30,377 results match your criteria Neonatology Today[Journal]


A Pilot Study of Soluble Form of LOX-1 as a Novel Biomarker for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

J Pediatr 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Mental Retardation and Birth Defect Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the soluble form of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) as a biomarker of severity staging and prognosis in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

Study Design: We performed an observational study enrolling 27 infants with HIE and 45 control infants of gestational age ≥36 weeks and birth weight ≥1800 g. The HIE criteria were pH ≤7. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from children with acute otitis media in Liuzhou, China.

BMC Pediatr 2018 Dec 15;18(1):388. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: There have been few studies focused on the prevalence, bacterial etiology, antibiotic resistance, and genetic background of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in children with acute otitis media (AOM) in China.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic Hypothermia in Brazil: A MultiProfessional National Survey.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal Division, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective:  To determine the rate of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) use, current practices, and long-term follow-up.

Study Design:  Prospective cross-sectional national survey with 19 questions related to the assessment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and TH practices. An online questionnaire was made available to health care professionals working in neonatal care in Brazil. Read More

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December 2018
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Intentional early delivery versus expectant management for preterm premature rupture of membranes at 28-32 weeks' gestation: A multicentre randomized controlled trial (MICADO STUDY).

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Dec 5;233:30-37. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hôpital Femme Mère Enfant, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Objectives: Preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes (PPROM) exposes the fetus to preterm birth, and optimal timing for delivery is controversial. The aim of this study was to compare intentional early delivery ("active management") with expectant management in very preterm birth (28-32 weeks).

Study Design: We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial with intent-to-treat analysis, at 19 tertiary-care hospitals in France and 1 in Geneva, Switzerland. Read More

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December 2018

Physical exercise enhances adult cortical plasticity in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic injury: Evidence from BOLD-fMRI and electrophysiological recordings.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Health Sciences and Technology, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, South Korea; Animal Research and Molecular Imaging, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, 06351, South Korea; Department of Global Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Neuroplasticity is considered essential for recovery from brain injury in developing brains. Recent studies indicate that it is especially effective during early postnatal development and during the critical period. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and local field potential (LFP) electrophysiological recordings in rats that experienced neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury during the critical period to demonstrate that physical exercise (PE) can improve cortical plasticity even when performed during adulthood, after the critical period. Read More

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December 2018

Five-year outcome of children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: the NEPHROVIR population-based cohort study.

Pediatr Nephrol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hôpital Robert-Debré, APHP, 48 Bd Serurier, 75019, Paris, France.

Background: The optimal therapeutic regimen for children at onset of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) is still under debate. A better knowledge of the disease's course is necessary to design more appropriate and/or personalized treatment protocols.

Methods: We report the 5-year outcome of patients included from December 2007 to May 2010 in the prospective multicentric and multiethnic population-based NEPHROVIR study. Read More

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December 2018
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Neonatal orbital swelling due to intracranial teratoma.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Paediatric Medicine, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.

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December 2018

Inhaled Epoprostenol for Pulmonary Hypertension Treatment in Neonates: A 12-Year Experience.

Am J Perinatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, CHU de Québec, Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada.

Background:  Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) occurs in 10% of neonatal respiratory insufficiency. To selectively reduce pulmonary vascular resistance, several treatments have been tried. Inhaled epoprostenol (iPGI) has been used for 12 years in our institution for the management of refractory PPHN despite the gaps in the literature to support this use. Read More

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December 2018
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Type VI collagen promotes lung epithelial cell spreading and wound-closure.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209095. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Neonatology and Pediatric Molecular and Personalized Medicine Program, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, United States of America.

Basement membrane (BM) is an essential part of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that plays a crucial role in mechanical support and signaling to epithelial cells during lung development, homeostasis and repair. Abnormal composition and remodeling of the lung ECM have been associated with developmental abnormalities observed in multiple pediatric and adult respiratory diseases. Collagen VI (COL6) is a well-studied muscle BM component, but its role in the lung and its effect on pulmonary epithelium is largely undetermined. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads
3.234 Impact Factor

Noma Neonatorum: A Disease Long Forgotten.

Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Dec;20(12):784-785

Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns, Rabin Medical Center (Beilinson Campus), Petah Tikva, Israel.

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December 2018

Prospective study of pulmonary hypertension in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Neonatology, Cumming School of Medicine, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: To evaluate the prevalence, risk factors, and optimal timing of echocardiogram for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Design: In this prospective study, infants with gestational age (GA) <30 weeks admitted to a tertiary NICU between July 2015 and June 2017 who required positive pressure ventilation or oxygen therapy at ≥28 days of life were evaluated with serial echocardiograms at study enrollment (4-6 weeks of age), 32 weeks (only for ≤25 weeks), 36, and 40 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) for PH.

Results: Of 126 infants (mean birth weight 858 ± 221 g; mean GA 26. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of high frequency oscillatory high flow nasal cannula on carbon dioxide clearance in a premature infant lung model: A bench study.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

CHOP Newborn Care at Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: This study compared CO clearance in a premature infant lung model connected to a high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) system supplied with oscillatory versus non-oscillatory flow.

Design/methods: The lung model was set to compliance 1.0 mL/cmH O, RR 60 breaths/min, and 6 mL tidal volume. Read More

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December 2018
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Dishonesty in health care practice: A behavioral experiment on upcoding in neonatology.

Health Econ 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Business Administration and Health Care Management, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Dishonest behavior significantly increases the cost of medical care provision. Upcoding of patients is a common form of fraud to attract higher reimbursements. Imposing audit mechanisms including fines to curtail upcoding is widely discussed among health care policy-makers. Read More

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December 2018

Early assessment of lateralization and sex influences on the microstructure of the white matter corticospinal tract in healthy term neonates.

J Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

MRI Research, CHU Amiens-Picardie, Amiens, France.

We assessed the sex and the lateralization differences in the corticospinal tract (CST) during the early postnatal period. Twenty-five healthy term neonates (13 girls, aged 39.2 ± 1. Read More

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December 2018

What is a hemodynamically significant PDA in preterm infants?

Congenit Heart Dis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Fetal and Neonatal Institute, Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Department of Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: There is no consensus on the definition of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA). In this review article, our objective is to discuss the main variables that one should consider when determining the hemodynamic significance of a PDA.

Results: We describe the various approaches that have been utilized over time to define an hsPDA and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each echocardiographic index. Read More

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December 2018

Maternal body mass index and smoking during pregnancy do not affect the proportional sexual dimorphism for birth weight- an analysis of the German Perinatal Survey.

Anthropol Anz 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Male sex has been reported as a risk factor for perinatal mortality. It can be hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy and low maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) would lead to a higher proportion of growth restricted male compared to female newborns. The objective of the study was to analyze sex-specific differences in birth weight related to smoking and maternal BMI. Read More

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December 2018

Smoking and susceptibility to prostate cancer: what is the truth?

Minerva Urol Nefrol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Division of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Moscati Hospital, Aversa, Italy -

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December 2018

EMPATHIC-N in a Greek-Cypriot sample: confirming its factorial structure.

BMC Health Serv Res 2018 Dec 14;18(1):968. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Health Management Unit, Open University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Background: Family-centered care has been receiving increased attention during the last decades and health professionals recognize family satisfaction with care as an important health indicator. The Empowerment of Parents in The Intensive Care-Neonatology (EMPATHIC-N) is a newly developed, yet empirically reliable and valid measure for the assessment of parental satisfaction with the care provided by Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). The present study aims to present the Greek version of the EMPATHIC-N and to confirm its factorial structure. Read More

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December 2018

Pediatric Thrombotic Events: Incidence, Clinical Risk Factors and Outcome.

Indian J Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neonatology, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Puducherry, 605006, India.

Objective: To study the incidence, clinical risk factors and outcome of thrombotic events in pediatric age group of 1 mo-12 y.

Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care institute from September 2015 through October 2017. Forty nine children with thrombosis from 1 mo-12 y were enrolled. Read More

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December 2018
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Hypoglycemic Profile of Exclusively Breastfed Low Birth Weight Neonates.

Indian J Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Tata Motors Hospital, Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India.

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December 2018
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Performance on Paladai Feeding of Preterm Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Indian J Pediatr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Newborn Health Knowledge Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, 110029, India.

Objective: To evaluate the feeding performance of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) on paladai.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in a level III neonatal unit in North India from March through August 2012. Nineteen infants (27-32 wk of gestation) were enrolled; 9 in BPD group (oxygen requirement for at least 28 d) and 10 in 'No BPD' group. Read More

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December 2018
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Imaging of Bronchial Pathology in Antibody Deficiency: Data from the European Chest CT Group.

J Clin Immunol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Paediatric Immunology Unit, Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, Allergology and Neonatology, Hanover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Studies of chest computed tomography (CT) in patients with primary antibody deficiency syndromes (ADS) suggest a broad range of bronchial pathology. However, there are as yet no multicentre studies to assess the variety of bronchial pathology in this patient group. One of the underlying reasons is the lack of a consensus methodology, a prerequisite to jointly document chest CT findings. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with higher disease activity and the risk for uveitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis - data from a German inception cohort.

Arthritis Res Ther 2018 Dec 13;20(1):276. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

German Rheumatism Research Center, a Leibniz Institute, Charitéplatz 1, 10117, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: The objective was to evaluate the 25(OH) vitamin D (25(OH)D) status of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and determine whether the 25(OH)D level is associated with disease activity and the course of JIA.

Methods: Patients ≤ 16 years of age with recently diagnosed JIA (< 12 months) were enrolled in the inception cohort of patients with newly diagnosed JIA (ICON), an ongoing prospective observational, controlled multicenter study started in 2010. Clinical and laboratory parameters were ascertained quarterly during the first year and half-yearly thereafter. Read More

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December 2018

Infection-free rates and Sequelae predict factors in bone transportation for infected tibia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2018 Dec 13;19(1):442. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guoxue Lane, Wuhou District, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Tibia infected nonunion and chronic osteomyelitis are challenging clinical presentations. Bone transportation with external or hybrid fixators (combined external and internal fixators) is versatile to solve these problems. However, the infection-free rates of these fixator systems are unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Non-Contact, Simple Neonatal Monitoring by Photoplethysmography.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 10;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Neonatology, San Carlos Clinical Hospital, Madrid 28040, Spain.

This paper presents non-contact vital sign monitoring in neonates, based on image processing, where a standard color camera captures the plethysmographic signal and the heart and breathing rates are processed and estimated online. It is important that the measurements are taken in a non-invasive manner, which is imperceptible to the patient. Currently, many methods have been proposed for non-contact measurement. Read More

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December 2018

A pilot study of limb stimulation for the treatment of neonatal apnea.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e12827

Department of Neonatology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, China.

This study explored the feasibility effect and safety of the limb stimulation (LS) for the treatment of neonatal apnea (NAP).The cases of 30 eligible premature infants with NAP were included in this retrospective study. These cases were equally divided into an intervention group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). Read More

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December 2018

Routine versus Selective Fortification of Human Milk with Powdered Human Milk Fortifiers in Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Preterm Infants: A Retrospective Pre-Post Cohort Study.

J Trop Pediatr 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Paediatrics and Neonatology, Cloudnine Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to show the effects of routine vs. selective fortification of human milk (HM) on short-term growth and metabolic parameters.

Methods: Single-centre retrospective pre-post cohort study in India. Read More

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December 2018

Quantification of fetal steroids in nails of neonates to quantify prenatal stress and growth restriction.

Biol Psychol 2018 Dec 10;140:81-85. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

General Pediatrics, Neonatology and Pediatric Cardiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Moorenstraße 5, 40225, Düsseldorf, Germany. Electronic address:

This study assesses the impact of prenatal stress and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in nails of newborns. Nail samples were gained from 56 newborn infants. The concentration of DHEA and DHEAS was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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December 2018

Medium- to Long-term Follow-up of Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Neonatology, Sydney Medical School Nepean, The University of Sydney, Kingswood, NSW, Australia.

Background: Obstetric anal sphincter injury is the primary modifiable risk factor for anal incontinence in women. Currently, endoanal ultrasound is most commonly used to detect residual anal sphincter defects after childbirth. Translabial ultrasound has recently been introduced as a noninvasive alternative. Read More

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December 2018

Pharyngo-Esophageal and Cardio-Respiratory Interactions: Potential Implications for Premature Infants at-risk of Clinically Significant Cardiorespiratory Events.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Section of Neonatology-Pediatric Gastroenterology, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, United States.

Objective: Aims were to: 1) examine pharyngo-esophageal and cardio-respiratory responses to provoking pharyngeal stimuli, and 2) determine potential contributory factors impacting heart rate (HR) changes to provide insight into cardio-respiratory events occurring in preterm infants.

Methods: Forty-eight neonates (29 males, born at 27.7 ± 0. Read More

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December 2018

Intrauterine Inflammation Damages Placental Angiogenesis via Wnt5a-Flt1 Activation.

Inflammation 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neonatology, Guangdong Women and Children Hospital, Guang Zhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510010, Guangdong, China.

Intrauterine inflammation is the main reason for neonatal adverse outcomes and normal placenta perfusion plays an important role in fetal development. However, whether inflammation will affect placental angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism are still poorly understood. To investigate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intrauterine inflammation on placenta angiogenesis and Wnt5a-Flt1 expression. Read More

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December 2018

Streamlining pre- and intra-hospital care for patients with severe trauma: a white paper from the European Critical Care Foundation.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Intensive Care, Erasme Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Route de Lennik 808, 1070, Brussels, Belgium.

Purpose: Major trauma remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed and developing world. In 2013, nearly 5 million people worldwide died from their injuries, and almost 1 billion individuals sustained injuries that warranted some type of healthcare, accounting for around 10% of the global burden of disease in general. Behind the statistics, severe trauma takes a major toll on individuals, their families and healthcare systems. Read More

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December 2018

Cellular communication promotes mammosphere growth and collective invasion through microtubule‑like structures and angiogenesis.

Oncol Rep 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, P.R. China.

Networks of nanotubes and microtubules are highly valued in cellular communication, and collective cancer movement has been revealed to be associated with cell information exchange. In the present study, cellular communication was demonstrated to participate in mammosphere growth, differentiation and collective invasion. By promoting differentiation, networks of cells and microtubule‑like structures were verified. Read More

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October 2018

Association between cesarean section and constipation in infants: the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).

BMC Res Notes 2018 Dec 12;11(1):882. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Toyama Regional Center for JECS, University of Toyama, Toyama, Japan.

Objective: There have been increasing reports on the association between cesarean section (C-section) and the subsequent development of diseases in infants. C-section affects the diversity of microbiota in the infant's gut. In the present study, we investigated the association between infants delivered by C-section and the development of constipation at 1 year old due to altered gut microbiota using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS). Read More

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December 2018

Re-comparing of three different epidemic seasons of bronchiolitis: different prophylaxis approaches.

Ital J Pediatr 2018 Dec 12;44(1):148. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Neonatology-NICU Casilino General Hospital, via Casilina 1049, 00169, Rome, Italy.

During the last epidemic season of bronchiolitis (S2, years 2016-2017) we performed a single Centre analysis in inborn infant of 30-32 gestational age and age < 12 months who did not receive prophylaxis with palivizumab (PLV), in light of the current AIFA (Italian Drug Agency) guidelines restricting the time of the prophylaxis to those born < 30 weeks of gestational age. During that epidemic season, we observed a rising trend of bronchiolitis-related hospitalization and an increased rate of mechanical ventilation in preterm child compared to the previous one (S1, years 2015-2016) during which infants of this same gestational age received palivizumab (PLV) prophylaxis, according to the 2015 Italian Guidelines.In light of the revised AIFA guidelines (November 2017), allowing once again prophylaxis with PLV in infants of > 30 weeks gestational age, we decided to repeat our observation during the last epidemic season (S3, years 2017-2018), in order to compare ours infants of 30-32 gestational age with preterm of the same gestational age born in our unit in the previous seasons (S1 and S2), to evaluate the clinical impact of the different prophylaxis approaches. Read More

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December 2018

validation of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy: a review.

Neurophotonics 2018 Oct 27;5(4):040901. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

National University Hospital, Department of Neonatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

We summarize the available validation of cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximetry to inform future validation strategies. In particular, to establish a way forward in the assessment of NIRS instrumentation for future randomized trials, a systematic literature search is performed. The records are screened and abstracts are assessed to select studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Read More

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October 2018

The use of milrinone in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn - a randomised controlled trial pilot study (MINT 1): study protocol and review of literature.

Matern Health Neonatol Perinatol 2018 3;4:24. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

9INFANT Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a relatively common condition which results in a mortality of up to 33%. Up to 40% of infants treated with nitric oxide (iNO) either have a transient response or fail to demonstrate an improvement in oxygenation. Milrinone, a selective phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) inhibitor with inotropic and lusitropic properties may have potential benefit in PPHN. Read More

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December 2018

Neurofilament Light Chain: Blood Biomarker of Neonatal Neuronal Injury.

Front Neurol 2018 20;9:984. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a highly promising biomarker of neuroaxonal injury that has mainly been studied in adult neurodegenerative disease. Its involvement in neonatal disease remains largely unknown. Our aim was to establish NfL plasma concentrations in preterm and term infants in the first week of life. Read More

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November 2018

Amphiregulin Regulates Phagocytosis-Induced Cell Death in Monocytes via EGFR and Matrix Metalloproteinases.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 4;2018:4310419. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Neonatology, University Children's Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Neonates are highly susceptible to microbial infections which is partially attributable to fundamental phenotypic and functional differences between effector cells of the adult and neonatal immune system. The resolution of the inflammation is essential to return to tissue homeostasis, but given that various neonatal diseases, such as periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia, are characterized by sustained inflammation, newborns seem predisposed to a dysregulation of the inflammatory response. Targeted apoptosis of effector cells is generally known to control the length and extent of the inflammation, and previous studies have demonstrated that phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD), a special type of apoptosis in phagocytic immune cells, is less frequently triggered in neonatal monocytes than in adult monocytes. Read More

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November 2018

Standardization of nitric oxide inhalation in extremely preterm infants in Japan.

Pediatr Int 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Neonatal Intensive Care, Kurashiki Central Hospital, Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan.

Background: In perinatal medicine, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been an important tool for the treatment of full-term and late-preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). However, its use in more premature infants is controversial. To evaluate the current clinical practices regarding use of acute inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) therapy in extremely preterm infants, a nationwide survey was conducted in Japan. Read More

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December 2018

Milk feed osmolality and adverse events in newborn infants and animals: a systematic review.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Danone Nutricia Research, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: High feed osmolality (or osmolarity) is often suggested to be linked with adverse gastrointestinal events in preterm infants.

Aim: To systematically review the literature on milk feed osmolality and adverse gastrointestinal events in newborn and low birthweight infants and animals.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, CAB Abstracts, Current Contents, BIOSIS Previews and SciSearch were searched from inception to May 2018 to identify potentially relevant studies. Read More

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December 2018

It's All About the Brain-Neuromonitoring During Newborn Transition.

Semin Pediatr Neurol 2018 Dec 22;28:48-59. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; INFANT, Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Electronic address:

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December 2018

Effects of intravenous AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboximide riboside) administration on insulin signaling and resistance in premature baboons, Papio sp.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208757. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States of America.

Premature baboons exhibit peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling. 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation improves insulin sensitivity by enhancing glucose uptake (via increased glucose transporter type 4 [GLUT4] translocation and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/ atypical protein kinase C [aPKC] pathway), and increasing fatty acid oxidation (via inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 [ACC]), while downregulating gluconeogenesis (via induction of small heterodimer partner [SHP] and subsequent downregulation of the gluconeogenic enzymes: phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase [PEPCK], glucose 6-phosphatase [G6PASE], fructose- 1,6-bisphosphatase 1 [FBP1], and forkhead box protein 1 [FOXO1]). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pharmacologic activation of AMPK with AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboximide riboside) administration improves peripheral insulin sensitivity in preterm baboons. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of surfactant administration through a thin catheter in the delivery room: A quality control chart analysis coupled with a propensity score matched cohort study in preterm infants.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208252. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rennes 1,Rennes, France.

Introduction: Most infants born before 30 weeks gestational age (GA) develop respiratory distress syndrome soon after birth. Methods of surfactant administration that avoid ventilation have been recently introduced. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of implementing a new procedure of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) and determine whether it is associated with an improvement in respiratory outcome. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between amikacin blood concentration and ototoxicity in low birth weight infants.

J Infect Chemother 2019 Jan 24;25(1):17-21. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Pharmacy, Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, Yamanashi, 400-8506, Japan.

Amikacin (AMK) is used as empiric therapy for severe infections such as sepsis in low birth weight (LBW) infants. AMK administered once daily (OD) in adults is reported to be therapeutically effective and prevent side effects, however, evidence on AMK administration in LBW infants is limited, with no clear indications of effectiveness. We performed therapeutic drug monitoring analysis of 20 infants treated with AMK OD for severe infections such as bacteremia. Read More

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January 2019

Kyphectomy in neonates with meningomyelocele.

Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Medicine, Department of Neonatology, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey.

Purpose: Kyphosis is the most severe spinal deformity associated with meningomyelocele (MMC) and is seen in approximately 15% of neonates. Our purpose is to present our clinical experience, to discuss the technique and deformity correction in kyphectomy in neonates with MMC, and to assess its long-term outcomes.

Method: In this prospective study, the authors reviewed eight cases submitted to surgery between 2013 and 2015. Read More

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December 2018
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Impact of an In-House Pediatric Surgery Unit and Human Milk Centered Enteral Nutrition on Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

Biomed Res Int 2018 13;2018:5042707. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

EKO Children's Hospital, Oberhausen, Witten/Herdecke University, Germany.

The importance for mortality and morbidity of an in-house pediatric surgery unit for premature infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains undefined. Data on 389 consecutive very low birth weight infants with a birth weight <1250 g admitted between 2009 and 2014 was retrospectively analyzed in two almost identical neonatal intensive care units. Epidemiological data (n=172 and n=217, respectively) were comparable. Read More

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November 2018

Placental Circulation Intact Trial (PCI-T)-Resuscitation With the Placental Circulation Intact vs. Cord Milking for Very Preterm Infants: A Feasibility Study.

Front Pediatr 2018 27;6:364. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health, Careggi University Hospital of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Preterm newborns receiving briefly delayed cord clamping or cord milking at birth have better neonatal outcomes. However, the time frame in which both these procedures are performed (< 60 s of life) is too short to explore the possible beneficial effects on early infant postnatal adaptation and outcomes of a prolonged transfusion strategy associated with neonatal respiration. We have designed a randomized, multicenter, controlled two-phase study: phase 1 to assess the feasibility of carrying out the protocol in a large randomized trial, and phase 2 to assess the efficacy of bedside assistance with intact placental circulation for 3 min in comparison to cord milking to improve outcome in the neonatal period; we present here the feasibility and safety phase of the study. Read More

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November 2018

High-Temperature Short-Time Treatment of Human Milk for Bacterial Count Reduction.

Front Pediatr 2018 27;6:359. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Center for Pediatrics, Department of Neonatology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Human milk (HM) for preterm infants will often be pasteurized for cytomegalovirus (CMV) inactivation and reduction of its bacterial count. High-temperature short-time (HTST) treatment compared to standard Holder pasteurization (HoP) reduces the impact of heat treatment on bioactive HM proteins while effectively inactivating CMV. No data are available for the efficacy of bacterial count reduction using HTST treatments that are available for clinical use. Read More

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November 2018
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While waiting for a vaccine: opportunities for optimization of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease prevention in Israel.

J Perinatol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Division of Neonatal & Developmental Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Objective: To quantify effects of different strategies for decreasing neonatal early onset GBS sepsis (EOGBS) in Israel.

Study Design: A risk allocation model for EOGBS among infants ≥ 35w was adapted to Israeli data. Effects of strategies for antepartum (APS) and intrapartum (IPS) screening, and intrapartum (IAP) and/or postpartum antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) were calculated. Read More

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December 2018
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