8,692 results match your criteria Neonatal Meningitis


Acute neonatal Listeria monocytogenes infection causes long-term, organ-specific changes in immune cell subset composition.

Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp) 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

1Department Experimental Immunology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany.

Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen with a high chance of infecting neonates, pregnant women, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Lm infection in neonates can cause neonatal meningitis and sepsis with a high risk of severe neurological and developmental sequelae and high mortality rates. However, whether an acute neonatal Lm infection causes long-term effects on the immune system persisting until adulthood has not been fully elucidated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/1886.2020.00007DOI Listing

Neonatal bacterial meningitis versus ventriculitis: a cohort-based overview of clinical characteristics, microbiology and imaging.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Neonatal Intensive Care, Amsterdam University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections are potentially life threatening in neonates and can lead to the ill-defined diagnosis of ventriculitis. With this study we aimed to explore and describe ventriculitis regarding clinical, microbiological and ultrasonographic characteristics. We performed a retrospective cohort study including all neonates with a culture-proven CNS infection admitted to our tertiary NICU over a 12-year period (2004-2016). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-020-03723-3DOI Listing

A Mouse Model for Infection with Enterovirus A71 in Small Extracellular Vesicles.

mSphere 2020 Jul 1;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Affiliated People's Hospital, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China

Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is the major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD); in some severe cases, it could develop into central nervous system (CNS) disease such as aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and neurogenic pulmonary edema in children under 5 years. The EV-A71 pathogenesis which is involved with the CNS is unclear due to the lack of a simple and reliable mouse model thus far. Most clinical EV-A71 isolates could not effectively infect the neonatal mouse, which used to be an EV-A71 infection model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00377-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333570PMC

Early neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused by Elizabethkingia meningoseptica in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2020 Jul;41(7):753-756

Department of Pediatrics, Madina Maternity & Children's Hospital, Al-Madina Al-Munawara, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (E. meningoseptica ) are Gram-negative bacteria commonly associated with nosocomial infections in neonates. This is a case study of E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2020.7.25720DOI Listing

Staphylococcal meningitis therapy with linezolid in a young infant: efficacy, CSF levels and side effects.

Ital J Pediatr 2020 Jun 29;46(1):90. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pediatric Medicine, Laboratory of Metabolic Biochemistry Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Linezolid is a synthetic antibiotic which is active against most Gram-positive bacteria, especially on Staphylococcus aureus. Its administration can be required when the infection is due to staphylococcus strains, which are resistant to vancomycin. Although mostly well tolerated, some mild to moderate side effects have been reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13052-020-00854-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325046PMC

First Case of Meningitis in a Term Newborn: A but Pathogen.

Front Pediatr 2020 12;8:308. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, NYU Winthrop Hospital, Mineola, NY, United States.

is a Gram-negative, catalase positive and anaerobic enterobacterium first described in 1983. Infections caused by this pathogen, such as bacteremia and pneumonia, are extremely rare and primarily occur in patients with underlying pathologies or immunosuppression. There is still a debate as to whether is a real pathogen or if it can be considered an opportunistic infectious agent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303839PMC

Towards accurate exclusion of neonatal bacterial meningitis: a feasibility study of a novel 16S rDNA PCR assay.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 22;20(1):441. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Mote Research Ltd., Babraham, Cambridge, UK.

Background: PCRctic is an innovative assay based on 16S rDNA PCR technology that has been designed to detect a single intact bacterium in a specimen of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF). The assay's potential for accurate, fast and inexpensive discrimination of bacteria-free CSF makes it an ideal adjunct for confident exclusion of bacterial meningitis in newborn babies where the negative predictive value of bacterial culture is poor. This study aimed to stress-test and optimize PCRctic in the "field conditions" to attain a clinically useful level of specificity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05160-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310343PMC

Biological basis of child health 4: an overview of the central nervous system and principles of neurological assessment.

Authors:
Doreen Crawford

Nurs Child Young People 2020 Jun 22. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Crawford-McKenzie, Colsterworth, Lincolnshire, England.

This article is the fourth in a series on the biological basis of child health. It explains the embryological development of the nervous system and describes some of the anatomical and physiological features of the central nervous system, which is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. It also outlines the principles of neurological assessment in infants and children, before detailing the presentation and management of three conditions that can affect the central nervous system in this patient population - seizures, meningitis and raised intracranial pressure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7748/ncyp.2020.e1249DOI Listing

Impact of FilmArray meningitis encephalitis panel on HSV testing and empiric acyclovir use in children beyond the neonatal period.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 May 17;97(4):115085. Epub 2020 May 17.

University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, CO USA; Children's Hospital Colorado Aurora, CO USA.

Following implementation of the FilmArray meningitis and encephalitis panel, which enables rapid syndromic cerebrospinal fluid testing, HSV testing doubled in children >60 days with suspected central nervous system infection at Children's Hospital Colorado. Acyclovir initiation was unchanged, but duration decreased. Diagnostic and antimicrobial stewardship is needed for MEP optimization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2020.115085DOI Listing

Streptococcus agalactiae in childbearing age immigrant women in Comunitat Valenciana (Spain).

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 18;10(1):9904. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Microbiology Department, Hospital Politécnico y Universitario La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) remains the leading cause of meningitis and neonatal sepsis in the world, and causes disease in pregnant and puerperal women. This is a retrospective study of GBS infections on women of childbearing age living in Comunitat Valenciana, Spain (years 2009-2014) and GBS colonization rate on pregnant women attending Hospital La Fe (years 2013-2015) according to their origin. An aggregated total of 6,641,960 women exposed during the study period had an average GBS isolation rate of 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66811-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303196PMC

Management of Fever in Infants and Young Children.

Am Fam Physician 2020 06;101(12):721-729

Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Despite dramatic reductions in the rates of bacteremia and meningitis since the 1980s, febrile illness in children younger than 36 months continues to be a concern with potentially serious consequences. Factors that suggest serious infection include age younger than one month, poor arousability, petechial rash, delayed capillary refill, increased respiratory effort, and overall physician assessment. Urinary tract infections are the most common serious bacterial infection in children younger than three years, so evaluation for such infections should be performed in those with unexplained fever. Read More

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Aetiology of bacterial meningitis in infants aged <90 days: Prospective surveillance in Luanda, Angola.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 10;97:251-257. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Sanofi Pasteur, Epidemiology, Swiftwater, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite effective antibiotics and vaccines, bacterial meningitis (BM) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young infants worldwide. Data from Africa on the aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility are scarce.

Objective: To describe the aetiology of BM in Angolan infants <90 days of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.06.016DOI Listing

Increasing incidence of group B streptococcus neonatal infections in the Netherlands is associated with clonal expansion of CC17 and CC23.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 12;10(1):9539. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive disease worldwide. In the Netherlands incidence of the disease increased despite implementation of preventive guidelines. We describe a genomic analysis of 1345 GBS isolates from neonatal (age 0-89 days) invasive infections in the Netherlands reported between 1987 and 2016. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66214-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293262PMC

Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transendothelial Migration Proceeds at Blood-Brain Barrier in Neonatal Meningitis.

Front Microbiol 2020 26;11:969. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Developmental Cell Biology, Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, Ministry of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Medical Cell Biology, Ministry of Education, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Neonatal bacterial meningitis remains a life-threatening and causative sequelae disease in newborns, despite the effective usage of antibiotics and improved critical medical care. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transendothelial migration across the blood-brain barrier, one of the three hallmarks of bacterial meningitis, now is considered as a "double-edge sword". When participating in host immune system defending against virulent pathogens, it results in tissue inflammation and following severe damage of central nervous system at the same time, which contributes to a disastrous consequence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264371PMC

Pan-GWAS of Streptococcus agalactiae Highlights Lineage-Specific Genes Associated with Virulence and Niche Adaptation.

mBio 2020 Jun 9;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

NIHR Mucosal Pathogens Research Unit, Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

(group B streptococcus; GBS) is a colonizer of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, and an opportunistic pathogen of infants and adults. The worldwide population of GBS is characterized by clonal complexes (CCs) with different invasive potentials. CC17, for example, is a hypervirulent lineage commonly associated with neonatal sepsis and meningitis, while CC1 is less invasive in neonates and more commonly causes invasive disease in adults with comorbidities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00728-20DOI Listing

Neonates Hospitalized with Community-Acquired SARS-CoV-2 in a Colorado Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

Neonatology 2020 Jun 4:1-5. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Section of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA,

Importance: The novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has been well described in adults. Further, the impact on older children and during the perinatal time is becoming better studied. As community spread increases, it is important to recognize that neonates are vulnerable to community spread as well. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316651PMC

Etiology, clinical findings and laboratory parameters in neonates with acute bacterial meningitis.

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Apr;12(2):89-97

Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Neonatal meningitis is one of the most important and serious neonatal infections with a high mortality and morbidity rate. The present study aimed to investigate the causes, clinical signs, laboratory parameters and mortality rates in newborns with bacterial meningitis.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 468 neonates aged 2-28 days admitted to NICU in Ghaem Hospital Mashhad, Iran by available sampling method during 2009-2018. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244827PMC

Meningitis and bacteremia by nonhemolytic Group B Streptococcus strain: a whole genome analysis.

Microbiol Immunol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Gunma Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 378 Kamiokimachi, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan.

Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal infections. Most isolates are β-hemolytic, and their activity is considered to be pivotal for GBS pathogenicity. We report a case of a neonate with meningitis caused by nonhemolytic GBS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12826DOI Listing

Bacteriophage K1F targets Escherichia coli K1 in cerebral endothelial cells and influences the barrier function.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 1;10(1):8903. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, CV4 7AL, Coventry, UK.

Bacterial neonatal meningitis results in high mortality and morbidity rates for those affected. Although improvements in diagnosis and treatment have led to a decline in mortality rates, morbidity rates have remained relatively unchanged. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics in this clinical setting further underlines the need for developing other technologies, such as phage therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65867-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264188PMC

Neonatal meningitis: a case report and literature review.

Transl Pediatr 2020 Apr;9(2):174-179

Department of Pediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, China.

() is common commensal in the female genitourinary tract. Despite has been associated with chorioamnionitis, abortion, prematurity and perinatal complications, the invasive central nervous system (CNS) infection is rare in neonates. Diagnosis of meningitis can be difficult for the atypical presentations and sterile cultures by conventional methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tp.2020.02.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237967PMC

Neonatal ventriculitis: a case series and review of literature.

Trop Doct 2020 May 31:49475520927626. Epub 2020 May 31.

Consultant, Department of Neurosurgery, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Tegh Bahadur Hospital, Delhi, India.

Ventriculitis after meningitis is a serious complication in the neonatal age group. The role of intraventricular antibiotics in treatment is controversial. We present five such cases which were refractory to conventional intravenous antibiotic therapy, had persistent features of ventriculitis and in whom raised intracranial pressure (ICP) necessitated insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520927626DOI Listing

A simple, rapid typing method for Streptococcus agalactiae based on ribosomal subunit proteins by MALDI-TOF MS.

Sci Rep 2020 May 29;10(1):8788. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Microbiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS), is a frequent human colonizer and a leading cause of neonatal meningitis as well as an emerging pathogen in non-pregnant adults. GBS possesses a broad animal host spectrum, and recent studies proved atypical GBS genotypes can cause human invasive diseases through animal sources as food-borne zoonotic infections. We applied a MALDI-TOF MS typing method, based on molecular weight variations of predefined 28 ribosomal subunit proteins (rsp) to classify GBS strains of varying serotypes into major phylogenetic lineages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65707-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260235PMC

Clinical Practice Guideline Reduces Evaluation and Treatment for Febrile Infants 0 to 56 Days of Age.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2020 May 29:9922820920933. Epub 2020 May 29.

Departments of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.

Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among neonates. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) can expedite care and standardize management. We conducted a retrospective observational study of febrile infants aged 0 to 56 days to assess changes in clinical decision-making following febrile neonate CPG implementation in the pediatric emergency department of a tertiary care hospital. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922820920933DOI Listing

Targeting E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic development of E. coli meningitis.

Cell Microbiol 2020 May 24. Epub 2020 May 24.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 200 North Wolfe Street, Room 3157, Baltimore, Maryland.

Escherichia coli is the most common Gram-negative bacillary organism causing neonatal meningitis. E. coli meningitis remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity, but the pathogenesis of E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cmi.13231DOI Listing

Outcomes of Young Infants with Hypothermia Evaluated in the Emergency Department.

J Pediatr 2020 Jun;221:132-137.e2

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of serious infections and mortality among infants ≤90 days of age presenting to the emergency department with hypothermia.

Study Design: We performed a cross-sectional cohort study of infants ≤90 days presenting to any of 40 EDs in the Pediatric Health Information Systems between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2018. Infants with an International Classification of Diseases, ninth or tenth edition, admission/discharge diagnosis code of hypothermia were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.002DOI Listing

Invasive Infections in <3-Month-Old Infants in France: Clinical and Laboratory Features.

Front Pediatr 2020 6;8:204. Epub 2020 May 6.

Université de Paris, IAME, INSERM, Paris, France.

Few data are available on invasive group A (GAS) infections (IGASIs) in infants. We described initial clinical and laboratory features and outcomes of <3-month-old infants hospitalized for an IGASI between 2007 and 2016 in France. Patients were identified from the French National Reference Centre for streptococci. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7217982PMC

Economic Evaluation: Onsite HSV PCR Capabilities for Pediatric Care.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2020 Mar-Apr;5(2):e266. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Department of Pediatrics, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

Objective: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis has an overall mortality rate of 11%-29% with treatment. Although rare, HSV encephalitis is frequently tested for and empirically treated, especially in the neonatal population. HSV infection can be diagnosed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, although this frequently requires sending samples to reference laboratories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/pq9.0000000000000266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7190250PMC

Clinical and laboratory awareness for an under recognized pathogen in newborn meningitis: Mycoplasma Hominis: a case report.

Turk J Pediatr 2020 ;62(2):280-283

Division of Neonatology, Departments of Pediatrics, Marmara University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Background: Mycoplasma hominis is a well-known bacterium colonizing the genito-urinary tract. It may cause pneumonia, bacteremia, abscesses, chronic lung disease, and rarely meningitis during the newborn period.

Case: A preterm infant with a birth weight of 885 grams was born at 27 weeks of gestation and had respiratory distress syndrome needing mechanical ventilation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2020.02.015DOI Listing
January 2020

Probiotic Use and Safety in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Matched Cohort Study.

J Pediatr 2020 Jul 14;222:59-64.e1. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC; and. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the prevalence of probiotic administration in infants born preterm over time, as well as the association between probiotic administration and select adverse outcomes.

Study Design: We performed a multicenter cohort study of infants 23-29 weeks of gestational age admitted to 289 neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2016. We evaluated the type of probiotics given and prevalence of exposure to probiotics over time and by site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321859PMC

Human Herpesvirus 6 Detection during the Evaluation of Sepsis in Infants Using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel.

J Pediatr 2020 May 13. Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

We used the FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis panel for evaluation of sepsis in febrile neonates. We detected human herpesvirus 6, a virus we did not routinely test for previously, in the cerebrospinal fluid of 7 neonates. In all 7 cases, detection of the virus did not warrant antiviral treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.03.023DOI Listing

Application of metabolomics to neonatal meningitis.

Authors:
James L Wynn

Pediatr Res 2020 May 12. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0954-yDOI Listing

A novel electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) gene mutation identified in a newborn with glutaric acidemia type II: a case report of a Chinese family.

BMC Med Genet 2020 05 11;21(1):98. Epub 2020 May 11.

Hangzhou Genuine Clinical Laboratory Co. Ltd, 859 Shixiang West Road, Hangzhou, 310007, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Glutaric acidemia type II (GA II) or multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD, OMIM 231680) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease affecting fatty acid, amino acid and choline metabolism, due to mutations in one of three genes namely, electron transfer flavoprotein alpha-subunit, ETFA, electron transfer flavoprotein β-subunit, ETFB and electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase, ETFDH. Currently, few studies have reported genetic profiling of neonatal-onset GA II. This study aimed to identify the genetic mutations in a Chinese family with GA II. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-00995-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212588PMC

A signal cascade amplification strategy based on RT-PCR triggering of a G-quadruplex DNAzyme for a novel electrochemical detection of viable Cronobacter sakazakii.

Analyst 2020 Jul 11;145(13):4477-4483. Epub 2020 May 11.

School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, P.R. China.

Cronobacter sakazakii is an important opportunistic food-borne pathogen, and it can cause severe diseases with main symptoms including neonatal meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis. For the achievement of practical and convenient detection of viable C. sakazakii, a simple and robust strategy based on the cascade signal amplification of RT-PCR triggered G-quadruplex DNAzyme catalyzed reaction was firstly used to develop an effective and sensitive DNAzyme electrochemical assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an00270dDOI Listing

Human Herpesvirus-6 Meningitis in a Premature Infant with Fevers: A Case and Literature Review.

Clin Med Insights Case Rep 2020 18;13:1179547620912952. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Division of Neonatology/Newborn Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is a common virus that can cause nearly universal infection in infancy and early childhood. It typically manifests as an acute febrile illness. We describe a case of a premature infant with congenital hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt in place who developed intermittent fevers while she was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179547620912952DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169356PMC

High-risk Pediatric Emergencies.

Emerg Med Clin North Am 2020 May;38(2):383-400

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 4th floor, 801 Albany Street, Boston, MA, 02119, USA.

More than half of pediatric malpractice cases arise from emergency departments, primarily due to missed or delayed diagnoses. All providers who take care of children in emergency departments should be aware of this risk and the most common diagnoses associated with medicolegal liability. This article focuses on diagnosis and management of high-risk diagnoses in pediatric patients presenting to emergency departments, including meningitis, pneumonia, appendicitis, testicular torsion, and fracture. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2020.01.004DOI Listing

Lactoferrin: A Critical Mediator of Both Host Immune Response and Antimicrobial Activity in Response to Streptococcal Infections.

ACS Infect Dis 2020 Jul 7;6(7):1615-1623. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, United States.

Streptococcal species are Gram-positive bacteria responsible for a variety of disease outcomes including pneumonia, meningitis, endocarditis, erysipelas, necrotizing fasciitis, periodontitis, skin and soft tissue infections, chorioamnionitis, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, and neonatal sepsis. In response to streptococcal infections, the host innate immune system deploys a repertoire of antimicrobial and immune modulating molecules. One important molecule that is produced in response to streptococcal infections is lactoferrin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00050DOI Listing

Study protocol: NeoCLEAR: Neonatal Champagne Lumbar punctures Every time - An RCT: a multicentre, randomised controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial to investigate techniques to increase lumbar puncture success.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Apr 15;20(1):165. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Newborn Care Unit, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK.

Background: The neonatal period carries the highest risk of bacterial meningitis (~ 1 in 5000 births), bearing high mortality (~ 10%) and morbidity (20-50%) rates. Lumbar puncture (LP) remains essential to the diagnosis of meningitis. Though LP is a common procedure in neonates, success rates are lower (50-60%) than in other patient populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02050-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160994PMC

Etiological serotype and genotype distributions and clinical characteristics of group B streptococcus-inducing invasive disease among infants in South China.

BMC Pediatr 2020 Apr 2;20(1):146. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Group B streptococcus (GBS)-induced invasive disease is a major cause of illness and death among infants aged under 90 days in China; however, invasive GBS infection remains unknown in China. We aimed to describe the serotype and genotype distributions of early-onset disease (EOD) and late-onset disease (LOD), and to show the clinical correlations among various GBS serotypes and genotypes obtained from infants with invasive GBS infections.

Methods: Between June 1, 2016 and June 1, 2018, 84 GBS strains were collected from patients younger than 90 days at seven Chinese hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02048-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115074PMC

Epidemiology of Community-Onset Severe Bacterial Infections in Children and Its Evolution: A Population-Based Study in France.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 Jun;21(6):e325-e332

Inserm UMR 1153, Obstetrical, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Research Team (Epopé), Centre of Research in Epidemiology and StatisticS (CRESS), Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of community-onset severe bacterial infections in children and its recent evolution.

Design: Prospective, observational, population-based study from 2009 to 2014.

Setting: An administrative area accounting for 13% of the French pediatric population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002300DOI Listing

Emergence of in Cases of Neonatal Sepsis in Upper Egypt: First Report in North Africa.

Front Microbiol 2020 9;11:215. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Background And Aim: () has attracted considerable attention as an emerging neonatal pathogen and has been associated with outbreaks of life-threatening septicemia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and meningitis in neonates and infants globally. No data about the role of as a cause of neonatal sepsis in North Africa is availale. Herein, we aimed to study the incidence of in cases of neonatal sepsis, its distribution in different food samples in Egypt, antimicrobial profile, and the ability of the strains to form biofilms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075355PMC

Performance of the Modified Boston and Philadelphia Criteria for Invasive Bacterial Infections.

Pediatrics 2020 04 23;145(4). Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The ability of the decades-old Boston and Philadelphia criteria to accurately identify infants at low risk for serious bacterial infections has not been recently reevaluated.

Methods: We assembled a multicenter cohort of infants 29 to 60 days of age who had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood cultures obtained. We report the performance of the modified Boston criteria (peripheral white blood cell count [WBC] ≥20 000 cells per mm, CSF WBC ≥10 cells per mm, and urinalysis with >10 WBC per high-power field or positive urine dip result) and modified Philadelphia criteria (peripheral WBC ≥15 000 cells per mm, CSF WBC ≥8 cells per mm, positive CSF Gram-stain result, and urinalysis with >10 WBC per high-power field or positive urine dip result) for the identification of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3538DOI Listing

Polymyxin for the treatment of intracranial infections of extensively drug-resistant bacteria in children after neurosurgical operation.

World J Pediatr 2020 Mar 19. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, National Clinical Research Center For Child Health, No. 3333 Bin-Sheng Road, Bin-Jiang District, Hangzhou, 310052, China.

Background: Increased meningitis caused by extensively drug-resistant bacillary presents a significant challenge in antibiotic selection. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of polymyxin in the treatment of post-neurosurgical meningitis due to the extensively drug-resistant bacillary in children.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study on post-neurosurgical meningitis caused by the extensively drug-resistant bacillary in children, who were treated with polymyxin for ≥ 3 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12519-020-00350-8DOI Listing

Neuro-Developmental and Epilepsy Outcomes of Children with West Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study from North India.

Ann Indian Acad Neurol 2020 Mar-Apr;23(2):177-181. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatric Neurology, Lady Harding Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: To assess the neurodevelopmental outcome of West syndrome (WS) in Indian children, who differ in their clinical profile from the western population.

Materials And Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled children aged 2--5 years with prior diagnosis of WS between November 2013 and March 2015. They were assessed for epilepsy outcome and developmental outcome using developmental profile 3 (DP3) and vineland adaptive behavioral scale II (VABS II). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aian.AIAN_503_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061506PMC
February 2020
0.514 Impact Factor

Management of multiloculated hydrocephalus in children with emphasis on role of CT ventriculography.

Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Mar 18. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, King Georges Medical University, 5th floor, Shatabdi Phase 2, Chowk, Lucknow, 226003, India.

Objective: The authors performed a retrospective review of children diagnosed with multiloculated hydrocephalus (MLH) in our institute. The goal was to analyze the different diagnostic and therapeutic modalities used with special emphasis on CT ventriculography (CTV).

Methods: Male and female patients below the age of 18 years diagnosed with MLH were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00381-020-04572-zDOI Listing
March 2020
1.163 Impact Factor

Audit of Childhood Death in a Tertiary Care Center in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.

West Afr J Med 2020 Apr-Jun;37(2):113-117

Health Information Management Department, Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara, Delta State,Nigeria.

Background: Childhood mortality is a serious public health concern. Periodic assessment of its trend is important in evaluating the pattern and planning intervention strategies.

Objective: The study aimed at evaluating the childhood mortality (<18 years) in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Read More

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species and preterm birth: current perspectives.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2020 Mar 6;46(2):169-181. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and the human species are most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid and placenta in these cases. Ureaplasma colonisation is associated with infertility, stillbirth, histologic chorioamnionitis, and neonatal morbidities, including congenital pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, meningitis and perinatal death. The human spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040841X.2020.1736986DOI Listing

C - reactive protein of cerebrospinal fluid, as a sensitive approach for diagnosis of neonatal meningitis.

Afr Health Sci 2019 Sep;19(3):2372-2377

Research Center of Pediatric infectious diseases, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Meningitis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that can rapidly progress to permanent brain damage, neurologic problems, and even death. Bacteria and viruses cause the great majority of meningitis disease in infants and children. CRP is used mainly as a marker of inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v19i3.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040284PMC
September 2019

Derivation of a metabolic signature associated with bacterial meningitis in infants.

Pediatr Res 2020 Mar 2. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Division of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM) is challenging in newborn infants. Presently, biomarkers of BM have limited diagnostic accuracy. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) metabolites may be a useful diagnostic tool in BM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-0816-7DOI Listing

Fatal, Fulminant and Invasive Non-Typeable Infection in a Preterm Infant: A Re-Emerging Cause of Neonatal Sepsis.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 Feb 20;5(1). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597, Singapore.

Early-onset neonatal sepsis (EOS) is a major cause of neonatal death and long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities among survivors. The common pathogens causing EOS are group B (GBS) and . () is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that can cause severe invasive disease and can be divided into either typeable or non-typeable strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5010030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7157230PMC
February 2020