besides aberrant assembly and malfunction of neuronal circuitry, an increasing volume of discoveries clearly demonstrate impairment of oligodendroglia and disruption of white matter integrity in psychiatric diseases. Read More
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 22;9:685. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Laboratory of Endocrine Neurobiology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons provide neuronal input to the preoptic area (POA) and the arcuate nucleus (Arc), two regions involved critically in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and associated behaviors. These areas contain tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons, which play location-specific roles in the neuroendocrine control of both the luteinizing hormone and prolactin secretion, as well as, sexually motivated behaviors. Concerning changes in the activity of GnRH neurons and the secretion pattern of GnRH seen under the influence of rising serum estrogen levels and during lactation, we tested the hypothesis that the functional state of GnRH neurons is mediated via direct synaptic connections to TH-IR neurons in the POA and Arc. Read More
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 13;9:663. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
Insulin acts in the brain to limit food intake and improve memory function. We have previously shown that 8 weeks of intranasal insulin delivered in four daily doses of 40 IU decrease body weight and enhance word list recall. In the present study, we investigated the effect on body composition, endocrine parameters, and memory performance of 8 weeks of once-daily administration of 160 IU in healthy men. Read More
Front Synaptic Neurosci 2018 6;10:40. Epub 2018 Nov 6.
Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Université Paris Paris, France.
The corelease of several neurotransmitters from a single synaptic vesicle has been observed at many central synapses. Nevertheless, the signaling synergy offered by cotransmission and the mechanisms that maintain the optimal release and detection of neurotransmitters at mixed synapses remain poorly understood, thus limiting our ability to interpret changes in synaptic signaling and identify molecules important for plasticity. In the brainstem and spinal cord, GABA and glycine cotransmission is facilitated by a shared vesicular transporter VIAAT (also named VGAT), and occurs at many immature inhibitory synapses. Read More
Front Neural Circuits 2018 22;12:100. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Morphological Brain Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
The superior colliculus (SC) is an essential structure for the control of eye movements. In rodents, the SC is also considered to play an important role in whisking behavior, in which animals actively move their vibrissae (mechanosensors) to gather tactile information about the space around them during exploration. We investigated how the SC contributes to vibrissal movement control. Read More
Front Cell Neurosci 2018 22;12:456. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Key Laboratory of Primate Neurobiology, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
Detection of the state of self-motion, such as the instantaneous heading direction, the traveled trajectory and traveled distance or time, is critical for efficient spatial navigation. Numerous psychophysical studies have indicated that the vestibular system, originating from the otolith and semicircular canals in our inner ears, provides robust signals for different aspects of self-motion perception. In addition, vestibular signals interact with other sensory signals such as visual optic flow to facilitate natural navigation. Read More
Front Cell Neurosci 2018 22;12:455. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Basic Medicine, Institute of Neurosciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.
Adult neurogenesis is present in the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone in mammalian brain under physiological conditions. Recently, adult neurogenesis has also been reported in other brain regions after brain injury. In this study, we established a focal striatal ischemic model in adult mice via photothrombosis (PT) and investigated how focal ischemia elicits neurogenesis in the striatum. Read More
Front Cell Neurosci 2018 22;12:438. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Epilepsy Research, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, South Korea.
Redox modulation and -nitrosylation of cysteine residues are the post-translational modifications of -methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) to regulate its functionality. Recently, we have reported that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) reduces disulfide bond (S-S) to free thiol (-SH) on NMDAR. Since PDI is a modulator of -nitrosylation on various proteins, it is noteworthy whether PDI affects -nitrosylation of NMDAR in acute seizure and chronic epilepsy models. Read More
Front Cell Neurosci 2018 22;12:409. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
MTA-PTE NAP 2 Retinal Electrical Synapses Research Group, Pécs, Hungary.
Connexin36 (Cx36) subunits form gap junctions (GJ) between neurons throughout the central nervous system. Such GJs of the mammalian retina serve the transmission, averaging and correlation of signals prior to conveying visual information to the brain. Retinal GJs have been exhaustively studied in various animal species, however, there is still a perplexing paucity of information regarding the presence and function of human retinal GJs. Read More
Front Neurosci 2018 22;12:837. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.
In the neocortex, communication between neurons is heavily influenced by the activity of the surrounding network, with communication efficacy increasing when population patterns are oscillatory and coherent. Less is known about whether coherent oscillations are essential for conveyance of thalamic input to the neocortex in awake animals. Here we investigated whether visual-evoked oscillations and spikes in the primary visual cortex (V1) were aligned with those in the visual thalamus (dLGN). Read More
Front Neurosci 2018 19;12:815. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
The functional neuroanatomical mechanisms underpinning cognition in the normal older brain remain poorly defined, but have important implications for understanding the neurobiology of aging and the impact of neurodegenerative diseases. Auditory processing is an attractive model system for addressing these issues. Here, we used fMRI of melody processing to investigate auditory pattern processing in normal older individuals. Read More
Dev Cell 2018 Dec 25;47(5):576-591.e8. Epub 2018 Oct 25.
Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. Electronic address:
The Hippo pathway controls the activity of YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators through a kinase cascade. Despite the critical role of this pathway in tissue growth and tumorigenesis, it remains unclear how YAP/TAZ-mediated transcription drives proliferation. By analyzing the effects of inactivating LATS1/2 kinases, the direct upstream inhibitors of YAP/TAZ, on mouse brain development and applying cell-number-normalized transcriptome analyses, we discovered that YAP/TAZ activation causes a global increase in transcription activity, known as hypertranscription, and upregulates many genes associated with cell growth and proliferation. Read More