381,486 results match your criteria Neural Tube Defects


[Acute Motor Failure of the N. Peroneus Profundus Caused by a Cystic Tibiofibular Joint].

Z Orthop Unfall 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Orthopädie und Traumatologie, Bürgerspital Solothurn, Solothurn, Schweiz.

A ganglion cyst is rarely the cause of peripheral nerve compression. In the lower extremity, it is important to distinguish clinically the symptoms from a radiculopathy. In the literature, neural damage of the peroneal nerve due to a ganglion cyst has been described. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Prospective study of clinical, neurophysiological and urodynamic findings in multiple scleosis patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal venous angioplasty.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Nov 26;130(1):138-144. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, Unit of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: Verify whether Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) may affect neural conduction properties in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, thereby modifying patients' disability, with prospective neurophysiological, urodynamic, clinical and subjective well-being evaluations.

Methods: In 55 out of 72 consecutively screened MS patients, the following procedures were carried out before (T0), at 2-6 months (T1) and at 6-15 months (T2) after a diagnostic phlebography, eventually followed by the PTA intervention if chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) was diagnosed: clinical/objective evaluation (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS), ratings of subjective well-being, evaluation of urodynamic functions and multimodal EPs (visual, acoustic, upper and lower limbs somatosensory and motor evoked potentials).

Results: The number of dropouts was relatively high, and a complete set of neurophysiological and clinical data remained available for 37 patients (19 for urological investigations). Read More

View Article
November 2018

From cognitive and clinical substrates to functional profiles: Disentangling heterogeneity in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 6;271:446-453. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Via Stamira d'Ancona 20, 20127 Milan, Italy; School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

The relationship between neurocognition and functioning among patients with schizophrenia is well documented. However, integrating neuropsychological, clinical and psychopathological data to better investigate functional outcome still constitutes a challenge. Artificial neural network-based modeling might help to better capture clinical heterogeneity by analyzing the non-linear relationships among multiple variables. Read More

View Article
December 2018

QSPR estimation models of normal boiling point and relative liquid density of pure hydrocarbons using MLR and MLP-ANN methods.

J Mol Graph Model 2018 Nov 29;87:109-120. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Laboratory of Biomaterials and Transport Phenomena (LBMPT), University of Médéa, Médéa, 26000, Algeria.

This work aimed to predict the normal boiling point temperature (Tb) and relative liquid density (d20) of petroleum fractions and pure hydrocarbons, through a multi-layer perceptron artificial neural network (MLP-ANN) based on the molecular descriptors. A set of 223 and 222 diverse data points for Tb and d20 were respectively used to build two quantitative structure property relationships-artificial neural network (QSPR-ANN) models. For each model, the total database was divided respectively into two subsets: 80% for the training set and 20% for the test set. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Neural architecture supporting active emotion processing in children: A multivariate approach.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Center for the Neural Basis of Cognition, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: Adaptive emotion processing is critical for nearly all aspects of social and emotional functioning. There are distinct developmental trajectories associated with improved emotion processing, with a protracted developmental course for negative or complex emotions. The specific changes in neural circuitry that underlie this development, however are still scarcely understood. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Aerodigestive and communicative behaviors in anencephalic and hydranencephalic infants.

Birth Defects Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Linguistics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

The aerodigestive and communicative behaviors of anencephalic and hydranencephalic patients are assessed from literature sources and are compared with documented neural structures present in the brainstem, subcortical, and cortical regions of the brain. Much of the data analyzed corroborate previous neurological studies, which focus on central pattern generators and development in model organisms. However, findings suggest that further research is necessary to determine which components of these systems support these behaviors. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A New Drug Delivery System based on Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid and PEDOT.

Chemistry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

ITALY.

Localized drug delivery represents one of the most challenging uses of systems based on conductive polymer films. Typically, anionic drugs are incorporated within conductive polymers through the electrostatic interaction with the positively charged polymer. Following this approach, the synthetic glucocorticoid Dexamethasone-phosphate is often delivered from neural probes to reduce the inflammation of the surrounding tissue. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Expression of PD-L1 in tumor-associated nerves correlates with reduced CD8 tumor-associated lymphocytes and poor prognosis in prostate cancer.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Urology and Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

To investigate immune profile consisting of stromal PD-L1 expression, inhibitory or non-T-cell inflamed tumor microenvironment that may predict response to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 immunotherapy in prostate cancer, we validated the specificity of a PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (E1L3N) and identified PD-L1 specific expression in prostatic stromal nerve cells. PD-L1 expression was analyzed in 73 primary prostate cancers and 7 castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPC) by IHC and resulting data from primary prostate cancers were correlated with tumor-associated lymphocytes (TALs), clinicopathological characteristics and clinical outcome. PD-L1 was expressed in the tumor cells in only one primary prostate cancer case and none of the CRPC. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Oscillatory dynamics of cortical functional connections in semantic prediction.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

MEG and Cortical Networks Group, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

An event related potential, known as the N400, has been particularly useful in investigating language processing as it serves as a neural index for semantic prediction. There are numerous studies on the functional segregation of N400 neural sources; however, the oscillatory dynamics of functional connections among the relevant sources has remained elusive. In this study we acquired magnetoencephalography data during a classic N400 paradigm, where the semantic predictability of a fixed target noun was manipulated in simple German sentences. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Perturbed expression pattern of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus of GluA1 C-terminal palmitoylation-deficient mice.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Section of Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Cellular Biology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Japan.

Background: AMPA receptors predominantly mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian brain. Post-translational protein S-palmitoylation of AMPA receptor GluA subunits at their C-termini reversibly controls the receptors trafficking to and from excitatory glutamatergic synapses. Excitatory inputs to neurons induce the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), including Arc, with particular spatial patterns. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Altered spontaneous brain activity in classical trigeminal neuralgia as determined by changes in regional homogeneity: a resting-state functional MRI study.

Pain Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi Province Ocular Disease Clinical Research Center Nanchang 330006 Jiangxi, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Neuroimaging studies have reported that patients with pain-related conditions have altered neuronal activity and structural functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether classical trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) patients exhibit changes in corresponding neuronal activity via analysis of neuronal activity regional homogeneity (ReHo).

Methods: A total of 28 patients presenting with sore eyes (12 men and 16 women) were matched with 28 healthy controls (12 men and 16 women). Read More

View Article
December 2018

SUSAN: segment unannotated image structure using adversarial network.

Authors:
Fang Liu

Magn Reson Med 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Purpose: To describe and evaluate a segmentation method using joint adversarial and segmentation convolutional neural network to achieve accurate segmentation using unannotated MR image datasets.

Theory And Methods: A segmentation pipeline was built using joint adversarial and segmentation network. A convolutional neural network technique called cycle-consistent generative adversarial network (CycleGAN) was applied as the core of the method to perform unpaired image-to-image translation between different MR image datasets. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Age-related variability in decision-making: Insights from neurochemistry.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Despite dopamine's significant role in models of value-based decision-making and findings demonstrating loss of dopamine function in aging, evidence of systematic changes in decision-making over the life span remains elusive. Previous studies attempting to resolve the neural basis of age-related alteration in decision-making have typically focused on physical age, which can be a poor proxy for age-related effects on neural systems. There is growing appreciation that aging has heterogeneous effects on distinct components of the dopamine system within subject in addition to substantial variability between subjects. Read More

View Article
December 2018

The "Memory" Effect in a Chain of Biochemical Reactions with a Positive Feedback is Enhanced by Substrate Saturation Described by Michaelis-Menten Kinetics.

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Biosciences, Life Sciences Center, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave 7, 10257, Vilnius, Lithuania.

Information in the brain is stored in a form of an altered synaptic strength between neurons. The long-term potentiation (LTP), a phenomenon when a short-term increase in neural activity is transformed into a long-lasting increase in strengths of synaptic connectivity, provides an experimental substrate of memory. Using reaction-diffusion equations, we established an LTP model, describing the dynamics of glutamate (Glu), calcium (Ca) and nitric oxide (NO) in response to the stimulus-a presynaptic action potential. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Time course of changes in corticospinal excitability induced by motor imagery during action observation combined with peripheral nerve electrical stimulation.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Tokyo Bay Rehabilitation Hospital, 4-1-1 Yatsu, Narashino-shi, Chiba, 275-0026, Japan.

While previous studies assessed corticospinal excitability changes during and after motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO) combined with peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (ES), we examined, for the first time, the time course of corticospinal excitability changes for MI during AO combined with ES (AO-MI + ES) using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy individuals. Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in the following three sessions on different days: AO-MI alone, ES alone, and AO-MI + ES. In the AO-MI task, participants imagined squeezing and relaxing a ball, along with the respective actions shown in a movie, while passively holding the ball. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Resveratrol-mediated reversal of changes in purinergic signaling and immune response induced by Toxoplasma gondii infection of neural progenitor cells.

Purinergic Signal 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Graduate Program in Toxicological Biochemical and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

The effects of Toxoplasma gondii during embryonic development have not been explored despite the predilection of this parasite for neurons and glial cells. Here, we investigated the activation of the purinergic system and proinflammatory responses during congenital infection by T. gondii. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Effect of caffeine on long-term potentiation-like effects induced by quadripulse transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Exp Brain Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neuro-Regeneration, Fukushima Medical University, 1 Hikarigaoka, Fukushima, Fukushima, Japan.

Caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to affect sleep-awake cycles, the stress response, and learning and memory. It has been suggested that caffeine influences synaptic plasticity, but the effects of caffeine on synaptic plasticity in the human brain remain unexplored. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of caffeine on long-term potentiation (LTP)-like effects in the primary motor cortex of healthy humans. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Extrapyramidal motor signs in older adults with HIV disease: frequency, 1-year course, and associations with activities of daily living and quality of life.

J Neurovirol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.

Age and HIV disease have additive effects on neural systems that support motor functioning. The current study examined the combined impact of aging and HIV on extrapyramidal motor functions, which were hypothesized to influence on activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QoL). Participants included 336 adults classified by HIV serostatus and age. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Preparing to migrate: expression of androgen signaling molecules and insulin-like growth factor-1 in skeletal muscles of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurobiology Physiology Behavior, University of California, Davis, USA.

Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by peripheral neuropeptides: new approaches to enhancing transport and endogenous expression.

Authors:
M R Lee R D Jayant

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Influence of dronedarone (a class III antiarrhythmic drug) on the anticonvulsant potency of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the tonic-clonic seizure model in mice.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Increasing evidence indicates that some antiarrhythmic drugs play a pivotal role in seizures, not only in vivo studies on animals, but also in clinical trials. Some of these antiarrhythmic drugs potentiate or alleviate the anticonvulsant action of the classical antiepileptic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dronedarone (DRO-a multichannel blocker belonging to the class III of antiarrhythmic drugs) on the anticonvulsant effects of four standard antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) in the tonic-clonic seizure model in mice. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Intranasal erythropoietin ameliorates neurological function impairments and neural pathology in mice with chronic alcoholism by regulating autophagy‑related Nrf2 degradation.

Mol Med Rep 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical University (Daqing Longnan Hospital), Daqing, Heilongjiang 163453, P.R. China.

The neurological disorders and neural pathology brought about by chronic alcoholism are difficult to be reversed. Increasing evidence highlights the protective roles of erythropoietin (EPO) in neurodegenerative diseases and injuries of the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of EPO on the neurological function deficits and neural pathology caused by chronic alcoholism and the regulatory mechanisms. Read More

View Article
November 2018

DeepIsoFun: A deep domain adaptation approach to predict isoform functions.

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA.

Motivation: Isoforms are mRNAs produced from the same gene locus by alternative splicing and may have different functions. Although gene functions have been studied extensively, little is known about the specific functions of isoforms. Recently, some computational approaches based on multiple instance learning have been proposed to predict isoform functions from annotated gene functions and expression data, but their performance is far from being desirable primarily due to the lack of labeled training data. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Oxytocin Modulates the Intrinsic Dynamics Between Attention-Related Large-Scale Networks.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Laboratory for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Attention And Salience Processing Have Been Linked To The Intrinsic Between- And Within-network Dynamics Of Large-scale Networks Engaged In Internal (default Network [dn]) And External Attention Allocation (dorsal Attention Network [dan] And Salience Network [sn]). The Central Oxytocin (oxt) System Appears Ideally Organized To Modulate Widely Distributed Neural Systems And To Regulate The Switch Between Internal Attention And Salient Stimuli In The Environment. The Current Randomized Placebo (plc)-controlled Between-subject Pharmacological Resting-state Fmri Study In N = 187 (oxt, N = 94; Plc, N = 93; Single-dose Intranasal Administration) Healthy Male And Female Participants Employed An Independent Component Analysis Approach To Determine The Modulatory Effects Of Oxt On The Within- And Between-network Dynamics Of The Dan–sn–dn Triple Network System. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Early Excitatory Activity-Dependent Maturation of Somatostatin Interneurons in Cortical Layer 2/3 of Mice.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (Shanghai), Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

GABAergic interneurons perform distinct functions during cortical development in the mouse brain. Among the diverse GABAergic neurons present in the brain, early-born somatostatin (SST)-expressing inhibitory interneurons, which are innervated by other interneurons and local pyramidal cells (PCs), act in a neural computational role in circuitry regulation. The synapses between the SST+ interneurons and other cells form gradually during development. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Enables Updating of Established Memories.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Cognitive Psychology, Institute of Psychology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Updating established memories in light of new information is fundamental for memory to guide future behavior. However, little is known about the brain mechanisms by which existing memories can be updated. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate representational similarity analysis to elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying the updating of consolidated memories. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Neurobiological responses in the adolescent striatum to being "tested".

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA.

While emerging research implicates the striatum in adolescents' ability to learn from feedback, little is known about how motivational contexts, such as emphasizing the evaluative nature of learning tasks, modulate adolescents' striatal learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a feedback-based learning task, in conjunction with a within-subject evaluative threat manipulation, to determine whether evaluation threat influences behavioral and neural responses to feedback in adolescents. On average, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to the evaluation threat. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Ongoing Monitoring of Mindwandering in Avoidant Grief Through Cortico-Basal-Ganglia Interactions.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY.

An avoidant grief style is marked by repeated and often unsuccessful attempts to prevent thinking about loss. Prior work shows avoidant grief involves monitoring the external environment in order to avoid reminders of the loss. Here we sought to determine whether avoidant grievers also monitor the internal environment in attempts to minimize conscious awareness of loss-related thoughts. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Temporally Unconstrained Decoding Reveals Consistent but Time-Varying Stages of Stimulus Processing.

Cereb Cortex 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity (OHBA), University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

In this article, we propose a method to track trial-specific neural dynamics of stimulus processing and decision making with high temporal precision. By applying this novel method to a perceptual template-matching task, we tracked representational brain states associated with the cascade of neural processing, from early sensory areas to higher order areas that are involved in integration and decision making. We address a major limitation of the traditional decoding approach: that it relies on consistent timing of these processes over trials. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Improving Prediction of Protein Secondary Structure, Backbone Angles, Solvent Accessibility, and Contact Numbers by Using Predicted Contact Maps and an Ensemble of Recurrent and Residual Convolutional Neural Networks.

Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Information and Communication Technology, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.

Motivation: Sequence-based prediction of one dimensional structural properties of proteins has been a long-standing subproblem of protein structure prediction. Recently, prediction accuracy has been significantly improved due to the rapid expansion of protein sequence and structure libraries and advances in deep learning techniques, such as residual convolutional networks (ResNets) and Long-Short-Term Memory Cells in Bidirectional Recurrent Neural Networks (LSTM-BRNNs). Here we leverage an ensemble of LSTM-BRNN and ResNet models, together with predicted residue-residue contact maps, to continue the push towards the attainable limit of prediction for 3- and 8-state secondary structure, backbone angles (θ, τ, ϕ, and ψ), half-sphere exposure, contact numbers, and solvent accessible surface area (ASA). Read More

View Article
December 2018

Clarifying the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention: A combined behavioral and neurophysiological study.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University.

Mindfulness is frequently associated with improved attention. However, the nature of the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention, a core function of the attentional system, is surprisingly unclear. Studies employing behavioral measures of executive attention have been equivocal. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Temporospatial guidance of activity-dependent gene expression by microRNA: mechanisms and functional implications for neural plasticity.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2323, Australia.

MicroRNA are major regulators of neuronal gene expression at the post-transcriptional and translational levels. This layer of control is critical for spatially and temporally restricted gene expression, facilitating highly dynamic changes to cellular structure and function associated with neural plasticity. Investigation of microRNA function in the neural system, however, is at an early stage, and many aspects of the mechanisms employing these small non-coding RNAs remain unclear. Read More

View Article
December 2018

A COMPARISON BETWEEN X-RAY AND CARBON ION IRRADIATION IN HUMAN NEURAL STEM CELLS.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physics, University of Pavia, via Bassi 6, Pavia, Italy.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by a poor prognosis and a median survival of ~12-18 months. GBM is usually managed by neurosurgery followed by both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Since GBM develops resistance to conventional therapies, treatment with C-ions is promising to completely eradicate the tumoural mass. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Aspects regarding nomenclature, classification and pathology of neuroendocrine neoplasms of the digestive system - a review.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):673-678

Department of Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Surgery Unit, Railway Clinical Hospital, Craiova, Romania;

Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) of the digestive system are composed of cells with a neuroendocrine phenotype. These tumors produce and secrete peptide hormones and biogenic amines and they are called neuroendocrine neoplasms because of the marker proteins that they share with the neural cell system. The classification and nomenclature used to designate NENs have undergone changes over the past decades due to the accumulation of evidence related to the biological characteristics and their evolution. Read More

View Article
January 2018

Neuronal dynamics in HfO/AlO-based homeothermic synaptic memristors with low-power and homogeneous resistive switching.

Nanoscale 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center (ISRC) and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea.

We studied the pseudo-homeothermic synaptic behaviors by integrating complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible materials (hafnium oxide, aluminum oxide, and silicon substrate). A wide range of temperatures, from 25 °C up to 145 °C, in neuronal dynamics was achieved owing to the homeothermic properties and the possibility of spike-induced synaptic behaviors was demonstrated, both presenting critical milestones for the use of emerging memristor-type neuromorphic computing systems in the near future. Biological synaptic behaviors, such as long-term potentiation, long-term depression, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity, are developed systematically, and comprehensive neural network analysis is used for temperature changes and to conform spike-induced neuronal dynamics, providing a new research regime of neurocomputing for potentially harsh environments to overcome the self-heating issue in neuromorphic chips. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Parallel and functionally segregated processing of task phase and conscious content in the prefrontal cortex.

Commun Biol 2018 5;1:215. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1Department of Physiology of Cognitive Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

The role of lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) in mediating conscious perception has been recently questioned due to potential confounds resulting from the parallel operation of task related processes. We have previously demonstrated encoding of contents of visual consciousness in LPFC neurons during a no-report task involving perceptual suppression. Here, we report a separate LPFC population that exhibits task-phase related activity during the same task. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Testing Pathological Variation of White Matter Tract in Adult Rats after Severe Spinal Cord Injury with MRI.

Biomed Res Int 2018 11;2018:4068156. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

The purpose of this study was to assess the pathological variation in white matter tracts in the adult severe thoracic contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) rat models combined with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as the effect of spared white matter (WM) quantity on hindlimb motor function recovery. 7.0T MRI was conducted for all experimental animals before SCI and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after SCI. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

CLINICAL REASONING IN THE FACE OF UNCERTAINTY: CONSERVATIVE PHYSICAL THERAPY MANAGEMENT OF A TEENAGE ATHLETE DIAGNOSED WITH A PROXIMAL HUMERAL NON-OSSIFYING FIBROMA.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2018 Dec;13(6):1049-1060

Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Background And Purpose: There have been few published studies regarding the treatment of patients with non-ossifying fibromas (NOFs), either conservatively or operatively. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the clinical presentation and conservative management of a teenage athlete diagnosed with a proximal humerus NOF.

Case Description: The subject was a 13-year-old male middle school student with a diagnosis of left shoulder pain over the prior year preventing him from participating in sports activities. Read More

View Article
December 2018

An Introduction to the Approximate Number System.

Child Dev Perspect 2018 Dec 10;12(4):223-229. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

University of California, Berkeley.

What are young children's first intuitions about numbers and what role do these play in their later understanding of mathematics? Traditionally, has been viewed as a culturally derived breakthrough occurring relatively recently in human history that requires years of education to master. Contrary to this view, research in cognitive development indicates that our minds come equipped with a rich and flexible sense of number-the Approximate Number System (ANS). Recently, several major challenges have been mounted to the existence of the ANS and its value as a domain-specific system for representing number. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Electroacupuncture Treatment Alleviates the Remifentanil-Induced Hyperalgesia by Regulating the Activities of the Ventral Posterior Lateral Nucleus of the Thalamus Neurons in Rats.

Neural Plast 2018 11;2018:6109723. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Neuroscience Research Institute and Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100083, China.

Mechanisms underlying remifentanil- (RF-) induced hyperalgesia, a phenomenon that is generally named as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), still remain elusive. The ventral posterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus, a key relay station for the transmission of nociceptive information to the cerebral cortex, is activated by RF infusion. Electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective method for the treatment of pain. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Learning to Predict Ischemic Stroke Growth on Acute CT Perfusion Data by Interpolating Low-Dimensional Shape Representations.

Front Neurol 2018 26;9:989. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute of Medical Informatics, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Cerebrovascular diseases, in particular ischemic stroke, are one of the leading global causes of death in developed countries. Perfusion CT and/or MRI are ideal imaging modalities for characterizing affected ischemic tissue in the hyper-acute phase. If infarct growth over time could be predicted accurately from functional acute imaging protocols together with advanced machine-learning based image analysis, the expected benefits of treatment options could be better weighted against potential risks. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Differences in Neural Recovery From Acute Stress Between Cortisol Responders and Non-responders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 26;9:631. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Research Division of Mind and Brain, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy CCM, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Adaptive recovery from a stressor fosters resilience. So far, however, few studies have examined brain functional connectivity in the aftermath of stress, with inconsistent results reported. Focusing on the immediate recovery from psychosocial stress, the current study compared amygdala resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) before and immediately after psychosocial stress between cortisol responders and non-responders. Read More

View Article
November 2018

CABots and Other Neural Agents.

Front Neurorobot 2018 26;12:79. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Computer Science, Middlesex University London, United Kingdom.

The best way to develop a Turing test passing AI is to follow the human model: an embodied agent that functions over a wide range of domains, is a human cognitive model, follows human neural functioning and learns. These properties will endow the agent with the deep semantics required to pass the test. An embodied agent functioning over a wide range of domains is needed to be exposed to and learn the semantics of those domains. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Rigorous Neural Network Simulations: A Model Substantiation Methodology for Increasing the Correctness of Simulation Results in the Absence of Experimental Validation Data.

Front Neuroinform 2018 26;12:81. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Simulation Lab Neuroscience, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Institute for Advanced Simulation, JARA Jülich Research Centre, Jülich, Germany.

The reproduction and replication of scientific results is an indispensable aspect of good scientific practice, enabling previous studies to be built upon and increasing our level of confidence in them. However, reproducibility and replicability are not sufficient: an incorrect result will be accurately reproduced if the same incorrect methods are used. For the field of simulations of complex neural networks, the causes of incorrect results vary from insufficient model implementations and data analysis methods, deficiencies in workmanship (e. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Structural Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Claustrum, and the Anterior Insula of the Mouse.

Front Neuroanat 2018 26;12:100. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The claustrum is a narrow subcortical brain structure that resides between the striatum and insular cortex. The function of the claustrum is not fully described, and while our previous work supports a role for the claustrum in top-down cognitive control of action, other evidence suggests the claustrum may be involved in detecting salient changes in the external environment. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insular (aINS) are the two major participants in the salience network of human brain regions that activate in response to salient stimuli. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Triclosan Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Memory in Male Rats.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 26;11:429. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Physiology and Biophysics Program, ICBM, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Triclosan, a widely used industrial and household agent, is present as an antiseptic ingredient in numerous products of everyday use, such as toothpaste, cosmetics, kitchenware, and toys. Previous studies have shown that human brain and animal tissues contain triclosan, which has been found also as a contaminant of water and soil. Triclosan disrupts heart and skeletal muscle Ca signaling, damages liver function, alters gut microbiota, causes colonic inflammation, and promotes apoptosis in cultured neocortical neurons and neural stem cells. Read More

View Article
November 2018

RNase A Promotes Proliferation of Neuronal Progenitor Cells via an ERK-Dependent Pathway.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 26;11:428. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Members of the ribonuclease A (RNase A) superfamily regulate various physiological processes. RNase A, the best-studied member of the RNase A superfamily, is widely expressed in different tissues, including brains. We unexpectedly found that RNase A can trigger proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells (NPC) both and . Read More

View Article
November 2018