Cell Death Discov 2019 Aug 5;5(1):124. Epub 2019 Aug 5.
Calcium Signaling Laboratory, Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 50 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC, 20422, USA.
Calcium crystal internalization into proximal tubular (PT) cells results in acute kidney injury, nephrocalcinosis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and kidney-stone formation. Ca supersaturation in PT luminal fluid induces calcium crystal formation, leading to aberrant crystal internalization into PT cells. While such crystal internalization produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell membrane damage, and apoptosis; the upstream signaling events involving dysregulation of intracellular Ca homeostasis and ER stress, remain largely unknown. Read More