518,798 results match your criteria Nature Reviews Cancer [Journal]


Factor cooperation for chromosome discrimination in Drosophila.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Molecular Biology Division, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine and Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich, 82151 Martinsried, Germany.

Transcription regulators select their genomic binding sites from a large pool of similar, non-functional sequences. Although general principles that allow such discrimination are known, the complexity of DNA elements often precludes a prediction of functional sites. The process of dosage compensation in Drosophila allows exploring the rules underlying binding site selectivity. Read More

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December 2018

Allosteric DNAzyme-based DNA logic circuit: operations and dynamic analysis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Intelligent Computing, Dalian University, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116622, China.

Recently, due to the dual roles of DNA and enzyme, DNAzyme has been widely used in the field of DNA circuit, which has a wide range of applications in bio-engineered system, information processing and biocomputing. In fact, the activity of DNAzymes was regulated by subunits assembly, pH control and metal ions triggers. However, those regulations required to change the sequences of whole DNAzyme, as separating parts and inserting extra DNA sequence. Read More

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December 2018

RNAi of Sterol Methyl Transferase1 Reveals its Direct Role in Diverting Intermediates Towards Withanolide/ Phytosterol Biosynthesis in Withania somnifera.

Plant Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Aromatic Plants and Chiral Separation, Chemical Sciences Division, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), India.

The medicinal properties of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) are accredited to a group of compounds called as withanolides. 24-methylene cholesterol is the intermediate for sterol biosynthesis and a proposed precursor of withanolides biogenesis. But, conversion of 24-methylene cholesterol to withaferin A and other withanolides has not yet been biochemically dissected. Read More

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December 2018

An unusual presentation of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a pediatric patient: A case report.

Ear Nose Throat J 2018 Dec;97(12):E7-E10

University of Arizona College of Medicine - Tucson, 1501 N. Campbell Ave., PO Box 245017, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

Cystic neck masses in the pediatric population are common but rarely concerning for malignancy. Given this typically benign nature, they are frequently managed conservatively. Here we present an unusual case of a waxing and waning cystic neck mass in a pediatric patient. Read More

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December 2018

Inferring symmetric and asymmetric interactions between animals and groups from positional data.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208202. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth, WA, Australia.

Interactions between domestic and wild species has become a global problem of growing interest. Global Position Systems (GPS) allow collection of vast records of time series of animal spatial movement, but there is need for developing analytical methods to efficiently use this information to unravel species interactions. This study assesses different methods to infer interactions and their symmetry between individual animals, social groups or species. Read More

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December 2018

Communicating information on nature-related topics: Preferred information channels and trust in sources.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0209013. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

How information is communicated influences the public's environmental perceptions and behaviors. Information channels and sources both play an important role in the dissemination of information. Trust in a source is often used as a proxy for whether a particular piece of information is credible. Read More

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December 2018

Decoupling environmental effects and host population dynamics for anthrax, a classic reservoir-driven disease.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208621. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Spatial Epidemiology and Ecology Research Laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Quantitative models describing environmentally-mediated disease transmission rarely focus on the independent contribution of recruitment and the environment on the force of infection driving outbreaks. In this study we attempt to investigate the interaction between external factors and host's population dynamics in determining the outbreaks of some indirectly transmitted diseases. We first built deterministic and stochastic compartmental models based on anthrax which were parameterized using information from literature and complemented with field observations. Read More

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December 2018

Impact of solar and wind development on conservation values in the Mojave Desert.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207678. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The Nature Conservancy, Las Vegas, Nevada, United States of America.

In 2010, The Nature Conservancy completed the Mojave Desert Ecoregional Assessment, which characterizes conservation values across nearly 130,000 km2 of the desert Southwest. Since this assessment was completed, several renewable energy facilities have been built in the Mojave Desert, thereby changing the conservation value of these lands. We have completed a new analysis of land use to reassess the conservation value of lands in two locations in the Mojave Desert where renewable energy development has been most intense: Ivanpah Valley, and the Western Mojave. Read More

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December 2018

Chasing red herrings: Can visual distracters extend the time children take to open child resistant vials?

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0207738. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

School of Packaging, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States of America.

Background: Unintentional exposure to medications is a noted problem in pediatric populations despite the prevalent use of child-resistant (CR) packaging and educational campaigns informing consumers about appropriate storage.

Objective: Conduct a proof-of concept study that evaluates how package designs that engage the attention of children in meaningless ways affect opening time and number of openings.

Study Design: Non-CR vials with or without distracters were provided to 108 children (24-51 months) in pairs. Read More

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December 2018

Treatment of Young Femoral Neck Fractures.

J Orthop Trauma 2019 Jan;33 Suppl 1:S1-S6

Department Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC.

Femoral neck fractures in the physiologically young patient are challenging injuries to manage. A tenuous blood supply and the intrasynovial nature of the fracture create a challenging biological environment. To make matters worse, the biomechanics are equally problematic. Read More

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January 2019

Influence of Anastomotic Leak After Elective Colorectal Cancer Resection on Survival and Local Recurrence: A Propensity Score Analysis.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Background: The occurrence of anastomotic leakage is still a life-threatening complication for patients after colorectal surgery. In literature not only an impact on the short-term outcome but also on long-term survival and local recurrence of colorectal cancer patients is discussed.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the impact of anastomotic leakage on long-term survival and local recurrence. Read More

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November 2018
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Abnormal Pouchogram Predicts Pouch Failure Even in Asymptomatic Patients.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Background: Anastomotic complications after restorative total proctocolectomy with IPAA for ulcerative colitis alter functional outcomes and quality of life and may lead to pouch failure. Routine contrast enema of the pouch assesses anastomotic integrity before ileostomy reversal, but its clinical use is challenged.

Objective: The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship among preoperative clinical characteristics, abnormal pouchography, and long-term pouch complications. Read More

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November 2018

Machine learning-based prediction of clinical pain using multimodal neuroimaging and autonomic metrics.

Pain 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States.

Although self-report pain ratings are the gold standard in clinical pain assessment, they are inherently subjective in nature and significantly influenced by multidimensional contextual variables. Although objective biomarkers for pain could substantially aid pain diagnosis and development of novel therapies, reliable markers for clinical pain have been elusive. In this study, individualized physical maneuvers were used to exacerbate clinical pain in patients with chronic low back pain (N = 53), thereby experimentally producing lower and higher pain states. Read More

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October 2018
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Automated homecage training of mice in a hold-still center-out reach task.

J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, United States.

An obstacle to understanding neural mechanisms of movement is the complex, distributed nature of the mammalian motor system. Here we present a novel behavioral paradigm for high-throughput dissection of neural circuits underlying mouse forelimb control. Custom touch-sensing joysticks were used to quantify mouse forelimb trajectories with micron-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. Read More

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December 2018
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The Origin of Two-Dimensional Vertical Ferroelectricity in WTe Bilayer and Multilayer.

J Phys Chem Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

In a recent report (Nature 2018, 560, 336), room-temperature vertical ferroelectricity was experimentally shown in WTe2 bilayer, while its mechanism of ferroelectric switching without vertical ion displacements remains unclarified. In this work we reveal its origin by first-principles calculations that the polarization stems from uncompensated interlayer vertical charge transfer depending on in-plane translation, which can be switched upon interlayer sliding. The calculated results are consistent with experimental data, and similar switching mechanism can be applied to multilayer counterpart. Read More

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December 2018

Salt Induced Structural Collapse, Swelling and Signature of Aggregation of Two ssDNA Strands: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

J Phys Chem B 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Molecular dynamics simulations elucidate the structural collapse shown by two ssDNAs of same base sequence in the presence of either Na+ or Mg2+, starting from in-vivo ionic concentration to higher concentrations. Initially, an increase in ion concentration facilitates the structural distortion of individual ssDNA and helps to bring them close and for this, Mg2+ is better than Na+. However further addition of ions leads to structural re-swelling of the DNA strands and inhibit their proximity. Read More

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December 2018

Single-Atom Alloys as a Reductionist Approach to the Rational Design of Heterogeneous Catalysts.

Acc Chem Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry , Tufts University , 62 Talbot Avenue , Medford , Massachusetts 02155 United States.

Heterogeneous catalysts are workhorses in the industrial production of most commodity and specialty chemicals, and have widespread energy and environmental applications, with the annual market value of the catalysts themselves reaching almost $20 billion in 2018. These catalysts are complex, comprising multicomponent materials and multiple structures, making their rational design challenging, if not impossible. Furthermore, typical active metals like Pt, Pd, and Rh are expensive and can be susceptible to poisoning by CO, coking, and they are not always 100% selective. Read More

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December 2018

Energy-Degeneracy-Driven Covalency in Actinide Bonding.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Los Alamos National Laboratory , P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos , New Mexico 87545 , United States.

Evaluating the nature of chemical bonding for actinide elements represents one of the most important and long-standing problems in actinide science. We directly address this challenge and contribute a Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and relativistic density functional theory study that quantitatively evaluates An-Cl covalency in AnCl (An = Th, U, Np, Pu). The results showed significant mixing between Cl 3p- and An 5f- and 6d-orbitals (t*/t* and t*/e *), with the 6d-orbitals showing more pronounced covalent bonding than the 5f-orbitals. Read More

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December 2018

The nature of binding of quinolate complex on the surface of ZnS quantum dots.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, India. and Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati-781039, Assam, India.

We report that the Z-type binding rather than X-type binding was favored when 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) reacted with presynthesized ZnS quantum dots (Qdots) to form surface zinc quinolinate complexes having a preferred stoichiometry of 1 : 2 (surface Zn2+ : HQ). Importantly, the higher solubility in polar solvents and high desorption coefficient (following Langmuir binding isotherm) of HQ-treated ZnS Qdot in DMSO solvent compared with those in methanol clearly indicated the favorable Z-type binding of HQ and thus the formation of surface octahedral ZnQ2 complex. Furthermore, the characteristics peaks in the 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the desorbed species and the ligand density calculation of the surface complex (formed due to the reaction between HQ and ZnS Qdot) supported the octahedral ZnQ2 complex formation. Read More

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December 2018

Conclusions of the digital health hub of the Transform Africa Summit (2018): strong government leadership and public-private-partnerships are key prerequisites for sustainable scale up of digital health in Africa.

BMC Proc 2018 15;12(Suppl 11):17. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

WHO Country Office, Kigali, Rwanda.

Background: The use of digital technologies to improve access to health is gaining momentum in Africa. This is more pertinent with the increasing penetration of mobile phone technology and internet use, and calls for innovative strategies to support implementation of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals and Universal Health Coverage on the continent. However, the huge potential benefits of digital health to advance health services delivery in Africa is yet to be fully harnessed due to critical challenges such as proliferation of pilot projects, poor coordination, inadequate preparedness of the African health workforce for digital health, lack of interoperability and inadequate sustainable financing, among others. Read More

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Meeting report from the Companion Animal Genetic Health conference 2018 (CAGH 2018): a healthy companionship: the genetics of health in dogs.

Canine Genet Epidemiol 2018 29;5(Suppl 1). Epub 2018 Aug 29.

2The Royal (Dick) School for Veterinary Studies and Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush, Midlothian, UK.

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Learning best-practices in journalology: course description and attendee insights into the inaugural EQUATOR Canada Publication School.

BMC Proc 2018 23;12(Suppl 10):18. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

2Child Health Evaluative Sciences, The Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Canada.

Background And Purpose: Dissemination of research results is a key component of the research continuum and is commonly achieved through publication in peer-reviewed academic journals. However, issues of poor quality reporting in the research literature are well documented. A lack of formal training in journalology (i. Read More

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Nurses' perspective on health education in Diabetes Mellitus Care.

Rev Bras Enferm 2018 ;71(suppl 6):2735-2742

Universidade Estadual de Maringá. Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.

Objective: to grasp the perspective of nurses on health education in the process of caring for people with Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care.

Method: a descriptive study of a qualitative nature carried out with 13 nurses from the Family Health Strategy in Southern Brazil. The data were collected in November and December of 2017, through recorded interviews, which were submitted to content analysis, thematic modality. Read More

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January 2018

[Instrument to evaluate the combination of foods to make iron more bioavailable in the diet].

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4107-4118

Departamento de Nutrição Social, Faculdade de Nutrição, Universidade Federal Fluminense. Niterói RJ Brasil.

The scope of this research was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge which adult women have of food combinations in order to make iron bioavailable in the diet of children. An exploratory factor analysis study (Likert scale) was conducted applying a questionnaire on a sample comprising 151 women and then applying Principal Factor Analysis and Likelihood Ratio Analysis. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test, the Doornik-Hansen test, the Kaiser Guttman criterion and the correlation between factors and theoretical assumptions were applied. Read More

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December 2018
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Assessment of health management information system for monitoring of maternal health in Jaleswar Block of Balasore District, Odisha, India.

Indian J Public Health 2018 Oct-Dec;62(4):259-264

Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, West Bengal, India.

Background: In 2005, the Government of India implemented the National Rural Health Mission for reduction of maternal mortality. One of the major impediments in improving maternal health since then has been a poor management of the Health Management Information System (HMIS) at grass-roots level which could integrate data collection, processing, reporting, and use of information for necessary improvement of health services.

Objective: The paper identifies the challenges in generating information for HMIS and its utilization for improvement of maternal health program in the tribal-dominated Jaleswar block in Odisha, India. Read More

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December 2018

Multitarget therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease.

Neural Regen Res 2019 Mar;14(3):437-440

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt; Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases have multifaceted nature because of the different factors contributing to their progression. The complex nature of neurodegenerative diseases has developed a pressing need to design multitarget-directed ligands to address the complementary pathways involved in these diseases. The major enzyme targets for development of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease are cholinesterase and β-secretase enzymes. Read More

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Status one year after fertility assessment and counselling in women of reproductive age-a qualitative study.

Ups J Med Sci 2018 Dec 12:1-7. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

d Department of Public Health , University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen , Denmark.

Introduction: Over the past 50 years women and men have postponed family formation in high-income societies. Fertility assessment and counselling has been suggested as a method to reduce delayed childbearing and its consequences. This study explored women's perceptions of how attending a fertility assessment intervention influenced their decisions and choices regarding family formation and childbearing. Read More

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December 2018

Antifouling activity of portimine, select semisynthetic analogues, and other microalga-derived spirocyclic imines.

Biofouling 2018 Dec 12:1-12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Cawthron Institute , Nelson , New Zealand.

A range of natural products from marine invertebrates, bacteria and fungi have been assessed as leads for nature-inspired antifouling (AF) biocides, but little attention has been paid to microalgal-derived compounds. This study assessed the AF activity of the spirocyclic imine portimine (1), which is produced by the benthic mat-forming dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum. Portimine displayed potent AF activity in a panel of four macrofouling bioassays (EC 0. Read More

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December 2018

Recent Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Adolescent Mental Health: Initial Validation of the LEIA, a New Checklist for SLE Assessment According to Their Severity, Interpersonal, and Dependent Nature.

Assessment 2018 Dec 12:1073191118817648. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

2 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain.

The main aim of the present study was to develop and validate a checklist for adolescents, the Life Events Inventory for Adolescents (LEIA), for screening stressful life events (SLEs) of different nature (major-minor, dependent-independent, and personal-interpersonal). The LEIA was administered together with another SLE checklist (Escala de Acontecimientos Vitales [Life Events Scale], EAV), and with measures of life satisfaction and externalizing and internalizing symptoms. The results showed that the kappa and the percentage agreement reliability indices were adequate. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of interfacial water structure on the Hydrogen evolution Reaction on Pt(111) modified with different Nickel Hydroxide coverages in alkaline media.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) constitutes one of the most important reactions in electrochemistry due to the value of hydrogen as a vector for energy storage and transport. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of this reaction in relation to its pH-dependence is of crucial importance. While the HER on Pt(111) works efficiently in acid media, in alkaline media the reaction is impeded and considerably larger applied overpotentials are necessary. Read More

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December 2018

Detection of DNA Autoantibodies by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1901:133-152

Laboratory for Life Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although the presence of antibodies against double-stranded (ds) DNA is considered the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), it is not detected in all SLE patients by routine laboratory tests. Looking at DNA-anti(ds)DNA interaction as one kind of DNA-protein interaction gave us the grounds for a novel type of assay, easy to perform, and providing a direct insight on DNA-anti(ds)DNA IgG interaction. The assay is an application of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and is based on the observation that the electrophoretic mobility of a DNA-protein complex is typically less than that of free DNA. Read More

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January 2019

Overview of Basic Immunology and Translational Relevance for Clinical Investigators.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2018 ;995:1-41

Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. Read More

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January 2018

A High-Throughput Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Semi-Automated Antibody Phage Display Biopanning.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:377-400

Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Panning is a common process used for antibody selection from phage antibody libraries. There are several methods developed for a similar purpose, namely streptavidin mass spectrometry immunoassay (MSIA™) Disposable Automation Research Tips, magnetic beads, polystyrene immunotubes, and microtiter plate. The advantage of using a magnetic particle processor system is the ability to carry out phage display panning against multiple target antigens simultaneously in parallel. Read More

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January 2019

Fundamentals of RNA Analysis on Biobanked Specimens.

Authors:
Samuel P Strom

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1897:345-357

Fulgent Genetics, Temple City, CA, USA.

Compared to DNA, analysis of RNA is one step closer on the central dogma of biology to assessing cellular function. This makes it an extremely valuable target for research and clinical testing in nearly all areas of molecular biology. Most RNA molecules are ephemeral by nature. Read More

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January 2019

Comparative Analysis of Defects in Mg-Implanted and Mg-Doped GaN Layers on Freestanding GaN Substrates.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2018 Dec 11;13(1):403. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0047, Japan.

Inefficient Mg-induced p-type doping has been remained a major obstacle in the development of GaN-based electronic devices for solid-state lighting and power applications. This study reports comparative structural analysis of defects in GaN layers on freestanding GaN substrates where Mg incorporation is carried out via two approaches: ion implantation and epitaxial doping. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the existence of pyramidal and line defects only in Mg-implanted sample whereas Mg-doped sample did not show presence of these defects which suggests that nature of defects depends upon incorporation method. Read More

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December 2018

"All the ward's a stage": a qualitative study of the experience of direct observation of handoffs.

Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Direct observation of clinical skills is central to assessment in a competency-based medical education model, yet little is known about how direct observation is experienced by trainees and observers. The objective of the study is to explore how direct observation was experienced by residents and faculty in the context of the I-PASS Handoff Study. In this multi-center qualitative study, we conducted focus groups and semi-structured interviews of residents and faculty members at eight tertiary pediatric centers in North America that implemented the I-PASS Handoff Bundle. Read More

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December 2018

Habitat use of sympatric prey suggests divergent anti-predator responses to recolonizing gray wolves.

Oecologia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Environmental and Forest Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

The non-consumptive effects of predators on prey are now widely recognized, but the need remains for studies identifying the factors that determine how particular prey species respond behaviorally when threatened with predation. We took advantage of ongoing gray wolf (Canis lupus) recolonization in eastern Washington, USA, to contrast habitat use of two sympatric prey species-mule (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed (O. virginianus) deer-at sites with and without established wolf packs. Read More

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December 2018

Novel unilateral C1 double screw and ipsilateral C2 pedicle screw placement combined with contralateral laminar screw-rod fixation for atlantoaxial instability.

Eur Spine J 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 76 Linjiang Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing, 400010, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the anatomical and biomechanical feasibility of the unilateral C1 double screw [pedicle screw (PS) + lateral mass screw (LMS)] and ipsilateral C2 PS combined with contralateral C2 laminar screw (LS)-rod fixation for atlantoaxial instability by comparison with traditional posterior fixation methods.

Methods: Fifteen sets of complete dry bony specimens of atlas were used for morphometric analysis. The working length, width and thickness of the C1 PSs and LMSs were manually measured. Read More

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December 2018

A comparison of crown preparation grading via PrepCheck versus grading by dental school instructors.

Int J Comput Dent 2018 ;21(4):305-311

Recent reports in the literature demonstrate the influence that digital dentistry is having on the preclinical training of dental students. However, none of these articles have discussed the use of PrepCheck (Sirona Dental Systems) in the evaluation of preparation taper in a preclinical environment. The present study compared the subjective grading of student tooth preparations by experienced, well-calibrated faculty with objective digital grading of the same preparations by means of the PrepCheck software. Read More

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January 2018

An update on sargramostim for treatment of acute radiation syndrome.

Authors:
V K Singh T M Seed

Drugs Today (Barc) 2018 Nov;54(11):679-693

Tech Micro Services, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The potential use by terrorists of an improvised nuclear device, a radiological dispersal device, or an unintended nuclear/radiological accident in heavily populated areas is a national security threat of major consequences. Although this type of security threat is considered to be low-risk, it would have a devastating impact. Health issues would be a major concern; medical care would be necessary for all those who received considerable radiation exposure (> 1 Gy) leading to hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Read More

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November 2018
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Assessing photoreceptor structure in patients with traumatic head injury.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 24;3(1):e000104. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of WI - Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Objective: Previous work using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) imaging has shown photoreceptor disruption to be a common finding in head and ocular trauma patients. Here an expanded trauma population was examined using a novel imaging technique, split-detector AOSLO, to assess remnant cone structure in areas with significant disruption on confocal AOSLO imaging and to follow photoreceptor changes longitudinally.

Methods And Analysis: Eight eyes from seven subjects with head and/or ocular trauma underwent imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, confocal AOSLO and split-detector AOSLO to assess foveal and parafoveal photoreceptor structure. Read More

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November 2018

Examining the nature of feedback within the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX): an analysis of 1427 Mini-CEX assessment forms.

GMS J Med Educ 2018 15;35(4):Doc47. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

University of Queensland, Faculty of Medicine, Executive Dean, St. Lucia Queensland, Australia.

Despite the growing use, studies have demonstrated some limitations related to the feedback provided in the context of the increasing use of the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) in undergraduate medical education. This study examined the written feedback provided on the Mini-CEX form to determine its usefulness as a learning tool for students. 1427 Mini-CEX assessment forms of final year medical students were collected. Read More

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November 2018

Monoclonal antibody resistant mutant of vaccine virus.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 21;29(4):520-530. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

1Division of Biological Products, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh 243122 India.

The available vaccines for control of do not favour differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA). Hence, the present study was aimed to isolate and characterize monoclonal antibody resistant mutant of an Indian strain of vaccine virus "PPRV-Sungri/96" under selection pressure of virus neutralizing monoclonal antibody '4B11' specific to haemagglutinin (H) protein. We successfully isolated five monoclonal antibody resistant (mAr) mutants (PPRV-RM5, PPRV-RM6, PPRV-RM7, PPRV- E6 and PPRV- E7). Read More

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December 2018

Evidence of seed transmission of dolichos yellow mosaic virus, a begomovirus infecting lablab-bean in India.

Virusdisease 2018 Dec 25;29(4):506-512. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Plant Pathology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, 641003 India.

Yellow mosaic disease in field bean caused by begomoviruses belonging to the family Geminiviridae is a major threat to the cultivation of crop in South India. Appearance of bright yellow mosaic symptom in emerging seedlings in farmers field was suggestive of seed transmission of the begomovirus associated with the disease which was investigated in the present study. The begomovirus causing yellow mosaic disease was identified as dolichos yellow mosaic virus (DoYMV) and the presence of DoYMV in matured seeds was confirmed by DAS-ELISA with OD value up to 3. Read More

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December 2018

Safety and Efficacy of Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis: A Retrospective Observational Study.

J Immunol Res 2018 12;2018:9084759. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Nehme and Therese Tohme Multiple Sclerosis Center, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rituximab in multiple sclerosis in a clinical practice setting.

Methods: Clinical data for all adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with off-label rituximab at a single MS center in Lebanon between March 2008 and April 2017 were retrospectively collected from medical charts. The main efficacy outcomes assessed were annualized relapse rate (ARR) and proportion of patients free from relapses, disability progression, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity. Read More

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November 2018

Oxidation-Reduction Potential in Patients undergoing Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement.

Biomed Res Int 2018 14;2018:8469383. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

Background: Aortic valve stenosis has gained increasingly more importance due to its high prevalence in elderly people. More than two decades ago, transcatheter aortic valve replacement emerged for patients who were denied surgery, and its noninferiority has been demonstrated in numerous studies. Oxidative stress has generated great interest because of its sensitivity to cell damage and the possibility of offering early hints of clinical outcomes. Read More

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November 2018

Inflammation-Nature's Way to Efficiently Respond to All Types of Challenges: Implications for Understanding and Managing "the Epidemic" of Chronic Diseases.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 27;5:316. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Siloed or singular system approach to disease management is common practice, developing out of traditional medical school education. Textbooks of medicine describe a huge number of discrete diseases, usually in a systematic fashion following headings like etiology, pathology, investigations, differential diagnoses, and management. This approach suggests that the body has a multitude of ways to respond to harmful incidences. Read More

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November 2018
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Models for Predicting Time to Sputum Conversion Among Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Lagos, South-West Nigeria.

Front Public Health 2018 27;6:347. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Research and Innovation, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria.

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. These factors allow the development and subsequent transmission of resistant strains of the pathogen. However, due to the chronic nature of MDR-TB, cure models allow us to investigate the covariates that are associated with the long-term effects of time-to-sputum conversion among multi-drug resistant (MDR-TB) tuberculosis individuals. Read More

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November 2018

The effect of botulinum toxin-A injection into the masseter muscles on prevention of plate fracture and post-operative relapse in patients receiving orthognathic surgery.

Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Dec 25;40(1):36. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dentistry, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Jukheon gil 7, Gangneung, Gangwondo 25457 Republic of Korea.

Background: Botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) injection into muscle reduces muscular power and may prevent post-operative complication after orthognathic surgery. The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate BTX-A injection into the masseter muscle on the prevention of plate fracture and (2) to compare post-operative relapse between the BTX-A injection group and the no injection group.

Methods: Sixteen patients were included in this study. Read More

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December 2018

Mandibular reconstruction with a ready-made type and a custom-made type titanium mesh after mandibular resection in patients with oral cancer.

Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2018 Dec 25;40(1):35. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, 20, Geumo-ro, Mulgeum-eup, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do South Korea.

Background: After the resection at the mandibular site involving oral cancer, free vascularized fibular graft, a type of vascularized autograft, is often used for the mandibular reconstruction. Titanium mesh (T-mesh) and particulate cancellous bone and marrow (PCBM), however, a type of non-vascularized autograft, can also be used for the reconstruction. With the T-mesh applied even in the chin and angle areas, an aesthetic contour with adequate strength and stable fixation can be achieved, and the pores of the mesh will allow the rapid revascularization of the bone graft site. Read More

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December 2018
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