195,309 results match your criteria Neoplasms Brain


Cerebrospinal fluid and intraoperative squash cytology of childhood ependymoma.

Acta Biomed 2021 May 12;92(2):e2021107. Epub 2021 May 12.

PEDIATRICIAN ONCOLOGIST.

Ependymomas are glial neoplasms of central nervous system originated from the ependymal lining of the brain ventricles and spinal cord central canal, and rarely exfoliated into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this case we report the cytomorphological and immunocytomorphological features of ependymoma in CSF and intraoperative squash preparations, confirmed by histology. Case report. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Awake craniotomy in brain tumors - Technique systematization and the state of the art.

Rev Col Bras Cir 2021 7;48:e20202722. Epub 2021 May 7.

- Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, Neurocirurgia - ISCMSP, SP, Brasil.

The anesthesia for awake craniotomy (AC) is a consecrated anesthetic technique that has been perfected over the years. Initially used to map epileptic foci, it later became the standard technique for the removal of glial neoplasms in eloquent brain areas. We present an AC anesthesia technique consisting of three primordial times, called awake-asleep-awake, and their respective particularities, as well as delve into the anesthetic medications used. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Associated with Bevacizumab during Chemotherapy for Clinical Stage Ⅳ Sigmoid Colon Cancer-A Case Report].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Apr;48(4):596-598

Dept. of Gastroenterological Surgery, Toho University Omori Medical Center.

The case is a 59‒year‒old woman. A detailed examination of fecal occult blood revealed a diagnosis of cStage Ⅳ sigmoid colon cancer cT3N1M1b(liver H2, hilar liver and celiac artery lymph nodes). After excision of the primary lesion, decided to give chemotherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[How to Preserve QOL of Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer-Cutting‒Edge Treatment of Brain and Bone Metastases].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2021 Apr;48(4):486-492

Dept. of Thoracic Oncology, Kobe Minimally Invasive Cancer Center.

Small cell lung cancer(SCLC)frequently develops both brain metastases and bone metastases. Considering the negative effects on quality of life(QOL), it is essential to manage properly these metastases. In patients with limited‒disease(LD) SCLC who have a good response to chemoradiotherapy, prophylactic cranial irradiation(PCI)is given to decrease brain metastases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Left Upper Lung Cancer with Mediastinal Inferior Lober Branch of Pulmonary Artery].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Feb;74(2):112-115

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata, Japan.

We herein report a rare case of an antero-basal pulmonary artery that was noticed during left upper lung lobectomy. A 61-year-old man underwent surgery and radiation for a brain tumor, which was diagnosed as a solitary metastasis of the primary lung cancer in the upper lobe of the left lung. He underwent left upper lobectomy for the lung cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Esophageal metastases from primary lung cancer: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2021 May 12;15(1):265. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Affiliated Taikang Xianlin Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210000, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Primary lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers. The common metastatic sites are the liver, bones, brain, adrenal glands and central nervous system. However, gastrointestinal metastases, particularly esophageal metastases, from lung cancer are rare. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Doubling Recruitment of Pediatric Low-grade Glioma within Two Decades does not change Outcome - Report from the German LGG Studies.

Klin Padiatr 2021 May 10;233(3):107-122. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Childhood Cancer Epidemiology, Institute of Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics (IMBEI), University Medical Centre of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Successive multicenter studies for pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG) in Germany were accompanied by a doubling of annual recruitment over 2 decades. We investigated whether this increase conveyed a change of epidemiologic characteristics or survival.

Methods And Results: Participating centers reported 4634 patients with the radiologic/histologic diagnosis of LGG (1996-2018), rising from 109 to 278/year. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Case report and literature review: antenatal diagnosis of a fetal anaplastic astrocytoma.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 May 9:1-7. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Ultrasound, The School of Clinical Medicine, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Objectives: To describe the ultrasonographic appearance of congenital anaplastic astrocytoma, so as to provide diagnostic clues for it. An updated review of the literature was also carried out.

Results: There was a case of fetal anaplastic astrocytoma detected by ultrasound at 37 + 1 weeks of gestation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Congenital medulloblastoma presented in the neonatal period.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Apr 22;11:e2021258. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Departamento de Patología y Citología, Monterrey, México.

Congenital medulloblastoma is a rare brain tumor that appears in less than 1% of pediatric patients. Congenital medulloblastoma has a poor prognosis and should be suspected in patients with clinical manifestations of hyporeactivity, slow suction reflexes, and the presence of hydrocephalus. Herein we present the case of a 12-day-old female newborn who developed non-communicative hydrocephalus, hyporeactivity, and hyporeflexia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A logistic regression model for prediction of glioma grading based on radiomics.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr;46(4):385-392

Department of Radiology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410008.

Objectives: Glioma is the most common intracranial primary tumor in central nervous system. Glioma grading possesses important guiding significance for the selection of clinical treatment and follow-up plan, and the assessment of prognosis. This study aims to explore the feasibility of logistic regression model based on radiomics to predict glioma grading. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of the Intracranial Extra-cerebral Chondroma:A Case Report].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):300-304

Department of Radiology,Hainan Hospital of Chinese PLA General Hospital,Sanya,Hainan 572013,China.

Intracranial intradural chondroma is a rare disorder,the imaging findings of which have been rarely reported.The current study reported a case of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma and described the detailed CT and magnetic resonance imaging findings,which would provide valuable imaging evidence for the diagnosis of intracranial extra-cerebral chondroma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oncolytic adenovirus and gene therapy with EphA2-BiTE for the treatment of pediatric high-grade gliomas.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, Cell and Gene Therapy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy

Background: Pediatric high-grade gliomas (pHGGs) are among the most common and incurable malignant neoplasms of childhood. Despite aggressive, multimodal treatment, the outcome of children with high-grade gliomas has not significantly improved over the past decades, prompting the development of innovative approaches.

Methods: To develop an effective treatment, we aimed at improving the suboptimal antitumor efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses (OAs) by testing the combination with a gene-therapy approach using a bispecific T-cell engager (BiTE) directed towards the erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma A2 receptor (EphA2), conveyed by a replication-incompetent adenoviral vector (EphA2 adenovirus (EAd)). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A nomogram for individualized prediction of overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma: a real-world retrospective cohort study.

BMC Surg 2021 May 6;21(1):238. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study aimed to identify the most valuable predictors of prognosis in glioblastoma (GBM) patients and develop and validate a nomogram to estimate individualized survival probability.

Methods: We conducted a real-world retrospective cohort study of 987 GBM patients diagnosed between September 2010 and December 2018. Computer generated random numbers were used to assign patients into a training cohort (694 patients) and internal validation cohort (293 patients). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Brainstem Infiltration Predicts Survival in Patients With High-grade Gliomas Treated With Chemoradiotherapy.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2583-2589

Department of Radiology, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.

Background/aim: High-grade gliomas have a poor prognosis despite standard treatment. The aim of the study was to identify new prognostic factors to select patients who need more intense treatment.

Patients And Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients underwent surgery plus chemoradiotherapy for pathologically diagnosed high-grade gliomas (grade III, IV). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effective Control of Brain Metastases Irrespective of Distance from Isocenter in Single-isocenter Multitarget Stereotactic Radiosurgery.

Anticancer Res 2021 May;41(5):2575-2581

Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Background/aim: Few previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of single-isocenter multitarget (SIMT) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in clinical practice.

Patients And Methods: Gross tumor volumes of 113 metastases in 13 patients were measured by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Prescribed doses were set at 20-24 Gy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

DNA methylation-based profiling of bone and soft tissue tumours: a validation study of the 'DKFZ Sarcoma Classifier'.

J Pathol Clin Res 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Department of Pathology, University College London, UCL Cancer Institute, London, UK.

Diagnosing bone and soft tissue neoplasms remains challenging because of the large number of subtypes, many of which lack diagnostic biomarkers. DNA methylation profiles have proven to be a reliable basis for the classification of brain tumours and, following this success, a DNA methylation-based sarcoma classification tool from the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) in Heidelberg has been developed. In this study, we assessed the performance of their classifier on DNA methylation profiles of an independent data set of 986 bone and soft tissue tumours and controls. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Docetaxel-loaded folate-modified TPGS-transfersomes for glioblastoma multiforme treatment.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 May 20;124:112033. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

School of Pharmaceutical Science of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a first primary Central Nervous System tumor with high incidence and lethality. Its treatment is hampered by the difficulty to overcome the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and by the non-specificity of chemotherapeutics to tumor cells. This study was based on the development characterization and in vitro efficacy of folate-modified TPGS transfersomes containing docetaxel (TF-DTX-FA) to improve GBM treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Imbalance in Coagulation/Fibrinolysis Inhibitors Resulting in Extravascular Thrombin Generation in Gliomas of Varying Levels of Malignancy.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Neoplastic processes are integrally related to disturbances in the mechanisms regulating hemostatic processes. Brain tumors, including gliomas, are neoplasms associated with a significantly increased risk of thromboembolic complications, affecting 20-30% of patients. As gliomas proliferate, they cause damage to the brain tissue and vascular structures, which leads to the release of procoagulant factors into the systemic circulation, and hence systemic activation of the blood coagulation system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for pure aqueduct tumors: surgical technique and case series.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University Kosuyolu Hospital, Kosuyolu Mah, Kosuyolu Cad. No: 168, 34718, Kadiköy, Istanbul, Turkey.

Purely aqueductal tumors represent a rare but distinct entity of neoplasms with characteristic morphology and clinical presentation. This study aims to describe the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach as a surgical option for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper part of the cerebral aqueduct and present the surgical results. Prospectively collected data of 4 patients undergoing the extreme anterior interhemispheric transcallosal approach for purely aqueductal tumors in the upper cerebral aqueduct was analyzed. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lymphoma involving the brain and adrenals: A chicken and egg situation.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Feb;71(2(B)):778

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital & Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan.

Primary cerebellar diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a rare entity, which manifests with neurological symptoms. It is aggressive in nature with high rate of recurrence and short survival period. It commonly presents with local invasion and rarely spreads outside the central nervous system. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Clinicopathological Features of Craniopharyngioma: A 15-Year Study From a Tertiary Care Center in Pakistan.

Cureus 2021 Mar 28;13(3):e14153. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Pathology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) are benign neoplasms and most common suprasellar tumors. They are more frequent in children, contributing to a significant number of intracranial tumors in the pediatric population and are thought to be arising either from the epithelial remnant cells of the craniopharyngeal duct or from the adenohypophysis epithelium. Two subtypes of CPs exist, namely, adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Detection of asymptomatic recurrence improves survival of gastric cancer patients.

Cancer Med 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The effect of long-term surveillance for asymptomatic patients after curative resection of gastric cancer is being debated. We compared the prognosis of Korean patients with recurrent gastric cancer according to the presence or absence of cancer-related symptoms at the time of recurrence detection.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 305 Korean patients who experienced recurrence after curative resection of primary gastric cancer between March 2002 and February 2017 at Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Binding of tyrosine kinase inhibitor to epidermal growth factor receptor: surface-enhanced infrared absorption microscopy reveals subtle protein secondary structure variations.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr;13(16):7667-7677

Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, S.S. 14 Km 163.5, I-34149, Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.

Surface-Enhanced Infrared Absorption (SEIRA) has been proposed as a valuable tool for protein binding studies, but its performances have been often proven on model proteins undergoing severe secondary structure rearrangements, while ligand binding only marginally involves the protein backbone in the vast majority of the biologically relevant cases. In this study we demonstrate the potential of SEIRA microscopy for highlighting the very subtle secondary structure modifications associated with the binding of Lapatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a well-known driver of tumorigenesis in pathological settings such as lung, breast and brain cancers. By boosting the performances of Mid-IR plasmonic devices based on nanoantennas cross-geometry, accustoming the protein purification protocols, carefully tuning the protein anchoring methodology and optimizing the data analysis, we were able to detect EGFR secondary structure modification associated with few amino acids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Imaging Mimics of Brain Tumors.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May 23;59(3):457-470. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, PO Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA 22908-0170, USA. Electronic address:

Nonneoplastic entities may closely resemble the imaging findings of primary or metastatic intracranial neoplasia, posing diagnostic challenges for the referring provider and radiologist. Prospective identification of brain tumor mimics is an opportunity for the radiologist to add value to patient care by decreasing time to diagnosis and avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures and medical therapies, but requires familiarity with mimic entities and a high degree of suspicion on the part of the interpreting radiologist. This article provides a framework for the radiologist to identify "brain tumor mimics," highlighting imaging and laboratory pearls and pitfalls, and illustrating unique and frequently encountered lesions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Radiogenomics of Gliomas.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):441-455

Department of Radiology and Neurology, Division of Neuroradiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Mail Code H066 500, University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

The 2016 World Health Organization brain tumor classification is based on genomic and molecular profile of tumor tissue. These characteristics have improved understanding of the brain tumor and played an important role in treatment planning and prognostication. There is an ongoing effort to develop noninvasive imaging techniques that provide insight into tissue characteristics at the cellular and molecular levels. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Imaging of Neurologic Injury following Oncologic Therapy.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May 23;59(3):425-440. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Neuroradiology, Penn State Milton Hershey Medical Center, Penn State College of Medicine, Mail Code H066 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA; Department of Radiology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA; Department of Neurology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Neurologic injury arises from treatment of central nervous system malignancies as result of direct toxic effects or indirect vascular, autoimmune, or infectious effects. Multimodality treatment may potentiate both therapeutic and toxic effects. Symptoms range from mild to severe and permanent. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Neoplastic Meningitis and Paraneoplastic Syndromes.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):409-423

Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical School and Parkland Hospital, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Neoplastic meningitis (NM) and paraneoplastic syndromes (PNSs) are a rare group of disorders present in patients with cancer. Clinical diagnosis of these conditions is challenging, and imaging and laboratory analysis play a significant role in diagnosing. Diagnosis of NM largely depends on documenting circulating tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or leptomeningeal and nodular enhancement on contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the brain or axial spine. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Imaging Surveillance of Gliomas: Role of Basic and Advanced Imaging Techniques.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):395-407

Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Michigan Medicine, 1500 East Medical Center Drive, UMHS, B2-A209, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address:

It is essential to be aware of widely accepted criteria for grading of treatment response in both high-grade and low-grade gliomas. These criteria primarily take into account responses of measurable and nonmeasurable lesions on T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and postcontrast images to determine a final category of response for the patient. The additional role that other advanced imaging techniques, such as diffusion and perfusion imaging, can play in the surveillance of these tumors is discussed in this article. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Presurgical Mapping of Brain Tumors.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):377-393

Division of Neuroradiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

When planning for brain tumor resection, a balance between maximizing resection and minimizing injury to eloquent brain parenchyma is paramount. The advent of blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging has allowed researchers and clinicians to reliably measure physiologic fluctuations in brain oxygenation related to neuronal activity with good spatial resolution. fMR imaging can offer a unique insight into preoperative planning for brain tumors by identifying eloquent areas of the brain affected or spared by the neoplasm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cellular and Molecular Imaging with SPECT and PET in Brain Tumors.

Radiol Clin North Am 2021 May;59(3):363-375

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 601 North Caroline Street, JHOC 3150, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

This review highlights the 2 major molecular imaging modalities that are used in clinics, namely single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), and their added value in management of patients with brain tumors. There are a variety of SPECT and PET radiotracers that can allow imaging of different molecular processes. Those radiotracers target specific molecular features of tumors, resulting in improved specificity of these agents. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF