16,325 results match your criteria NeuroImage[Journal]


Freely chosen and instructed actions are terminated by different neural mechanisms revealed by kinematics-informed EEG.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Cognitive Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3), Research Centre Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany; Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, 50924, Cologne, Germany.

Neurophysiological accounts of human volition are dominated by debates on the origin of voluntary choices but the neural consequences that follow such choices remain poorly understood. For instance, could one predict whether or not an action was chosen voluntarily based only on how that action is motorically executed? We investigated this possibility by integrating scalp electroencephalograms and index-finger accelerometer recordings acquired while people chose between pressing a left or right button either freely or as instructed by a visual cue. Even though freely selected and instructed actions were executed with equal vigor, the timing of the movement to release the button was comparatively delayed for freely selected actions. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Visual stimulus-driven functional organization of macaque prefrontal cortex.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, 20892, Bethesda, United States. Electronic address:

The extent to which the major subdivisions of prefrontal cortex (PFC) can be functionally partitioned is unclear. In approaching the question, it is often assumed that the organization is task dependent. Here we use fMRI to show that PFC can respond in a task-independent way, and we leverage these responses to uncover a stimulus-driven functional organization. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Adaptive task difficulty influences neural plasticity and transfer of training.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center for Neuroscience, University of California at Davis, 1544 Newton Court, Davis, CA, 95618, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

The efficacy of cognitive training is controversial, and research progress in the field requires an understanding of factors that promote transfer of training gains and their relationship to changes in brain activity. One such factor may be adaptive task difficulty, as adaptivity is predicted to facilitate more efficient processing by creating a prolonged mismatch between the supply of, and the demand upon, neural resources. To test this hypothesis, we measured behavioral and neural plasticity in fMRI sessions before and after 10 sessions of working memory updating (WMU) training, in which the difficulty of practiced tasks either adaptively increased in response to performance or was fixed. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Dynamic functional connectivity during task performance and rest predicts individual differences in attention across studies.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychology, Yale University, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Yale School of Medicine, USA; Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University, USA.

Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) aims to maximize resolvable information from functional brain scans by considering temporal changes in network structure. Recent work has demonstrated that static, i.e. Read More

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December 2018

Development of population receptive fields in the lateral visual stream improves spatial coding amid stable structural-functional coupling.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Psychology Department, Stanford University, CA, 94305, USA; Stanford Neurosciences Institute, Stanford University, CA, 94305, USA.

Human visual cortex encompasses more than a dozen visual field maps across three major processing streams. One of these streams is the lateral visual stream, which extends from V1 to lateral-occipital (LO) and temporal-occipital (TO) visual field maps and plays a prominent role in shape as well as motion perception. However, it is unknown if and how population receptive fields (pRFs) in the lateral visual stream develop from childhood to adulthood, and what impact this development may have on spatial coding. Read More

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November 2018

Sex differences in network controllability as a predictor of executive function in youth.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Physics & Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA; Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Executive function is a quintessential human capacity that emerges late in development and displays different developmental trends in males and females. Sex differences in executive function in youth have been linked to vulnerability to psychopathology as well as to behaviors that impinge on health, wellbeing, and longevity. Yet, the neurobiological basis of these differences is not well understood, in part due to the spatiotemporal complexity inherent in patterns of brain network maturation supporting executive function. Read More

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November 2018

Prediction error connectivity: A new method for EEG state analysis.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Epilepsy Unit - Neurology Dept. Hospital del Mar - Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain; IMIM - Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute, Barcelona, Spain.

Several models have been proposed to explain brain regional and interregional communication, the majority of them using methods that tap the frequency domain, like spectral coherence. Considering brain interareal communication as binary interactions, we describe a novel method devised to predict dynamics and thus highlight abrupt changes marked by unpredictability. Based on a variable-order Markov model algorithm developed in-house for data compression, the prediction error connectivity (PEC) estimates network transitions by calculating error matrices (EMs). Read More

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November 2018

Neural substrates of cognitive reserve in Alzheimer's disease spectrum and normal aging.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; KI for Health Science and Technology, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea; Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) originated from discrepancies between the degree of brain pathology and the severity of clinical manifestations. CR has been characterized through CR proxies, such as education and occupation complexity; however, such approaches have inherent limitations. Although several methods have been developed to overcome these limitations, they fail to reflect the entire Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Read More

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November 2018

The cerebral bases of the bouba-kiki effect.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, ICM, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Université, F-75013, Paris, France; Département de Neurologie 1, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, AP-HP, F-75013, Paris, France. Electronic address:

The crossmodal correspondence between some speech sounds and some geometrical shapes, known as the bouba-kiki (BK) effect, constitutes a remarkable exception to the general arbitrariness of the links between word meaning and word sounds. We have analyzed the association of shapes and sounds in order to determine whether it occurs at a perceptual or at a decisional level, and whether it takes place in sensory cortices or in supramodal regions. First, using an Implicit Association Test (IAT), we have shown that the BK effect may occur without participants making any explicit decision relative to sound-shape associations. Read More

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November 2018

Contributions of a high-fat diet to Alzheimer's disease-related decline: A longitudinal behavioural and structural neuroimaging study in mouse models.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Computational Brain Anatomy Laboratory, Cerebral Imaging Centre, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, Quebec H4H 1R3, Canada; Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada; Department of Biological and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2B4, Canada. Electronic address:

Obesity is recognized as a significant risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies have supported that obesity accelerates AD-related pathophysiology and memory impairment in mouse models of AD. However, the nature of the brain structure-behaviour relationship mediating this acceleration remains unclear. Read More

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November 2018

Multi-echo fMRI, resting-state connectivity, and high psychometric schizotypy.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK; Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK. Electronic address:

Disrupted striatal functional connectivity is proposed to play a critical role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies typically reported disrupted striatal connectivity in patients with psychosis and in individuals at clinical and genetic high risk of the disorder relative to healthy controls. This has not been widely studied in healthy individuals with subclinical psychotic-like experiences (schizotypy). Read More

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November 2018

Evaluation of a dual signal subspace projection algorithm in magnetoencephalographic recordings from patients with intractable epilepsy and vagus nerve stimulators.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0628, USA; Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0628, USA. Electronic address:

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is subject to many sources of environmental noise, and interference rejection is a necessary step in the processing of MEG data. Large amplitude interference caused by sources near the brain have been both common in clinical settings and difficult to reject. Artifacts from vagal nerve stimulators (VNS) are a common and difficult example. Read More

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November 2018
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Reduced white matter fractional anisotropy mediates cortical thickening in adults born preterm with very low birthweight.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway; Department of Pediatrics, Sørlandet Hospital, Arendal, Norway.

Development of the cerebral cortex may be affected by aberrant white matter development. Preterm birth with very low birth weight (VLBW) has been associated with reduced fractional anisotropy of white matter and changes in cortical thickness and surface area. We use a new methodological approach to combine white and gray matter data and test the hypothesis that white matter injury is primary, and acts as a mediating factor for concomitant gray matter aberrations, in the developing VLBW brain. Read More

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November 2018

Analyzing the waveshape of brain oscillations with bicoherence.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Neurophysiology and Pathophysiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Oscillations are characteristic features of brain activity and have traditionally been categorized into frequency bands. Despite this categorization, brain oscillations have non-sinusoidal waveshape features, which have recently been discussed for their potential to mislead cross-frequency coupling measures. Waveshape characteristics deserve attention in their own right, as they are a direct reflection of the underlying neurophysiology and have shown to be altered in conditions such as Parkinson's disease. Read More

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November 2018

QuickNAT: A fully convolutional network for quick and accurate segmentation of neuroanatomy.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Artificial Intelligence in Medical Imaging (AI-Med), Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, LMU, München, Germany.

Whole brain segmentation from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prerequisite for most morphological analyses, but is computationally intense and can therefore delay the availability of image markers after scan acquisition. We introduce QuickNAT, a fully convolutional, densely connected neural network that segments a MRI brain scan in 20 s. To enable training of the complex network with millions of learnable parameters using limited annotated data, we propose to first pre-train on auxiliary labels created from existing segmentation software. Read More

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November 2018

Spatially informed voxelwise modeling for naturalistic fMRI experiments.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Ankara, TR, 06800, Turkey; Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara, TR, 06800, Turkey. Electronic address:

Voxelwise modeling (VM) is a powerful framework to predict single voxel responses evoked by a rich set of stimulus features present in complex natural stimuli. However, because VM disregards correlations across neighboring voxels, its sensitivity in detecting functional selectivity can be diminished in the presence of high levels of measurement noise. Here, we introduce spatially-informed voxelwise modeling (SPIN-VM) to take advantage of response correlations in spatial neighborhoods of voxels. Read More

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November 2018

Open-field PET: Simultaneous brain functional imaging and behavioural response measurements in freely moving small animals.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Imaging Physics Laboratory, Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia; Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

A comprehensive understanding of how the brain responds to a changing environment requires techniques capable of recording functional outputs at the whole-brain level in response to external stimuli. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an exquisitely sensitive technique for imaging brain function but the need for anaesthesia to avoid motion artefacts precludes concurrent behavioural response studies. Here, we report a technique that combines motion-compensated PET with a robotically-controlled animal enclosure to enable simultaneous brain imaging and behavioural recordings in unrestrained small animals. Read More

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November 2018

Personalized pathology maps to quantify diffuse and focal brain damage.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

MGH/MIT/HMS Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States; Neurologic Clinic and Policlinic, Departments of Medicine, Clinical Research and Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Translational Imaging in Neurology (ThINk) Basel, Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background And Objectives: Quantitative MRI (qMRI) permits the quantification of brain changes compatible with inflammation, degeneration and repair in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In this study, we propose a new method to provide personalized maps of tissue alterations and longitudinal brain changes based on different qMRI metrics, which provide complementary information about brain pathology.

Methods: We performed baseline and two-years follow-up on (i) 13 relapsing-remitting MS patients and (ii) four healthy controls. Read More

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November 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of neurofibrillary tangles and synaptic dysfunction are associated with longitudinal decline in white matter connectivity: A multi-resolution graph analysis.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA; Department of Computer Science, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

In addition to the development of beta amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the loss of connecting structures including degeneration of myelinated axons and synaptic connections. However, the extent to which white matter tracts change longitudinally, particularly in the asymptomatic, preclinical stage of AD, remains poorly characterized. In this study we used a novel graph wavelet algorithm to determine the extent to which microstructural brain changes evolve in concert with the development of AD neuropathology as observed using CSF biomarkers. Read More

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October 2018

Predicting conversion from clinically isolated syndrome to multiple sclerosis-An imaging-based machine learning approach.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675 Munich, Germany. Electronic address:

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans play a pivotal role in the evaluation of patients presenting with a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), as these may depict brain lesions suggestive of an inflammatory cause. We hypothesized that it is possible to predict the conversion from CIS to multiple sclerosis (MS) based on the baseline MRI scan by studying image features of these lesions. We analyzed 84 patients diagnosed with CIS from a prospective observational single center cohort. Read More

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November 2018

Power and temporal dynamics of alpha oscillations at rest differentiate cognitive performance involving sustained and phasic cognitive control.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 2. Epub 2018 Dec 2.

Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; Center for Cognition and Decision Making, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation. Electronic address:

Resting state neuronal activity in EEG/MEG recordings is primarily characterized by the presence of alpha oscillations (approx. 8-12 Hz). However, their functional significance and link to cognitive task performance remains elusive. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

FDG-PET hypometabolism is more sensitive than MRI atrophy in Parkinson's disease: A whole-brain multimodal imaging meta-analysis.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 15. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany; Clinic of Cognitive Neurology, University of Leipzig & FTLD Consortium Germany, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Recently, revised diagnostic criteria for Parkinson's disease (PD) were introduced (Postuma et al., 2015). Yet, except for well-established dopaminergic imaging, validated imaging biomarkers for PD are still missing, though they could improve diagnostic accuracy. Read More

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November 2018

Manipulating and decoding subjective gaming experience during active gameplay: a multivariate, whole-brain analysis.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

A large number of perceptual and cognitive processes are instantiated during active gameplay, culminating in what is termed the overall "gaming experience", which encapsulates multiple, subjective dimensions of how one feels about the game. Although some research has been conducted into the neural mechanisms underlying the gaming experience, previous studies so far have relied on commercial games that provide little control over key aspects of gameplay and also have focused only on a few individual dimensions of the gaming experience. Here, we used a custom-made, immersive driving car game in four different gameplay versions (baseline, obstacle increase, goal decrease, speed increase) to assess and modulate the subjective gameplay experience while participants underwent a fMRI scan. Read More

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December 2018

Hemodynamic and neuronal responses to cocaine differ in awake versus anesthetized animals: Optical brain imaging study.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA. Electronic address:

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Functional connectivity changes associated with fMRI neurofeedback of right inferior frontal cortex in adolescents with ADHD.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Neuroimaging, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, UK.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor self-control, underpinned by inferior fronto-striatal deficits. We showed previously that 18 ADHD adolescents over 11 runs of 8.5 min of real-time functional magnetic resonance neurofeedback of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) progressively increased activation in 2 regions of the rIFC which was associated with clinical symptom improvement. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Fitness, cortical thickness and surface area in overweight/obese children: The mediating role of body composition and relationship with intelligence.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

PROFITH "PROmoting FITness and Health through Physical Activity" Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.

Cortical thickness and surface area are thought to be genetically unrelated and shaped by independent neurobiological events suggesting that they should be considered separately in morphometric analyses. Although the developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area may differ across brain regions and ages, there is no consensus regarding the relationships of physical fitness with cortical thickness and surface area as well as for its subsequent influence on intelligence. Thus, this study examine: (i) the associations of physical fitness components (i. Read More

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November 2018

Accuracy and reliability of [11C]PBR28 specific binding estimated without the use of a reference region.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, SE-171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.

[11C]PBR28 is a positron emission tomography radioligand used to estimate the expression of 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO). TSPO is expressed on glial cells and can function as a marker for immune activation. Since TSPO is expressed throughout the brain, no true reference region exists. Read More

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November 2018

Hierarchy of speech-driven spectrotemporal receptive fields in human auditory cortex.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 28;186:647-666. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Depts. of Cognitive Sciences and Language Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Existing data indicate that cortical speech processing is hierarchically organized. Numerous studies have shown that early auditory areas encode fine acoustic details while later areas encode abstracted speech patterns. However, it remains unclear precisely what speech information is encoded across these hierarchical levels. Read More

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November 2018

Combining resting state functional MRI with intraoperative cortical stimulation to map the mentalizing network.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 27;186:628-636. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gui de Chauliac Hospital, 80 avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295, France; National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), U1051, Team "Plasticity of the Central Nervous System, Human Stem Cells and Glial Tumors", Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier, France; University of Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To infer the face-based mentalizing network from resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) using a seed-based correlation analysis with regions of interest identified during intraoperative cortical electrostimulation.

Methods: We retrospectively included 23 patients in whom cortical electrostimulation induced transient face-based mentalizing impairment during 'awake' craniotomy for resection of a right-sided diffuse low-grade glioma. Positive stimulation sites were recorded and transferred to the patients' preoperative normalized MRI, and then used as seeds for subsequent seed-to-voxel functional connectivity analyses. Read More

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November 2018

Automated detection of imaging features of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus using machine learning methods.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN, USA.

Objective: Create an automated classifier for imaging characteristics of disproportionately enlarged subarachnoid space hydrocephalus (DESH), a neuroimaging phenotype of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH).

Methods: 1597 patients from the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) were reviewed for imaging characteristics of DESH. One core feature of DESH, the presence of tightened sulci in the high-convexities (THC), was used as a surrogate for the presence of DESH as the expert clinician-defined criterion on which the classifier was trained. Read More

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November 2018

Anatomical and functional abnormalities on MRI in kabuki syndrome.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Service de radiologie pédiatrique, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, INSERM U1000, AP-HP, Université René Descartes, Pres Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut Imagine, UMR 1163, France.

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare congenital disorder (1/32000 births) characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, short stature, and dermatoglyphic and skeletal abnormalities. In the last decade, mutations in KMT2D and KDM6A were identified as a major cause of kabuki syndrome. Although genetic abnormalities have been highlighted in KS, brain abnormalities have been little explored. Read More

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November 2018

Fully automated tissue segmentation of the prescription isodose region delineated through the Gamma knife plan for cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) using fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a common treatment for cerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs), particularly in cases where the malformation is deep-seated, large, or in eloquent areas of the brain. Unfortunately, these procedures can result in radiation injury to brain parenchyma. The fact that every AVM is unique in its vascular morphology makes it nearly impossible to exclude brain parenchyma from isodose radiation exposure during the formulation of a GKRS plan. Read More

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November 2018

Can we use neuroimaging data to differentiate between subgroups of children with ADHD symptoms: A proof of concept study using latent class analysis of brain activity.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

NICHE Lab, Department of Psychiatry, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, UMC Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX, the Netherlands.

Background: Multiple pathway models of ADHD suggest that multiple, separable biological pathways may lead to symptoms of the disorder. If this is the case, it should be possible to identify subgroups of children with ADHD based on distinct patterns of brain activity. Previous studies have used latent class analysis (LCA) to define subgroups at the behavioral and cognitive level and to then test whether they differ at the neurobiological level. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Hyperintense sensorimotor T1 spin echo MRI is associated with brainstem abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 11;20:102-109. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Medical Imaging Department, Gold Coast University Hospital, Parklands, QLD 4215, Australia.

We recruited 43 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) subjects who met Fukuda criteria and 27 healthy controls and performed 3T MRI T1 and T2 weighted spin-echo (T1wSE and T2wSE) scans. T1wSE signal follows T1 relaxation rate (1/T1 relaxation time) and responds to myelin and iron (ferritin) concentrations. We performed MRI signal level group comparisons with SPM12. Read More

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Multiway canonical correlation analysis of brain data.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 26. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

City College New York, USA.

Brain data recorded with electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and related techniques often have poor signal-to-noise ratios due to the presence of multiple competing sources and artifacts. A common remedy is to average responses over repeats of the same stimulus, but this is not applicable for temporally extended stimuli that are presented only once (speech, music, movies, natural sound). An alternative is to average responses over multiple subjects that were presented with identical stimuli, but differences in geometry of brain sources and sensors reduce the effectiveness of this solution. Read More

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November 2018

Can we study 3D grid codes non-invasively in the human brain? Methodological considerations and fMRI findings.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 24;186:667-678. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, WC1N 3AR, UK. Electronic address:

Recent human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and animal electrophysiology studies suggest that grid cells in entorhinal cortex are an efficient neural mechanism for encoding knowledge about the world, not only for spatial location but also for more abstract cognitive information. The world, be it physical or abstract, is often high-dimensional, but grid cells have been mainly studied on a simple two-dimensional (2D) plane. Recent theoretical studies have proposed how grid cells encode three-dimensional (3D) physical space, but it is unknown whether grid codes can be examined non-invasively in humans. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Detrended connectometry analysis to assess white matter correlates of performance in childhood.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 24;186:637-646. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium (PNRC), Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

The white matter of the brain develops in a robust, regionally-variant, nonlinear manner during childhood. To relate white matter connectivity to performance, these regional nonlinear effects of age must be accounted for. Here, we identify white matter correlates of gross intellectual functioning using cutting-edge diffusion analyses inside a data-driven two-step regression framework. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

How the brain makes sense beyond the processing of single words - An MEG study.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 24;186:586-594. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Human language processing involves combinatorial operations that make human communication stand out in the animal kingdom. These operations rely on a dynamic interplay between the inferior frontal and the posterior temporal cortices. Using source reconstructed magnetoencephalography, we tracked language processing in the brain, in order to investigate how individual words are interpreted when part of sentence context. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Graph theory analysis reveals how sickle cell disease impacts neural networks of patients with more severe disease.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a hereditary blood disorder associated with many life-threatening comorbidities including cerebral stroke and chronic pain. The long-term effects of this disease may therefore affect the global brain network which is not clearly understood. We performed graph theory analysis of functional networks using non-invasive fMRI and high resolution EEG on thirty-one SCD patients and sixteen healthy controls. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Neural activity in human visual cortex is transformed by learning real world size.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 23;186:570-576. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

The way that our brain processes visual information is directly affected by our experience. Repeated exposure to a visual stimulus triggers experience-dependent plasticity in the visual cortex of many species. Humans also have the unique ability to acquire visual knowledge through instruction. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Advances in gradient echo myelin water imaging at 3T and 7T.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 23. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Laboratory for Imaging Science and Technology, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Gradient echo myelin water imaging (GRE-MWI) is an MRI technique to measure myelin concentration and involves the analysis of signal decay characteristics of the multi-echo gradient echo data. The method provides a myelin water fraction as a quantitative biomarker for myelin. In this work, a new sequence and post-processing methods were proposed to generate high quality GRE-MWI images at 3T and 7T. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Increased cognitive complexity reveals abnormal brain network activity in individuals with corpus callosum dysgenesis.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Clincal Brain Networks Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Cognitive reasoning is thought to require functional interactions between whole-brain networks. Such networks rely on both cerebral hemispheres, with the corpus callosum providing cross-hemispheric communication. Here we used high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging (7 T fMRI), a well validated cognitive task, and brain network analyses to investigate the functional networks underlying cognitive reasoning in individuals with corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD), an anatomical abnormality that affects the corpus callosum. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Recruitment of the occipital cortex by arithmetic processing follows computational bias in the congenitally blind.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 22;186:549-556. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Centre for Mind/Brain Science, University of Trento, Via delle regole 101, 38123, Mattarello, TN, Italy; Institute of Psychology (IPSY) and Institute of Neuroscience (IoNS), Université Catholique de Louvain, Place Cardinal Mercier 10, 1348, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Electronic address:

Arithmetic reasoning activates the occipital cortex of congenitally blind people (CB). This activation of visual areas may highlight the functional flexibility of occipital regions deprived of their dominant inputs or relate to the intrinsic computational role of specific occipital regions. We contrasted these competing hypotheses by characterizing the brain activity of CB and sighted participants while performing subtraction, multiplication and a control letter task. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Age-related differences in default-mode network connectivity in response to intermittent theta-burst stimulation and its relationships with maintained cognition and brain integrity in healthy aging.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Institute of Neurosciences, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institute of Biomedical Research August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Autonomous University of Barcelona, Institut Universitari de Neurorehabilitació Guttmann, Badalona, Spain. Electronic address:

The default-mode network (DMN) is affected by advancing age, where particularly long-range connectivity has been consistently reported to be reduced as compared to young individuals. We examined whether there were any differences in the effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) in DMN connectivity between younger and older adults, its associations with cognition and brain integrity, as well as with long-term cognitive status. Twenty-four younger and 27 cognitively normal older adults were randomly assigned to receive real or sham iTBS over the left inferior parietal lobule between two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) acquisitions. Read More

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November 2018
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MR fingerprinting enables quantitative measures of brain tissue relaxation times and myelin water fraction in the first five years of life.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Departments of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Biomedical Research Imaging Center (BRIC), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Quantitative assessments of normative brain development using MRI are of critical importance to gain insights into healthy neurodevelopment. However, quantitative MR imaging poses significant technical challenges and requires prohibitively long acquisition times, making it impractical for pediatric imaging. This is particularly relevant for healthy subjects, where imaging under sedation is not clinically indicated. Read More

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November 2018
8 Reads

Focus of attention modulates the heartbeat evoked potential.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 22;186:595-606. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Translational Neuromodeling Unit (TNU), Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich, ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Cologne, Germany.

Theoretical frameworks such as predictive coding suggest that the perception of the body and world - interoception and exteroception - involve intertwined processes of inference, learning, and prediction. In this framework, attention is thought to gate the influence of sensory information on perception. In contrast to exteroception, there is limited evidence for purely attentional effects on interoception. Read More

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November 2018
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Biomarkers of Parkinson's disease: Striatal sub-regional structural morphometry and diffusion MRI.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A5B7, Canada; Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A5C2, Canada; Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A5A5, Canada. Electronic address:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder that has no reliable biomarkers. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of semi-automated sub-regional analysis of the striatum with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to distinguish PD patients from controls (i.e. Read More

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November 2018
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Large-scale brain functional network topology disruptions underlie symptom heterogeneity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, 8 College Road, Singapore 169857, Singapore; Clinical Imaging Research Centre, The Agency for Science, Technology and Research-National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

Accumulating evidence suggests brain network dysfunction in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Whether large-scale brain network connectivity patterns reflect clinical heterogeneity in ADHD remains to be fully understood. This study aimed to characterize the differential within- and between-network functional connectivity (FC) changes in children with ADHD combined (ADHD-C) or inattentive (ADHD-I) subtypes and their associations with ADHD symptoms. Read More

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November 2018
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Interactions between gut permeability and brain structure and function in health and irritable bowel syndrome.

Neuroimage Clin 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University/US, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden; Department of Gastroenterology, Linköping University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden.

Changes in brain-gut interactions have been implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic visceral pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Different mechanisms of sensitization of visceral afferent pathways may contribute to the chronic visceral pain reports and associated brain changes that characterize IBS. They include increased gut permeability and gut associated immune system activation, and an imbalance in descending pain inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms. Read More

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November 2018
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BOLD-fMRI reveals the association between renal oxygenation and functional connectivity in the aging brain.

Neuroimage 2018 Nov 22;186:510-517. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, China. Electronic address:

Aging is accompanied by a decline in physical and cognitive function. Vascular aging may provide a major influence on these measures. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between renal oxygenation and functional connectivity of the aging brain because of the anatomic and hemodynamic similarities between cerebral and renal vessels. Read More

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November 2018
6 Reads