1,145 results match your criteria Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

Gadolinium in Medical Imaging-Usefulness, Toxic Reactions and Possible Countermeasures-A Review.

Biomolecules 2022 May 24;12(6). Epub 2022 May 24.

Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, P.O. Box 104, N-2381 Brumunddal, Norway.

Gadolinium (Gd) is one of the rare-earth elements. The properties of its trivalent cation (Gd) make it suitable to serve as the central ion in chelates administered intravenously to patients as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging. Such Gd-chelates have been used for more than thirty years. Read More

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Zeroing on Gadolinium to Complement Intravascular Ultrasound in Zero-Contrast Percutaneous Coronary Interventions.

Hady Lichaa

J Invasive Cardiol 2022 Jun;34(6):E477-E480

University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Faculty of Medicine, 1840 Medical Center Pkwy, Suite 201, Murfreesboro, TN 37129 USA.

Background: Many techniques have been developed to minimize the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) through drastic reductions in iodinated contrast volume and the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). While some of the described techniques completely avoid contrast use and rely on transthoracic echocardiography to check for potential pericardial bleeding, this strategy may miss or delay the treatment of potentially life-threatening complications. We hereby propose the use of group II gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents, instead of iodinated contrast, to complement IVUS, in order to achieve the goal of zero-contrast percutaneous coronary intervention, without raising the risk of CIN. Read More

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Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents: Updates and Answers to Typical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Use.

Tex Heart Inst J 2022 05;49(3)

Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, Texas Heart Institute, Houston, Texas.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents have expanded the diagnostic usefulness and capability of magnetic resonance imaging. Despite their highly favorable safety profile, these agents have been associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis in a small number of patients who have advanced kidney disease. Recently, trace amounts of gadolinium deposition in the brain and other organs have been reported after contrast exposure, even in patients with normal renal function. Read More

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Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis with Osseous Metaplasia in a Kidney-Pancreas Transplant Patient.

Skinmed 2022 30;20(2):145-148. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Dermatology, Ed. Herriot Hospital, Lyon, France;

A French (Caucasian) woman with a history of nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiopathy, type 1 diabetes mellitus, cataract, and ante-hypophysary insufficiency had undergone multiple magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. She had developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and had undergone hemodialysis for 10 years before receiving a kidney-pancreas allotransplantation at the age of 48 years. She received antithymocyte globulins as induction immunosuppression and steroids (5 mg/d), mycophenolate mofetil (2 g/d), and tacrolimus (5 mg/d) as maintenance immunosuppression. Read More

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Cutaneous manifestations of acute kidney injury.

Clin Kidney J 2022 May 9;15(5):855-864. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Central Parkway, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common medical problem with a multitude of aetiologies. Prompt diagnosis and management is key in the prevention of complications. Cutaneous signs can often give diagnostic clues of underlying systemic diseases causing AKI. Read More

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Iron(iii) chelated paramagnetic polymeric nanoparticle formulation as a next-generation -weighted MRI contrast agent.

RSC Adv 2021 Sep 29;11(51):32216-32226. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Health Outcomes, The Ben and Maytee Fisch College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas Tyler TX 75799 USA

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a routinely used imaging technique in medical diagnostics. To enhance the quality of MR images, contrast agents (CAs) are used, which account for nearly 40% of MRI exams in the clinic globally. The most used CAs are gadolinium-based CAs (GBCAs) but the use of GBCAs has been linked with metal-deposition in vital organs. Read More

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September 2021

An Unusual Case of Deep Localized Scleroderma in a Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease.

P R Health Sci J 2022 03;41(1):45-48

Ponce Health Sciences University School of Medicine, Ponce, PR.

Localized scleroderma (LS) is a rare fibrosing disorder of skin and underlying tissues. Although it can affect all races, it has a higher prevalence in whites. Deep LS is the least common among seven LS variants, representing less than 5% of cases, and typically affects areas of pressure such as the hips and waist. Read More

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SIRM-SIN-AIOM: appropriateness criteria for evaluation and prevention of renal damage in the patient undergoing contrast medium examinations-consensus statements from Italian College of Radiology (SIRM), Italian College of Nephrology (SIN) and Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM).

Radiol Med 2022 May 18;127(5):534-542. Epub 2022 Mar 18.

Emergency Radiology, Policlinico Tor Vergata, Viale Oxford, 81, 00133, Rome, Italy.

The increasing number of examinations and interventional radiological procedures that require the administration of contrast medium (CM) in patients at risk for advanced age and/or comorbidities highlights the problem of CM-induced renal toxicity. A multidisciplinary group consisting of specialists of different disciplines-radiologists, nephrologists and oncologists, members of the respective Italian Scientific Societies-agreed to draw up this position paper, to assist clinicians increasingly facing the challenges posed by CM-related renal dysfunction in their daily clinical practice.The major risk factor for acute renal failure following CM administration (post-CM AKI) is the preexistence of renal failure, particularly when associated with diabetes, heart failure or cancer. Read More

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PEGylated amphiphilic polymeric manganese(II) complexes as magnetic resonance angiographic agents.

J Mater Chem B 2022 03 30;10(13):2204-2214. Epub 2022 Mar 30.

National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, P. R. China.

Currently, the most commonly used clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, Gd(III) chelates, have been found to be associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in renally compromised patients. Toxicity concerns related to Gd(III)-based agents prompted intensive research toward the development of safe, efficient, and long-cycle non-Gd contrast agents. Herein, three amphiphilic polymeric manganese (Mn) ligands (mPEG-P(L-a-HMDI)-mPEG, mPEG-P(L-a-HMDI)-mPEG and mPEG-P(L-a-HMDI)-mPEG) were synthesized, and then end-capped respectively with different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (mPEG 1 kD, 2 kD and 4 kD) to obtain amphiphilic polymer Mn ligands. Read More

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Gadodiamide Induced Autophagy and Apoptosis in Human Keratinocytes.

In Vivo 2022 Mar-Apr;36(2):603-609

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.;

Background/aim: Gadolinium has been reported to cause liver lobular necrosis and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. However, its toxicity to the skin remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a high dose of gadolinium-based contrast agent gadodiamide on the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Read More

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Renal Cell Carcinoma or Oncocytoma? The Contribution of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging to the Differential Diagnosis of Renal Masses.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Feb 1;58(2). Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Radiology Department, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara 06620, Turkey.

: Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 85% and oncocytomas constitute 3-7% of solid renal masses. Oncocytomas can be confused, especially with hypovascular RCC. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the contribution of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced MRI sequences in the differential diagnosis of RCC and oncocytoma : 465 patients with the diagnosis of RCC and 45 patients diagnosed with oncocytoma were retrospectively reviewed between 2009 to 2020. Read More

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February 2022

Scleral Plaques in Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis.

Cutis 2022 Jan;109(1):E31-E32

Division of Dermatology, University of California Los Angeles. Dr. Dreyer currently is from the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. Dr. Rodriguez currently is from Health Partners Park Nicollet, Burnsville, Minnesota. Dr. Worswick currently is from the Department of Dermatology, Keck Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California.

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January 2022

Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis in the Setting of Transient Renal Insufficiency.

Cutis 2021 Dec;108(6):342-344

Dr. Dinh is from Lehigh Valley Health Network, Dermatology Residency Program, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Dr. Phan is from the Family Medicine Residency Program, Kaiser Permanente Riverside Medical Center, California. Drs. Lountzis and Purcell are from Advanced Dermatology Associates, LTD, Allentown.

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a rare disease that can present in patients with kidney injury who have been exposed to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). These patients can easily be misdiagnosed as having another disease because they do not fit the usual presentation of being on hemodialysis. We report a case of NSF occurring in a patient with resolved transient renal insufficiency and no history of chronic renal disease. Read More

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December 2021

Boosting Vascular Imaging-Performance and Systemic Biosafety of Ultra-Small NaGdF Nanoparticles via Surface Engineering with Rationally Designed Novel Hydrophilic Block Co-Polymer.

Small Methods 2022 03 2;6(3):e2101145. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Center for Molecular Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School for Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X), Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215123, P. R. China.

Revealing the anatomical structures, functions, and distribution of vasculature via contrast agent (CA) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is crucial for precise medical diagnosis and therapy. The clinically used MRI CAs strongly rely on Gd-chelates, which exhibit low T relaxivities and high risks of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) for patients with renal dysfunction. It is extremely important to develop high-performance and safe CAs for MRI. Read More

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Delineating toxicity mechanisms associated with MRI contrast enhancement through a multidimensional toxicogenomic profiling of gadolinium.

Mol Omics 2022 03 28;18(3):237-248. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Gadolinium is a metal used in contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Although gadolinium is widely used in clinical settings, many concerns regarding its toxicity and bioaccumulation after gadolinium-based contrast agent administration have been raised and published over the last decade. To date, most toxicological studies have focused on identifying acute effects following gadolinium exposure, rather than investigating associated toxicity mechanisms. Read More

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Risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in oncology patients receiving gadoxetic acid and updated risk of estimate of NSF in patients receiving gadoxetic acid with moderate and severe renal impairment.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2022 03 7;47(3):1196-1201. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Radiology, The Ottawa Hospital, 1053 Carling Avenue, Room C159, Ottawa, ON, K1Y 4E9, Canada.

Objectives: Gadoxetic acid (GA) is a half-biliary excreted gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administered at lower dose than gadobenic acid with similar ionic structure. Gadobenic acid is considered low-risk for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with impaired renal function; however, safety of GA is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of NSF in oncology patients undergoing GA-enhanced MRI and to update the risk estimate of NSF in patients receiving GA with severe renal impairment. Read More

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Gadolinium: pharmacokinetics and toxicity in humans and laboratory animals following contrast agent administration.

Arch Toxicol 2022 02 8;96(2):403-429. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

GE Healthcare, Pollards Wood, Nightingales Lane, Chalfont St. Giles, UK.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have transformed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by facilitating the use of contrast-enhanced MRI to allow vital clinical diagnosis in a plethora of disease that would otherwise remain undetected. Although over 500 million doses have been administered worldwide, scientific research has documented the retention of gadolinium in tissues, long after exposure, and the discovery of a GBCA-associated disease termed nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, found in patients with impaired renal function. An understanding of the pharmacokinetics in humans and animals alike are pivotal to the understanding of the distribution and excretion of gadolinium and GBCAs, and ultimately their potential retention. Read More

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February 2022

Long-term safety of Gadofosveset in clinical practice.

Magn Reson Imaging 2022 02 27;86:70-73. Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Sweden; Vascular Center, Skåne University Hospital Lund/Malmö, Lund, Sweden. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically search for long-term complications, including Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF), in patients who were previously administered the gadolinium-based contrast agent Gadofosveset at our institute.

Materials And Methods: All patients who were administered Gadofosveset at our institute between 2006 and 2009 were identified in our Radiological Information System (RIS). Clinical data such as cause of death during follow-up, and dermatological or nephrological diseases were systematically searched for in electronic patient records (EPR). Read More

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February 2022

Recent Advances of Manganese-Based Hybrid Nanomaterials for Cancer Precision Medicine.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:707618. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Radiology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Cancer precision medicine (CPM) could tailor the best treatment for individual cancer patients, while imaging techniques play important roles in its application. With the characteristics of noninvasion, nonionized, radiation-free, multidimensional imaging function, and real-time monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an effective way for early tumor detection, and it has become a tower of strength in CPM imaging techniques. Due to linkage with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (CA), which was long used in MRI, has been restricted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Read More

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October 2021

Neutrophil elastase in the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)-like skin lesion in renal failure mouse model.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(10):e0259211. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Department, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Although neutrophil elastase (NE) may play a role in lung fibrosis and liver fibrosis, NE involvement in the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis has been unclear. We investigated the involvement of NE in the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis-like skin lesions post-injections of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents in renal failure mouse models. Renal failure mouse models were randomly divided into three groups: control group (saline), gadodiamide group, and gadopentetate group. Read More

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November 2021

Classification of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs)-adverse reactions.

Ingrid B Boehm

Magn Reson Imaging 2022 01 15;85:1-2. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

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January 2022

Evaluation of Renal Allograft Vasculature Using Non-contrast 3D Inversion Recovery Balanced Steady-state Free Precession MRA and 2D Quiescent-interval Slice-selective MRA.

Explor Res Hypothesis Med 2021 Sep 11;6(3):90-98. Epub 2021 May 11.

Radiology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background And Objectives: Renal transplant patients often require periodic imaging to evaluate the transplant vessel anastomosis for potential vascular complications. The use of non-contrast enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCE-MRA) techniques is encouraged in these patients because they are at increased risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) due to their renal insufficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of two NCE-MRA techniques (three-dimensional [3D] balanced steady-state free precession [bSSFP] with inversion recovery and quiescent-interval slice-selective [QISS]) for the evaluation of renal allograft vasculature in patients with clinical suspicion, or Doppler ultrasound, or both of arterial anastomotic stenosis. Read More

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September 2021

Toxicological Assessment of Gadodiamide in Normal Brain SVG P12 Cells.

In Vivo 2021 Sep-Oct;35(5):2621-2630

Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Background/aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique for evaluating patients with primary and metastatic tumors. The contrast agents improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI. Large quantities of a contrast agent must be administrated into the patient to obtain useful images, which leads to cell injury. Read More

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Biocompatible dextran-coated gadolinium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents with high T relaxivity and selective cytotoxicity to cancer cells.

J Mater Chem B 2021 09 9;9(33):6586-6599. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Kurnakov Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky av., 31, Moscow 119991, Russia.

Gd-based complexes are widely used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. The safety of previously approved contrast agents is questionable and is being re-assessed. The main causes of concern are possible gadolinium deposition in the brain and the development of systemic nephrogenic fibrosis after repeated use of MRI contrasts. Read More

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September 2021

Potential toxicity evaluation and comparison within multiple mice organs after repeat injections of linear versus macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agents: A comprehensive and time course study.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Oct 24;350:152-161. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu, Xuzhou, 221006, PR China. Electronic address:

As nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) and increased signal intensities in deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) were successively discovered in renal insufficiency patients and healthy persons after gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) exposure, an awareness of potential toxicity with GBCAs exposure has been heightening. Herein, we performed a multi-organ/tissue toxicity assessment after different GBCAs administration with a large number of samples, and long-term, time-course schedule investigation. ICR mice were randomized to five exposure groups (n = 42/group) and received intravenous injection of GBCAs (2. Read More

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October 2021

Neuroimaging Considerations in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 24;30(9):105930. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Radiology, University of California-Irvine USA.

Chronic Kidney Disease is a common medical condition that frequently overlaps with neurologic disease. Neuroimaging can be a useful tool to aid in the diagnoses of neurologic illness, including those that result from renal impairment. Some neuroimaging studies also have the potential to lead to adverse effects on the kidneys necessitating a thoughtful approach to selection of imaging modalities. Read More

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September 2021

2021 Update on Safety of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Joint Statement From Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society.

Can J Cardiol 2021 06;37(6):835-847

Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often considered the gold-standard test for characterizing cardiac as well as noncardiac structure and function. However, many patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and/or severe renal dysfunction are unable to undergo this test because of safety concerns. In the past 10 years, newer-generation CIEDs and gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) as well as coordinated care between imaging and heart rhythm device teams have mitigated risk to patients and improved access to MRI at many hospitals. Read More

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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: A frivolous entity.

World J Nephrol 2021 May;10(3):29-36

Department of Radiology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, FL, 35294-3412, United States.

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) used in magnetic resonance imaging are vital in providing enhanced quality images, essential for diagnosis and treatment. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) with GBCAs has been a deterrent for the physician and has led to avoidance of these agents in patients with impaired kidney function. NSF is a progressive debilitating multisystem condition described classically in patients with renal insufficiency exposed to gadolinium contrast media. Read More

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