381,812 results match your criteria Neural Development [Journal]


Tracing the Origin of Glioblastoma: Subventricular Zone Neural Stem Cells.

Neurosurgery 2019 Jan;84(1):E15-E16

Brain Tumor Center Department of Neurosurgery Lenox Hill Hospital Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell New York, New York.

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January 2019

Characterization of locomotor response to psychostimulants in the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis): A promising model for studying the neural and molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, and Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA.

Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system. Read More

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December 2018

Lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 2 activation contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury in mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Institut de Neurociències, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia, 08193, Spain. Electronic address:

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions by signaling through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA-LPA). In the central nervous system (CNS), LPA mediates a wide range of effects, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and contributions to pain, schizophrenia and hydrocephalus. We recently reported that LPA-LPA signaling mediates functional deficits and myelin loss after spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More

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December 2018

Branching mechanisms shaping dendrite architecture.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia. Electronic address:

A neuron's contribution to the information flow within a neural circuit is governed by the structure of its dendritic arbor. The geometry of the dendritic arbor directly determines synaptic density and the size of the receptive field, both of which influence the firing pattern of the neuron. Importantly, the position of individual dendritic branches determines the identity of the neuron's presynaptic partner and thus the nature of the incoming sensory information. Read More

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December 2018

Synchronization-induced spike termination in networks of bistable neurons.

Neural Netw 2018 Nov 27;110:131-140. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Physics and Astronomy and The Krasnow Institute for Advanced Study, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.

We observe and study a self-organized phenomenon whereby the activity in a network of spiking neurons spontaneously terminates. We consider different types of populations, consisting of bistable model neurons connected electrically by gap junctions, or by either excitatory or inhibitory synapses, in a scale-free connection topology. We find that strongly synchronized population spiking events lead to complete cessation of activity in excitatory networks, but not in gap junction or inhibitory networks. Read More

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November 2018

Emergent neural turing machine and its visual navigation.

Neural Netw 2018 Nov 27;110:116-130. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA; Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Traditional Turing Machines (TMs) are symbolic whose hand-crafted representations are static and limited. Developmental Network 1 (DN-1) uses emergent representation to perform Turing Computation. But DN-1 lacks hierarchy in its internal representations, and is hard to handle the complex visual navigation tasks. Read More

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November 2018

pSSbond-PseAAC: Prediction of disulfide bonding sites by integration of PseAAC and statistical moments.

J Theor Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Gordon Life Science Institute, Boston, MA 02478, USA.

The structure of protein gains additional stability against various detrimental effects by the presence of disulfide bonds. The formation of correct disulfide bonds between cysteine residues ensures proper in vivo and in vitro folding of the protein. Many cysteine residues can be present in the polypeptide chain of a protein, however, not all cysteine residues are involved in the formation of a disulfide bond, and therefore, accurate prediction of these bonds is crucial for identifying biophysical characteristics of a protein. Read More

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December 2018

The uncertain brain: A co-ordinate based meta-analysis of the neural signatures supporting uncertainty during different contexts.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Centre for Integrative Neuroscience and Neurodynamics, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.

Uncertainty is often inevitable in everyday life and can be both stressful and exciting. Given its relevance to psychopathology and wellbeing, recent research has begun to address the brain basis of uncertainty. In the current review we examined whether there are discrete and shared neural signatures for different uncertain contexts. Read More

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December 2018

Osteocytes reflect a pro-inflammatory state following spinal cord injury in a rodent model.

Bone 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Bryan, TX, United States of America.

Profound bone loss occurs following spinal cord injury (SCI) resulting in a high incidence of fractures. While likely caused in part by loss of weight-bearing, there is greater bone loss following SCI when compared to that observed in other disuse animal models. Patients with SCI have a protracted inflammatory response, with elevated circulating levels of pro-inflammatory markers. Read More

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December 2018

The role of neurogenesis in neurorepair after stroke.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil. Electronic address:

Stroke consists of an abrupt reduction of cerebral blood flow resulting in hypoxia that triggers an excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation. After the ischemic process, neural precursor cells present in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus proliferate and migrate towards the lesion, contributing to the brain repair. The neurogenesis is induced by signal transduction pathways, growth factors, attractive factors for neuroblasts, transcription factors, pro and anti-inflammatory mediators and specific neurotransmissions. Read More

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December 2018
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Is ventromedial prefrontal cortex critical for behavior change without external reinforcement?

Neuropsychologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurobiology, The Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University; Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

Cue-approach training (CAT) is a novel paradigm that has been shown to induce preference changes towards items without external reinforcements. In the task, the mere association of a neutral cue and a speeded button response has been shown to induce a behavioral choice preference change lasting for months. This paradigm includes several phases: after the training of individual items, behavior change is manifested in binary choices of items with similar initial values. Read More

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December 2018

Multisensory Logic of Infant-Directed Aggression by Males.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1827-1841.e17

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:

Newborn mice emit signals that promote parenting from mothers and fathers but trigger aggressive responses from virgin males. Although pup-directed attacks by males require vomeronasal function, the specific infant cues that elicit this behavior are unknown. We developed a behavioral paradigm based on reconstituted pup cues and showed that discrete infant morphological features combined with salivary chemosignals elicit robust male aggression. Read More

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December 2018
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Oxycodone Exposure: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study in Response to Acute and Chronic Oxycodone Treatment in Rats.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Northeastern Univ, Center for Translational NeuroImaging, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The present study was designed to use blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) imaging to "fingerprint" the change in activity in response to oxycodone (OXY) in drug naïve rats before and after repeated exposure to OXY. It was hypothesized that repeated exposure to OXY would initiate adaptive changes in brain organization that would be reflected in an altered response to opioid exposure. Male rats exposed to OXY repeatedly showed conditioned place preference, evidence of drug seeking behavior and putative neuroadaptation. Read More

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December 2018

Optogenetic control of iPS cell-derived neurons in 2D and 3D culture systems using channelrhodopsin-2 expressed by the SYN1 and CaMKII promoters.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Oncology, Old Road Campus Research Building, University of Oxford, UK.

Development of optogenetically controllable human neural network model in three-dimensional (3D) can provide an investigative system that is physiologically relevant or mimic to the human brain. Light-sensitive neurons were generated by transducing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) into human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived neural progenitor cells (Axol) using lentiviruses and cell-type specific promoters. A mixed population of human iPSC-derived cortical neurons, astrocytes and progenitor cells was obtained (Axol-ChR2) upon neural differentiation. Read More

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December 2018

Subtle motor signs in children with chronic traumatic brain injury.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Kennedy Krieger Institute.

Objective: To characterize subtle motor signs in children with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the chronic phase of injury.

Design: Fourteen children with moderate (n=6) or severe (n=8) TBI, ages 11-18 years, who had sustained their injury at least 1-year prior to study participation (Range 1-14 years since injury), and 14 matched typically-developing controls were examined using the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS). To examine the neural correlates of subtle motor signs, measures of total cerebral volume and motor/premotor volume were derived from MRI. Read More

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December 2018

Technique of Fractionated Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Treating Large Arteriovenous Malformation in Brain Functional Area.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing.

Objective: At present, large cranial function area arteriovenous malformation (fAVM) is mainly treated by craniotomy with a high risk of operation and high disability. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of the neural intervention technology, fractionated transcatheter arterial embolization (fTAE) may be used to treat the fAVM instead of surgical treatment. However, its effectiveness for treating fAVM has never been explored. Read More

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December 2018

Towards Building Protein Force Fields by Residue-based Systematic Molecular Fragmentation and Neural Network.

J Chem Theory Comput 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Accurate force fields are crucial for molecular dynamics investigation of complex biological systems. Building accurate protein force fields from quantum mechanical (QM) calculations is challenging due to the complexity of proteins and high computational costs of QM methods. In order to overcome these two difficulties, here we developed the residue-based systematic molecular fragmentation method to partition general proteins into only twenty types of amino acid dipeptides and one type of peptide bond at Level 1. Read More

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December 2018

[Evaluating auditory pathway by promontory stimulation test and postoperative hearing rehabilitation(28 cases)].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;32(24):1851-1856

Department of Otolaryngology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences,Beijing, 100730, China.

Objective:〖WT〗To evaluate auditory pathway in patients by promontory stimulation test(PST) before artificial cochlear implantation(CI), and to analyze the relationship between postoperative hearing rehabilitation and PST. Selecting 28 cases of adult subjects without residual hearing who accepted promontory stimulation test, different etiology led to bilateral severe sensor neural deafness. PST was examined by measuring the electric auditory threshold(T value) and maximum comfort threshold(M value) of 50, 100 and 200 Hz pulse square waves, and by measuring frequency discrimination. Read More

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December 2018

Functional and Molecular Characterization of the Bilateral Pelvic Nerve Crush Injury Rat Model for Neurogenic Detrusor Underactivity.

BJU Int 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objectives: To create a rat model for neurogenic detrusor underactivity (DU) by bilateral pelvic nerve crush injury (BPNI) and to study temporal changes in detrusor contractility and morphology.

Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to BPNI or sham surgery and evaluated 1, 3 and 9 weeks after surgery. Bladder function was determined in vivo by awake cystometry, micturition pattern analysis and 24-hours urine collection. Read More

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December 2018

30 Years After: CNS Actions of Prolactin: Source, Mechanism and Physiological Significance.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 14:e12669. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, University, Of Otago Medical School,, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Our understanding of the neural actions of prolactin (PRL) and its biochemical basis has expanded greatly over the past three decades. During this time, major progress has been made that includes the elucidation of how PRL accesses the brain, identification of the PRL receptor and the sites where it is expressed within the brain, determination of the neurochemical mechanism of action of PRL and its effect on genomic expression in neurons, identification of the neural sites where PRL acts to stimulate maternal behavior and related affective states, and exploration of how life experiences impact neural PRL receptor activity and actions. The next 30 years promise to reveal a myriad of basic and clinical findings regarding new roles for PRL and a greater in depth understanding of how and where PRL affects physiological and behavioral processes. Read More

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December 2018

Neural coding of the sound envelope is changed in the inferior colliculus immediately following acoustic trauma.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Groningen, Netherlands.

Sensorineural hearing loss is often accompanied by difficulties with understanding speech in fluctuating backgrounds, suggesting that neural coding of complex sound features, such as the sound envelope, is impaired. Here, we studied how temporal and rate coding of the envelope is affected in the inferior colliculus immediately after acoustic trauma. Neural activity in response to amplitude-modulated noise was recorded from the inferior colliculus of the guinea pig, before and immediately after a 1-hour 11-kHz acoustic trauma. Read More

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December 2018

Repetition Priming Effects for Famous Faces through Dynamic Causal Modelling of Latency-Corrected Event-Related Brain Potentials.

Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong.

Repetition priming, that is, the repeated processing of a stimulus, facilitates performance. However, the neural underpinnings of repetition priming for famous faces in terms of effective connectivity is not known. Here we investigated this problem using dynamic causal modelling of latency-corrected event-related brain potentials (RERPs). Read More

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December 2018
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Neuronal cell adhesion molecule regulating neural systems underlying addiction.

Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey.

Aims: The human NRCAM gene is associated with polysubstance use. Nrcam knockout mice do not acquire a preference for addictive substances. We aimed to elucidate the role of Nrcam in specific neural circuits underlying congenital preference for substances and the acquisition of addiction. Read More

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December 2018

Understanding others: emotion recognition abilities in humans and other animals.

Genes Brain Behav 2018 Dec 13:e12544. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Genetics of Cognition laboratory, Department of Neuroscience and Brain Technologies, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy.

Emotion recognition represents the ability to encode an ensemble of sensory stimuli providing information about the emotional state of another individual. This ability is not unique to humans. An increasing number of studies suggests that many aspects of higher order social functions, including emotion recognition, might be present in species ranging from primates to rodents, indicating a conserved role of these abilities in social animals. Read More

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December 2018

RanGAP-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport of Prospero regulates neural stem cell lifespan in Drosophila larval central brain.

Aging Cell 2018 Dec 13:e12854. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Human Reproduction and Developmental Genetics, The Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

By the end of neurogenesis in Drosophila pupal brain neuroblasts (NBs), nuclear Prospero (Pros) triggers cell cycle exit and terminates NB lifespan. Here, we reveal that in larval brain NBs, an intrinsic mechanism facilitates import and export of Pros across the nuclear envelope via a Ran-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport system. In rangap mutants, the export of Pros from the nucleus to cytoplasm is impaired and the nucleocytoplasmic transport of Pros becomes one-way traffic, causing an early accumulation of Pros in the nuclei of the larval central brain NBs. Read More

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December 2018
6.340 Impact Factor

Neural gain control measured through cortical gamma oscillations is associated with sensory sensitivity.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre (GNC), University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Gamma oscillations facilitate information processing by shaping the excitatory input/output of neuronal populations. Recent studies in humans and nonhuman primates have shown that strong excitatory drive to the visual cortex leads to suppression of induced gamma oscillations, which may reflect inhibitory-based gain control of network excitation. The efficiency of the gain control measured through gamma oscillations may in turn affect sensory sensitivity in everyday life. Read More

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December 2018
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Inferring sleep stage from local field potentials recorded in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's patients.

J Sleep Res 2018 Dec 13:e12806. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly comorbid with sleep dysfunction. In contrast to motor symptoms, few therapeutic interventions exist to address sleep symptoms in PD. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) treats advanced PD motor symptoms and may improve sleep architecture. Read More

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December 2018

Altered frontal aslant tracts as a heritable neural basis of social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorder: A sibling study using tract-based automatic analysis.

Autism Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Medical Device and Imaging, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Investigating social behaviors and brain structural alterations in unaffected siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may help identify intermediate phenotypes of social communication deficits in ASD. This study hypothesized that such intermediate phenotypes could be identified in white matter tracts of the social communication model that exhibited reduced tract integrity and associations with social communication deficits. Boys with ASD (N = 30), unaffected male siblings (N = 27), and typically developing (TD) boys (N = 30) underwent clinical evaluation and MRI scanning. Read More

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December 2018

Cellular organization and boundary formation in craniofacial development.

Genesis 2018 Dec 13:e23271. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, Program in Craniofacial Biology, and Institute of Human Genetics, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Craniofacial morphogenesis is a highly dynamic process that requires changes in the behaviors and physical properties of cells in order to achieve the proper organization of different craniofacial structures. Boundary formation is a critical process in cellular organization, patterning, and ultimately tissue separation. There are several recurring cellular mechanisms through which boundary formation and cellular organization occur including, transcriptional patterning, cell segregation, cell adhesion and migratory guidance. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of sex and reproductive status on memory circuitry structure and function in early midlife using structural covariance analysis.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Research on age-related memory alterations traditionally targets individuals aged ≥65 years. However, recent studies emphasize the importance of early aging processes. We therefore aimed to characterize variation in brain gray matter structure in early midlife as a function of sex and menopausal status. Read More

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December 2018

Shared and distinct neural circuitry for nonsymbolic and symbolic double-digit addition.

Hum Brain Mapp 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Psychology Department, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Symbolic arithmetic is a complex, uniquely human ability that is acquired through direct instruction. In contrast, the capacity to mentally add and subtract nonsymbolic quantities such as dot arrays emerges without instruction and can be seen in human infants and nonhuman animals. One possibility is that the mental manipulation of nonsymbolic arrays provides a critical scaffold for developing symbolic arithmetic abilities. Read More

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December 2018

Quantitative Principles for Precise Engineering of Sensitivity in Graphene Electrochemical Sensors.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 13:e1805752. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Electrical and Computer Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, NY, 11201, USA.

A major difficulty in implementing carbon-based electrode arrays with high device-packing density is to ensure homogeneous and high sensitivities across the array. Overcoming this obstacle requires quantitative microscopic models that can accurately predict electrode sensitivity from its material structure. Such models are currently lacking. Read More

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December 2018
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Suppression of microRNA-141 suppressed p53 to protect against neural apoptosis in epilepsy by SIRT1 expression.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurology, XThe Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

We investigated that microRNA (miRNA)-141 protects against epilepsy-induced apoptosis and its reaction mechanism. The serum expression of miRNA-141 in epilepsy model mice and control volunteer was measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We found that miRNA-141 serum expression was upregulated in patients with epilepsy. Read More

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December 2018
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Deep learning for patient-specific quality assurance: identifying errors in radiotherapy delivery by radiomic analysis of gamma images with convolutional neural networks.

Med Phys 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose: Patient-specific quality assurance (QA) for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a ubiquitous clinical procedure, but conventional methods have often been criticized as being insensitive to errors or less effective than other common physics checks. Recently, there has been interest in the application of radiomics, quantitative extraction of image features, to radiotherapy quality assurance. In this work we investigate a deep learning approach to classify the presence or absence of introduced radiotherapy treatment delivery errors from patient-specific QA. Read More

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December 2018

Threat-conditioned contexts modulate the late positive potential to faces-A mobile EEG/virtual reality study.

Psychophysiology 2018 Dec 13:e13308. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

In everyday life, the motivational value of faces is bound to the contexts in which faces are perceived. Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that inherent negatively valent contexts modulate cortical face processing as assessed with ERP components. However, it is not well understood whether learned (rather than inherent) and three-dimensional aversive contexts similarly modulate the neural processing of faces. Read More

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December 2018

Cancer risk among children conceived by fertility treatment.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Hunan, China.

Prior studies on the association between fertility treatment and childhood cancer risk have generated inconsistent results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observation studies to summarize the evidence regarding the relation of fertility treatment with childhood cancer risk. A systematic literature search of several databases was conducted through April 2018 to identify relevant studies. Read More

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December 2018
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Developmental exposure to psychostimulant primes activity-dependent gene induction in frontal cortex.

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Unit on Neural Circuits and Adaptive Behaviors, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Perinatal neurodevelopment involves extensive formation of neural connections and onset of activity-dependent gene expression for synaptic function and plasticity. Exposure to psychostimulants at this stage imposes significant risks for developing cognitive and affective disorders later in life. However, how developmental exposure to psychostimulants may induce long lasting molecular changes relevant to neural circuit function remains incompletely understood. Read More

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December 2018

Radial Glia in Echinoderms.

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Biology, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, Florida.

Radial glial cells are crucial in vertebrate neural development and regeneration. It has been recently proposed that this neurogenic cell type might be older than the chordate lineage itself and might have been present in the last common deuterostome ancestor. Here, we summarize the results of recent studies on radial glia in echinoderms, a highly regenerative phylum of marine invertebrates with shared ancestry to chordates. Read More

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December 2018

Fully convolutional networks in multimodal nonlinear microscopy images for automated detection of head and neck carcinoma: A pilot study.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Background: A fully convolutional neural networks (FCN)-based automated image analysis algorithm to discriminate between head and neck cancer and noncancerous epithelium based on nonlinear microscopic images was developed.

Methods: Head and neck cancer sections were used for standard histopathology and co-registered with multimodal images from the same sections using the combination of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, two-photon excited fluorescence, and second harmonic generation microscopy. The images analyzed with semantic segmentation using a FCN for four classes: cancer, normal epithelium, background, and other tissue types. Read More

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December 2018

TREM2 triggers microglial density and age-related neuronal loss.

Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neural Regeneration, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, University Hospital of Bonn, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

The microglial triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signals via the activatory membrane adaptor molecule TYROBP. Genetic variants or mutations of TREM2 or TYROBP have been linked to inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. The typical aging process goes along with microglial changes and mild neuronal loss, but the exact contribution of TREM2 is still unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Curcumin: A new candidate for retinal disease therapy?

J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The retina is the neural portion and light-sensitive layer of the eye, which has been observed in most of the vertebrates. The retina is composed of light-sensitive cells that absorb light and convert it into neural signals. These signals are sent to the brain for visual recognition. Read More

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December 2018
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Similar time courses for word form and meaning preactivation during sentence comprehension.

Psychophysiology 2018 Dec 11:e13312. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), La Jolla, California.

Current psycholinguistic research generally acknowledges that aspects of sentence comprehension benefit from neural preactivation of different types of information. However, despite strong support from a number of studies, routine specific word form preactivation has been challenged by Ito, Corley, Pickering, Martin, and Nieuwland (2016). They suggest that word form prediction is contingent upon having enough processing time and resources (afforded by slower input rates) to progress through unidirectional, productionlike stages of comprehension to arrive at word forms via semantic feature preactivation. Read More

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December 2018

Offline replay supports planning in human reinforcement learning.

Elife 2018 Dec 14;7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, United States.

Making decisions in sequentially structured tasks requires integrating distally acquired information. The extensive computational cost of such integration challenges planning methods that integrate online, at decision time. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether 'offline' integration during replay supports planning, and if so which memories should be replayed. Read More

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December 2018

Neural circuitry of a polycystin-mediated hydrodynamic startle response for predator avoidance.

Elife 2018 Dec 14;7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.

Startle responses triggered by aversive stimuli including predators are widespread across animals. These coordinated whole-body actions require the rapid and simultaneous activation of a large number of muscles. Here we study a startle response in a planktonic larva to understand the whole-body circuit implementation of the behaviour. Read More

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December 2018

Tuning of delta-protocadherin adhesion through combinatorial diversity.

Elife 2018 Dec 14;7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, United States.

The delta-protocadherins (δ-Pcdhs) play key roles in neural development, and expression studies suggest they are expressed in combination within neurons. The extent of this combinatorial diversity, and how these combinations influence cell adhesion, is poorly understood. We show that individual mouse olfactory sensory neurons express 0-7 δ-Pcdhs. Read More

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December 2018

Prediction error and repetition suppression have distinct effects on neural representations of visual information.

Elife 2018 Dec 14;7. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Predictive coding theories argue that recent experience establishes expectations in the brain that generate when violated. Prediction errors provide a possible explanation for , where evoked neural activity is attenuated across repeated presentations of the same stimulus. The predictive coding account argues repetition suppression arises because repeated stimuli are expected, whereas non-repeated stimuli are unexpected and thus elicit larger neural responses. Read More

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December 2018
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A neural network analysis of Lifeways cross-generation imputed data.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 14;11(1):897. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin, Ireland.

Objectives: Neural networks are a powerful statistical tool that use nonlinear regression type models to obtain predictions. Their use in the Lifeways cross-generation study that examined body mass index (BMI) of children, among other measures, is explored here. Our aim is to predict the BMI of children from that of their parents and maternal and paternal grandparents. Read More

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December 2018

Deriving Neural Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nanotoxicity Testing.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:57-72

College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into all lineages under defined control condition. Stem cell neuronal differentiation can faithfully recapitulate stages of neural development and generate neuronal progenitors, mature neurons, and glial cells. Stem cell technology will largely allow for the replacement of animal studies and reduce costs, and will provide a new paradigm for in toxic genomics, bioinformatics, systems biology, and epigenetics studies. Read More

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January 2019

Functional Imaging of Visuospatial Attention in Complex and Naturalistic Conditions.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Bron, France.

One of the ultimate goals of cognitive neuroscience is to understand how the brain works in the real world. Functional imaging with naturalistic stimuli provides us with the opportunity to study the brain in situations similar to the everyday life. This includes the processing of complex stimuli that can trigger many types of signals related both to the physical characteristics of the external input and to the internal knowledge that we have about natural objects and environments. Read More

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December 2018
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The 'Neglected' Personal Neglect.

Neuropsychol Rev 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.

A review of patients with brain injury showing personal neglect is presented. The aim is to shed light on this aspect of neglect often unresearched or only indirectly investigated, and to discuss recent findings concerning the methods used to assess personal neglect, its neural correlates and its association with the more often explored aspect of extrapersonal neglect. The review was performed using PubMed and PsychInfo databases to search for papers published in the last 123 years (until January 2018). Read More

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December 2018