208,185 results match your criteria Neoplasms Brain

Impact of Novel Hormonal Agents (Abiraterone, Enzalutamide) on the Development of Visceral and/or Brain Metastases in Patients With Bone-metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Oncology, CHU Bretonneau Centre, Tours University, Tours, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: The overall survival (OS) of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients has improved since 2011 with the use of novel hormonal agents (NHAs). The incidence of brain metastases (mets) has been reported to increase since 2004 with the use of docetaxel, but not the incidence of visceral mets. Our objective was to study whether the use of NHAs increases the risk of developing visceral or brain mets (VBMs). Read More

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Granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system: Approach to diagnosis.

Sundaram Challa

Indian J Pathol Microbiol 2022 May;65(Supplement):S125-S134

Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine, Basavatarakam Indo-American Cancer Hospital and Research Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) granulomas is challenging. The etiology may be infectious or non-infectious. The infectious causes are due to mycobacteria, fungi, parasites and rarely bacteria. Read More

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Utility of Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Assay to Detect 1p/19q Co-Deletion in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Glioma Specimens.

Hum Pathol 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Johns Hopkins Genomics; Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Cytogenetics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University Hospital, Baltimore, MD 21205. Electronic address:

Molecular classification of brain neoplasms is important for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcome of histologically similar tumors. Oligodendroglioma is a glioma subtype characterized by 1p/19q co-deletion and IDH1/IDH2 mutations, which predicts a good prognosis, responsiveness to therapy and an improved overall survival compared to other adult gliomas. In a routine clinical setting, 1p/19q co-deletion is detected by interphase-FISH and SNP microarray, and somatic mutations are detected by targeted next generation sequencing (NGS). Read More

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Modeling of cancer-related body-wide effects identifies LTB4 as a diagnostic biomarker for pancreatic cancer.

EBioMedicine 2022 May 10;80:104050. Epub 2022 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Cancer Institute, School of Medicine, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Cancer elicits a complex adaptive response in an organism. Limited information is available for the body-wide effects induced by cancer. Here, we evaluated multiorgan changes in mouse models of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its precursor lesions (pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, PanIN) to decipher changes that occur during PDAC development. Read More

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The role of patient primary language in access to brain tumor resection: Evaluating emergent admission and hospital volume.

J Cancer Policy 2021 Dec 20;30:100306. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Harvard Medical School, 260 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, United States; Center for Surgery and Public Health, Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1620 Tremont St Suite 2-016, Boston, MA, 02120, United States.

Background: This study investigated the effect of limited English proficiency on access to neuro-oncologic surgery. We compared rates of emergent/urgent admission and admission to high-volume hospitals for English and non-English primary language patients with brain neoplasms.

Methods: Using the AHRQ-HCUP New Jersey State Inpatient Database, we included patients 18-90 years old who underwent resection of a supratentorial primary brain tumor (PBT), meningioma (MA) or brain metastasis (BM) from 2009-2017. Read More

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December 2021

Cucurbitacin B and Evodiamine imparts anti-neoplastic effects against Glioblastoma Multiforme via PI3-K/AKT signaling pathway.

FASEB J 2022 May;36 Suppl 1

Pharmacology & Toxicology, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY.

Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant and aggressive brain tumor. Patients' survival is around 6 to 12 months even with chemotherapy and surgery. Temozolomide is a first line chemotherapeutic treatment prescribed along with surgery but due to the high resistance to the drug and a low patient survival rate, new drugs and drug combinations must continue to be investigated and developed. Read More

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Differences in age at diagnosis of ovarian cancer for each mutation type in Japan: optimal timing to carry out risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy.

J Gynecol Oncol 2022 Mar 31. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Division of Breast Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: and mutation carriers are recommended to undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) by age 40 and 45, respectively. However, the carriers have a different way of thinking about their life plan. We aimed to investigate the distribution of age at diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC) patients to examine the optimal timing of RRSO in the carriers. Read More

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Neuropsychological functioning in childhood cancer survivors following cranial radiotherapy - results from a long-term follow-up clinic.

Neurocase 2022 May 12:1-10. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Treatment of malignant childhood posterior fossa tumors (CPFT) often includes surgical resection and craniospinal radiotherapy (CSI). Nasopharyngeal tumors in childhood (CNPHT) are often treated with surgery and radiotherapy (RT), leading to incidental brain irradiation. RT to the developing brain is associated with risks for cognitive impairments. Read More

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Recurrent L3 Chordoma Presented as Intradural Extramedullary Mass With Distant Metastasis: A Case Report.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2022 Apr;10(2):123-128

Department of Cancer Control, National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang, Korea.

Here, we report a rare case of L3 chordoma progressed to an intradural extramedullary (IDEM) mass and distant metastasis to the fascia lata. A 64-year old female patient presented to a local university hospital due to back pain and received excisional biopsy for a L3 destructive bony lesion. Local radiation therapy was initially administered, assuming a malignancy of unknown origin, but she developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage during adjuvant radiation therapy, which was managed by wound revision and lumbar drainage. Read More

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Rapid-Growing Intracranial Immature Teratoma Presenting Obstructive Hydrocephalus and Abducens Nerve Palsy: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2022 Apr;10(2):117-122

Department of Neurosurgery, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Intracranial immature teratoma is an extremely rare disease with poor prognosis and requires complicated treatment. Owing to the deep midline location of the tumor, total surgical resection of the tumor is challenging. We present our experience with a fast-growing pineal gland immature teratoma in a 4-year-old boy, who presented with obstructive hydrocephalus and abducens nerve palsy, which was treated with total surgical resection of the tumor. Read More

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Recent Updates on Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Optic Pathway Glioma.

Brain Tumor Res Treat 2022 Apr;10(2):94-100

Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Optic pathway glioma (OPG) is a rare tumor located in optic nerve, optic tract, or optic chiasm. Treatment options for OPG include surgery, radiation therapy (RT), and chemotherapy. Although RT may provide favorable long-term outcomes in manner of either adjuvant or salvage aim, chemotherapy-first approach is increasingly performed due to possible late effects of RT. Read More

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Diagnosis and Management of Stroke in Adults with Primary Brain Tumor.

Curr Oncol Rep 2022 May 11. Epub 2022 May 11.

National Institutes of Health/ National Cancer Institute/Neuro-Oncology Branch, 9030 Old Georgetown Road, Building 82, MD, 20892, Bethesda, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This article reviews the risk factors, clinical presentations, differential diagnosis, and the types of strokes frequently seen in patients with primary brain neoplasms. This includes a discussion of approaches with a review of the available literature and provides recommendations for primary and secondary prevention specific to this patient population.

Recent Findings: Strokes in patients with brain tumors are often multifactorial. Read More

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Venous Thromboembolism In Cancer Patients: "From Evidence to Care".

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2022 Jan-Dec;28:10760296221098717

Medical Oncology Department, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Ourense, Ourense, Spain.

This article seeks to review the current status of treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) in cancer patients after the addition of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) to the therapeutic arsenal available. The suitability of DOAC use in complex clinical situations, poorly represented in clinical trials, is controversial and difficult for care activity, making the recommendations in clinical practice guidelines the focus of special attention in this area. Recently, several randomized trials have compared low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) to DOAC for the management of CAT. Read More

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[Expression of Glutathione Peroxidases and Its Effect on Clinical Prognosis in Glioma Patients].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2022 Apr;44(2):276-285

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics,School of Public Health,Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine,Xianyang,Shaanxi 712046,China.

Objective To investigate the relationship between the expression of glutathione peroxidase(GPX)genes and the clinical prognosis in glioma patients,and to construct and evaluate the model for predicting the prognosis of glioma. Methods The clinical information and GPX expression of 663 patients,including 153 patients of glioblastoma(GBM)and 510 patients of low-grade glioma(LGG),were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA)database.The relationship between GPX expression and patient survival was analyzed. Read More

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Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Glioblastoma Based on Transcriptome and Proteome Association Analysis.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2022 Jan-Dec;21:15330338211035270

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Nangang, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Objective: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant primary brain tumor in adults. This study aimed to identify significant prognostic biomarkers related to GBM.

Methods: We collected 3 GBM and 3 healthy human brain samples for transcriptome and proteomic sequencing analysis. Read More

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Tracing the origins of glioblastoma by investigating the role of gliogenic and related neurogenic genes/signaling pathways in GBM development: a systematic review.

World J Surg Oncol 2022 May 10;20(1):146. Epub 2022 May 10.

Sindh Medical College - Jinnah Sindh Medical University / Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive tumors. The etiology and the factors determining its onset are not yet entirely known. This study investigates the origins of GBM, and for this purpose, it focuses primarily on developmental gliogenic processes. Read More

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The "Great Debate" at Melanoma Bridge 2021, December 2nd-4th, 2021.

J Transl Med 2022 May 10;20(1):200. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Medicine, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.

The Great Debate session at the 2021 Melanoma Bridge virtual congress (December 2-4) featured counterpoint views from experts on seven important issues in melanoma. The debates considered the use of adoptive cell therapy versus use of bispecific antibodies, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors versus immunotherapy in the adjuvant setting, whether the use of corticosteroids for the management of side effects have an impact on outcomes, the choice of programmed death (PD)-1 combination therapy with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 or lymphocyte-activation gene (LAG)-3, whether radiation is needed for brain metastases, when lymphadenectomy should be integrated into the treatment plan and then the last debate, telemedicine versus face-to-face. As with previous Bridge congresses, the debates were assigned by meeting Chairs and positions taken by experts during the debates may not have necessarily reflected their respective personal view. Read More

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Liquid biopsies to occult brain metastasis.

Mol Cancer 2022 May 10;21(1):113. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68108, USA.

Brain metastasis (BrM) is a major problem associated with cancer-related mortality, and currently, no specific biomarkers are available in clinical settings for early detection. Liquid biopsy is widely accepted as a non-invasive method for diagnosing cancer and other diseases. We have reviewed the evidence that shows how the molecular alterations are involved in BrM, majorly from breast cancer (BC), lung cancer (LC), and melanoma, with an inception in how they can be employed for biomarker development. Read More

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The Prognostic Significance of Spliceosomal Proteins for Patients with Glioblastoma.

Dokl Biochem Biophys 2022 Apr 10;503(1):71-75. Epub 2022 May 10.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is considered one of the most aggressive human cancers. Earlier, our group have demonstrated that alternative RNA splicing plays an important role in the regulation of the GBM phenotype. To continue this study, we analyzed the type of RNA splicing and the expression levels of the spliceosomal genes in a large number of tumor tissue samples and patient-derived GBM sphere lines. Read More

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Infiltrating natural killer cells bind, lyse and increase chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma stem-like tumorospheres.

Commun Biol 2022 May 10;5(1):436. Epub 2022 May 10.

Division of Oral Biology and Medicine, The Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology, University of California School of Dentistry, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Glioblastomas remain the most lethal primary brain tumors. Natural killer (NK) cell-based therapy is a promising immunotherapeutic strategy in the treatment of glioblastomas, since these cells can select and lyse therapy-resistant glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSLCs). Immunotherapy with super-charged NK cells has a potential as antitumor approach since we found their efficiency to kill patient-derived GSLCs in 2D and 3D models, potentially reversing the immunosuppression also seen in the patients. Read More

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Is Mini Beam Ready for Human Trials? Results of Randomized Study of Treating De-Novo Brain Tumors in Canines Using Linear Accelerator Generated Mini Beams.

Radiat Res 2022 May 10. Epub 2022 May 10.

Radiation Physics, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, Saskatoon Cancer Centre, Saskatoon, SK Canada S7N4H4.

The main challenge in treating malignant brain neoplasms lies in eradicating the tumor while minimizing treatment-related damage. Conventional radiation treatments are associated with considerable side effects. Synchrotron generated micro-beam radiation (SMBRT) has shown to preserve brain architecture while killing tumor cells, however physical characteristics and limited facility access restrict its use. Read More

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Natural history and volumetric analysis of meningiomas in neurofibromatosis type 2.

Neurosurg Focus 2022 05;52(5):E5

1Department of Neurological Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.

Objective: The objective of this paper was to describe the volumetric natural history of meningiomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2).

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective descriptive study by reviewing NF2 patients with meningiomas at their institution between 2000 and 2019. Demographic data were collected from the electronic medical records. Read More

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The role of frailty in the clinical management of neurofibromatosis type 1: a mixed-effects modeling study using the Nationwide Readmissions Database.

Neurosurg Focus 2022 05;52(5):E3

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: Frailty embodies a state of increased medical vulnerability that is most often secondary to age-associated decline. Recent literature has highlighted the role of frailty and its association with significantly higher rates of morbidity and mortality in patients with CNS neoplasms. There is a paucity of research regarding the effects of frailty as it relates to neurocutaneous disorders, namely, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Read More

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The role of neurosurgery in the management of tuberous sclerosis complex-associated epilepsy: a systematic review.

Neurosurg Focus 2022 05;52(5):E6

2Department of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; and.

Objective: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem neurocutaneous disorder associated with cortical tubers, brain lesions seen in nearly all patients with TSC, which are frequently epileptogenic. Seizures are often the earliest clinical manifestation of TSC, leading to epilepsy in over 70% of patients. Medical management with antiepileptic drugs constitutes early therapy, but over 50% develop medically refractory epilepsy, necessitating surgical evaluation and treatment. Read More

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A Gambogic Acid-Loaded Delivery System Mediated by Ultrasound-Targeted Microbubble Destruction: A Promising Therapy Method for Malignant Cerebral Glioma.

Int J Nanomedicine 2022 3;17:2001-2017. Epub 2022 May 3.

Henan Key Laboratory of Medical Tissue Regeneration, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, Henan, 453003, People's Republic of China.

Background: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) inhibits the delivery of macromolecular chemotherapeutic drugs to brain tumors, leading to low utilization rates and toxic side effects to surrounding tissues and organs. Ultrasonic targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) technology can open the BBB, leading to a new type of drug delivery system with particular utility in glioma.

Purpose: We have developed a new type of drug-loaded microbubble complex based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) that targets gambogic acid (GA) to the area of brain tumors through UTMD. Read More

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Single-cell profiling of human dura and meningioma reveals cellular meningeal landscape and insights into meningioma immune response.

Genome Med 2022 May 10;14(1):49. Epub 2022 May 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Recent investigations of the meninges have highlighted the importance of the dura layer in central nervous system immune surveillance beyond a purely structural role. However, our understanding of the meninges largely stems from the use of pre-clinical models rather than human samples.

Methods: Single-cell RNA sequencing of seven non-tumor-associated human dura samples and six primary meningioma tumor samples (4 matched and 2 non-matched) was performed. Read More

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Novel approaches to the management of patients with 5-15 brain metastases: a narrative review.

Chin Clin Oncol 2022 Apr;11(2):17

Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Background And Objective: The management of metastatic disease has been greatly influenced by molecular-based tumor classification and associated therapeutic targets, leading to a significant improvement in survival in many cases. This improvement, in both progression free survival and overall survival, has led to an increased incidence of brain metastases (BM) in a population with systemically well controlled disease or patients with promising therapeutic options available. Within this review, we discuss the paradigm of treatment for 5 to 15 BM, and how the treatment has evolved away from short-term palliation towards providing long term intracranial control. Read More

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The modern management of untreated large (>2 cm) brain metastases: a narrative review.

Chin Clin Oncol 2022 Apr;11(2):16

Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: Our objective was to identify contemporary management options for large brain metastases reported in literature, specifically evaluating local control and risk of toxicity.

Background: Large brain metastases are typically defined as lesions >2 cm in diameter, and historically conferred poor outcomes due to the high rates of radiation necrosis and less local control in comparison to smaller brain metastases.

Methods: A literature search examining modern management of large brain metastases was performed using ovid-MEDLINE. Read More

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Optimal management of brainstem metastases: a narrative review.

Chin Clin Oncol 2022 Apr;11(2):15

Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background And Objective: Brainstem metastases comprise fewer than 7% of all brain metastases. Nonetheless, they present clinicians with unique clinical challenges in symptom management and treatment. No comprehensive review summarizing the management of brainstem metastases exists. Read More

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Modern approaches to the management of brain metastases: embracing a multi-modal paradigm.

Chin Clin Oncol 2022 Apr;11(2)

Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

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