5,773 results match your criteria Nature Neuroscience [Journal]


Double-dipping revisited.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, UK.

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0398-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0398-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Neuronal deletion of Gtf2i, associated with Williams syndrome, causes behavioral and myelin alterations rescuable by a remyelinating drug.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

McGovern Institute for Brain Research and Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Williams syndrome (WS), caused by a heterozygous microdeletion on chromosome 7q11.23, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by hypersociability and neurocognitive abnormalities. Of the deleted genes, general transcription factor IIi (Gtf2i) has been linked to hypersociability in WS, although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0380-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0380-9DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Bassoon proteinopathy drives neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Institut für Neuroimmunologie und Multiple Sklerose, Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie Hamburg, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by inflammatory insults that drive neuroaxonal injury. However, knowledge about neuron-intrinsic responses to inflammation is limited. By leveraging neuron-specific messenger RNA profiling, we found that neuroinflammation leads to induction and toxic accumulation of the synaptic protein bassoon (Bsn) in the neuronal somata of mice and patients with MS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0385-4DOI Listing

A surprising role for myelin in Williams syndrome.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

UCSF Weill Neuroscience Graduate Program and Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0368-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0368-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Dorsolateral prefrontal neurons mediate subjective decisions and their variation in humans.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 22. Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Subjective decisions play a vital role in human behavior because, while often grounded in fact, they are inherently based on personal beliefs that can vary broadly within and between individuals. While these properties set subjective decisions apart from many other sensorimotor processes and are of wide sociological impact, their single-neuronal basis in humans is unknown. Here we find cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) that reflect variations in the subjective decisions of humans when performing opinion-based tasks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0378-3DOI Listing

Publisher Correction: A whole-brain atlas of monosynaptic input targeting four different cell types in the medial prefrontal cortex of the mouse.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The Supplementary Information is available in the online version of this Publisher Correction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0401-8DOI Listing

A Bayesian framework that integrates multi-omics data and gene networks predicts risk genes from schizophrenia GWAS data.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 100 schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated loci, but using these findings to illuminate disease biology remains a challenge. Here we present integrative risk gene selector (iRIGS), a Bayesian framework that integrates multi-omics data and gene networks to infer risk genes in GWAS loci. By applying iRIGS to SCZ GWAS data, we predicted a set of high-confidence risk genes, most of which are not the nearest genes to the GWAS index variants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0382-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The spatial correspondence and genetic influence of interhemispheric connectivity with white matter microstructure.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Microscopic features (that is, microstructure) of axons affect neural circuit activity through characteristics such as conduction speed. To what extent axonal microstructure in white matter relates to functional connectivity (synchrony) between brain regions is largely unknown. Using MRI data in 11,354 subjects, we constructed multivariate models that predict functional connectivity of pairs of brain regions from the microstructural signature of white matter pathways that connect them. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0379-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0379-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The macaque anterior cingulate cortex translates counterfactual choice value into actual behavioral change.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Wellcome Integrative Neuroimaging, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

The neural mechanisms mediating sensory-guided decision-making have received considerable attention, but animals often pursue behaviors for which there is currently no sensory evidence. Such behaviors are guided by internal representations of choice values that have to be maintained even when these choices are unavailable. We investigated how four macaque monkeys maintained representations of the value of counterfactual choices-choices that could not be taken at the current moment but which could be taken in the future. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0375-6DOI Listing

Aberrant oligodendroglial-vascular interactions disrupt the blood-brain barrier, triggering CNS inflammation.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to initiation and perpetuation of disease in multiple sclerosis (MS). We report an interaction between oligodendroglia and vasculature in MS that distinguishes human white matter injury from normal rodent demyelinating injury. We find perivascular clustering of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in certain active MS lesions, representing an inability to properly detach from vessels following perivascular migration. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0369-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0369-4DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Serotonin-mediated inhibition of ventral hippocampus is required for sustained goal-directed behavior.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

The ability to sustain goal-directed action is essential for success in many domains, but little is known about the corresponding neural substrates. Using fiber photometry to monitor population neural activity, we demonstrate that engagement in sustained food- or punishment-motivated behavior is associated with suppression of ventral but not dorsal hippocampal activity. Using optogenetic stimulation, we demonstrate that this suppression is required for goal-directed behavior, whereas optogenetic suppression of the ventral hippocampus (vHP) enhances the ability to sustain goal-directed behavior. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0376-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0376-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Distinct cortical-amygdala projections drive reward value encoding and retrieval.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The value of an anticipated rewarding event is a crucial component of the decision to engage in its pursuit. But little is known of the networks responsible for encoding and retrieving this value. By using biosensors and pharmacological manipulations, we found that basolateral amygdala (BLA) glutamatergic activity tracks and mediates encoding and retrieval of the state-dependent incentive value of a palatable food reward. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0374-7DOI Listing

Anatomical specialties for value information.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Departments of Pediatrics and Psychiatry, Emory University School of Medicine, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0387-2DOI Listing

Control of tumor-associated macrophages and T cells in glioblastoma via AHR and CD39.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Ann Romney Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in the immune response to cancer, but the mechanisms by which the tumor microenvironment controls TAMs and T cell immunity are not completely understood. Here we report that kynurenine produced by glioblastoma cells activates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in TAMs to modulate their function and T cell immunity. AHR promotes CCR2 expression, driving TAM recruitment in response to CCL2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0370-yDOI Listing
April 2019
16.095 Impact Factor

Reversing working memory decline in the elderly.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Human Cortical Physiology and Neurorehabilitation Section, NINDS, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0386-3DOI Listing

Working memory revived in older adults by synchronizing rhythmic brain circuits.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Center for Systems Neuroscience, Cognitive Neuroimaging Center, Center for Research in Sensory Communication & Emerging Neural Technology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Understanding normal brain aging and developing methods to maintain or improve cognition in older adults are major goals of fundamental and translational neuroscience. Here we show a core feature of cognitive decline-working-memory deficits-emerges from disconnected local and long-range circuits instantiated by theta-gamma phase-amplitude coupling in temporal cortex and theta phase synchronization across frontotemporal cortex. We developed a noninvasive stimulation procedure for modulating long-range theta interactions in adults aged 60-76 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0371-xDOI Listing

Senolytic therapy alleviates Aβ-associated oligodendrocyte progenitor cell senescence and cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, NIH, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Neuritic plaques, a pathological hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, comprise extracellular aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide and degenerating neurites that accumulate autolysosomes. We found that, in the brains of patients with AD and in AD mouse models, Aβ plaque-associated Olig2- and NG2-expressing oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), but not astrocytes, microglia, or oligodendrocytes, exhibit a senescence-like phenotype characterized by the upregulation of p21/CDKN1A, p16/INK4/CDKN2A proteins, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Molecular interrogation of the Aβ plaque environment revealed elevated levels of transcripts encoding proteins involved in OPC function, replicative senescence, and inflammation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0372-9DOI Listing

Expectation-induced modulation of metastable activity underlies faster coding of sensory stimuli.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Sensory stimuli can be recognized more rapidly when they are expected. This phenomenon depends on expectation affecting the cortical processing of sensory information. However, the mechanisms responsible for the effects of expectation on sensory circuits remain elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0364-9DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Molecularly defined cortical astroglia subpopulation modulates neurons via secretion of Norrin.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Despite expanding knowledge regarding the role of astroglia in regulating neuronal function, little is known about regional or functional subgroups of brain astroglia and how they may interact with neurons. We use an astroglia-specific promoter fragment in transgenic mice to identify an anatomically defined subset of adult gray matter astroglia. Using transcriptomic and histological analyses, we generate a combinatorial profile for the in vivo identification and characterization of this astroglia subpopulation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0366-7DOI Listing

Distinct hippocampal engrams control extinction and relapse of fear memory.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Center for Learning and Memory, Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Learned fear often relapses after extinction, suggesting that extinction training generates a new memory that coexists with the original fear memory; however, the mechanisms governing the expression of competing fear and extinction memories remain unclear. We used activity-dependent neural tagging to investigate representations of fear and extinction memories in the dentate gyrus. We demonstrate that extinction training suppresses reactivation of contextual fear engram cells while activating a second ensemble, a putative extinction engram. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0361-zDOI Listing

Correlation structure of grid cells is preserved during sleep.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):598-608. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Kavli Institute for Systems Neuroscience and Centre for Neural Computation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

The network of grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) forms a fixed reference frame for mapping physical space. The mechanistic origin of the grid representation is unknown, but continuous attractor network models explain multiple fundamental features of grid cell activity. An untested prediction of these models is that the grid cell network should exhibit an activity correlation structure that transcends behavioral states. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0360-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0360-0DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

SHANK2 mutations associated with autism spectrum disorder cause hyperconnectivity of human neurons.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):556-564. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Developmental & Stem Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SHANK2 are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We generated cortical neurons from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from neurotypic and ASD-affected donors. We developed sparse coculture for connectivity assays where SHANK2 and control neurons were differentially labeled and sparsely seeded together on a lawn of unlabeled control neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0365-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6475597PMC
April 2019
2 Reads

Grid cell co-activity patterns during sleep reflect spatial overlap of grid fields during active behaviors.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):609-617. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for Learning and Memory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.

Continuous-attractor network models of grid formation posit that recurrent connectivity between grid cells controls their patterns of co-activation. Grid cells from a common module exhibit stable offsets in their periodic spatial tuning curves across environments, and this may reflect recurrent connectivity or correlated sensory inputs. Here we explore whether cell-cell relationships predicted by attractor models persist during sleep states in which spatially informative sensory inputs are absent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0359-6DOI Listing

Oxytocin modulates social value representations in the amygdala.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):633-641. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China.

Humans exhibit considerable variation in how they value their own interest relative to the interests of others. Deciphering the neural codes representing potential rewards for self and others is crucial for understanding social decision-making. Here we integrate computational modeling with functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural representation of social value and the modulation by oxytocin, a nine-amino acid neuropeptide, in participants evaluating monetary allocations to self and other (self-other allocations). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0351-1DOI Listing

Making a commitment: neurons refuse cancer's advances.

Authors:
Peter B Dirks

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr;22(4):507-508

Division of Neurosurgery, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0373-8DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Oxytocin and the altruistic 'Goldilocks zone'.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr;22(4):510-512

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0362-yDOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Author Correction: Invasion of white matter tracts by glioma stem cells is regulated by a NOTCH1-SOX2 positive-feedback loop.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Institute of Pathology and Southwest Cancer Center, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, China.

The original and corrected figures are shown in the accompanying Author Correction. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0388-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0388-1DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads
16.095 Impact Factor

A whole-brain atlas of monosynaptic input targeting four different cell types in the medial prefrontal cortex of the mouse.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 18;22(4):657-668. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The local and long-range connectivity of cortical neurons are considered instrumental to the functional repertoire of the cortical region in which they reside. In cortical networks, distinct cell types build local circuit structures enabling computational operations. Computations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are thought to be central to cognitive operation, including decision-making and memory. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0354-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0354-yDOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Cerebral organoids at the air-liquid interface generate diverse nerve tracts with functional output.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 18;22(4):669-679. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, UK.

Neural organoids have the potential to improve our understanding of human brain development and neurological disorders. However, it remains to be seen whether these tissues can model circuit formation with functional neuronal output. Here we have adapted air-liquid interface culture to cerebral organoids, leading to improved neuronal survival and axon outgrowth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0350-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6436729PMC

Multiplexed peroxidase-based electron microscopy labeling enables simultaneous visualization of multiple cell types.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a powerful tool for circuit mapping, but identifying specific cell types in EM datasets remains a major challenge. Here we describe a technique enabling simultaneous visualization of multiple genetically identified neuronal populations so that synaptic interactions between them can be unequivocally defined. We present 15 adeno-associated virus constructs and 6 mouse reporter lines for multiplexed EM labeling in the mammalian nervous system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0358-7DOI Listing

Single-cell transcriptomic analysis of the lateral hypothalamic area reveals molecularly distinct populations of inhibitory and excitatory neurons.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 11;22(4):642-656. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA.

The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) coordinates an array of fundamental behaviors, including sleeping, waking, feeding, stress and motivated behavior. The wide spectrum of functions ascribed to the LHA may be explained by a heterogeneous population of neurons, the full diversity of which is poorly understood. We employed a droplet-based single-cell RNA-sequencing approach to develop a comprehensive census of molecularly distinct cell types in the mouse LHA. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0349-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0349-8DOI Listing
April 2019
24 Reads

Locomotion-dependent remapping of distributed cortical networks.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar 11. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

The interactions between neocortical areas are fluid and state-dependent, but how individual neurons couple to cortex-wide network dynamics remains poorly understood. We correlated the spiking of neurons in primary visual (V1) and retrosplenial (RSP) cortex to activity across dorsal cortex, recorded simultaneously by widefield calcium imaging. Neurons were correlated with distinct and reproducible patterns of activity across the cortical surface; while some fired predominantly with their local area, others coupled to activity in distal areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0357-8DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

In vivo neuronal gene editing via CRISPR-Cas9 amphiphilic nanocomplexes alleviates deficits in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 11;22(4):524-528. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering (BK21 plus), Dongguk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In vivo gene editing in post-mitotic neurons of the adult brain may be a useful strategy for treating neurological diseases. Here, we develop CRISPR-Cas9 nanocomplexes and show they were effective in the adult mouse brain, with minimal off-target effects. Using this system to target Bace1 suppressed amyloid beta (Aβ)-associated pathologies and cognitive deficits in two mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0352-0DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads
16.095 Impact Factor

Astrocytes usurp neurons as a disease focus.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr;22(4):512-513

Department of Neurobiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0367-6DOI Listing

Long-range inhibitory intersection of a retrosplenial thalamocortical circuit by apical tuft-targeting CA1 neurons.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 11;22(4):618-626. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Hippocampus, granular retrosplenial cortex (RSCg), and anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) interact to mediate diverse cognitive functions. To identify cellular mechanisms underlying hippocampo-thalamo-retrosplenial interactions, we investigated the potential circuit suggested by projections to RSCg layer 1 (L1) from GABAergic CA1 neurons and ATN. We find that CA1→RSCg projections stem from GABAergic neurons with a distinct morphology, electrophysiology, and molecular profile. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0355-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435388PMC

The two faces of PVN CRF neurons.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr;22(4):508-510

National Institute of Biological Sciences (NIBS), Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0363-xDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Spontaneous synchronization to speech reveals neural mechanisms facilitating language learning.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;22(4):627-632. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Psychology, New York University, New York, NY, USA.

We introduce a deceptively simple behavioral task that robustly identifies two qualitatively different groups within the general population. When presented with an isochronous train of random syllables, some listeners are compelled to align their own concurrent syllable production with the perceived rate, whereas others remain impervious to the external rhythm. Using both neurophysiological and structural imaging approaches, we show group differences with clear consequences for speech processing and language learning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0353-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435400PMC
April 2019
3 Reads

Rapid, biphasic CRF neuronal responses encode positive and negative valence.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 4;22(4):576-585. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) that is released from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is essential for mediating stress response by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. CRF-releasing PVN neurons receive inputs from multiple brain regions that convey stressful events, but their neuronal dynamics on the timescale of behavior remain unknown. Here, our recordings of PVN CRF neuronal activity in freely behaving mice revealed that CRF neurons are activated immediately by a range of aversive stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0342-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Optimality and heuristics in perceptual neuroscience.

Authors:
Justin L Gardner

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):514-523. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

The foundation for modern understanding of how we make perceptual decisions about what we see or where to look comes from considering the optimal way to perform these behaviors. While statistical computation is useful for deriving the optimal solution to a perceptual problem, optimality requires perfect knowledge of priors and often complex computation. Accumulating evidence, however, suggests that optimal perceptual goals can be achieved or approximated more simply by human observers using heuristic approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0340-4DOI Listing

Unique contributions of parvalbumin and cholinergic interneurons in organizing striatal networks during movement.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):586-597. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA.

Striatal parvalbumin (PV) and cholinergic interneurons (CHIs) are poised to play major roles in behavior by coordinating the networks of medium spiny cells that relay motor output. However, the small numbers and scattered distribution of these cells have hindered direct assessment of their contribution to activity in networks of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) during behavior. Here, we build on recent improvements in single-cell calcium imaging combined with optogenetics to test the capacity of PVs and CHIs to affect MSN activity and behavior in mice engaged in voluntary locomotion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0341-3DOI Listing

Divergent medial amygdala projections regulate approach-avoidance conflict behavior.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 25;22(4):565-575. Epub 2019 Feb 25.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Avoidance of innate threats is often in conflict with motivations to engage in exploratory approach behavior. The neural pathways that mediate this approach-avoidance conflict are not well resolved. Here we isolated a population of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R)-expressing neurons within the posteroventral region of the medial amygdala (MeApv) in mice that are activated either during approach or during avoidance of an innate threat stimulus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0337-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446555PMC

Common knowledge: shared genetics in psychiatry.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar;22(3):331-332

Department of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Biomedical Informatics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0346-yDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Post-traumatic stress disorder as a disorder of prediction.

Authors:
Peggy Seriès

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar;22(3):334-336

Department of Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0345-zDOI Listing

Microglia, complement and schizophrenia.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar;22(3):333-334

Laboratory of Genetics, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0343-1DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
16.095 Impact Factor

Publisher Correction: Human cognition involves the dynamic integration of neural activity and neuromodulatory systems.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

In the version of this article initially published, Kaylena A. Ehgoetz Martens' name was misspelled as Kayla. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0347-xDOI Listing
February 2019
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Cell-of-origin susceptibility to glioblastoma formation declines with neural lineage restriction.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 18;22(4):545-555. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Brain Tumor Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The contribution of lineage identity and differentiation state to malignant transformation is controversial. We have previously shown that adult neural stem and early progenitor cells give origin to glioblastoma. Here we systematically assessed the tumor-initiating potential of adult neural populations at various stages of lineage progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0333-8DOI Listing
April 2019
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The DNA modification N6-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (m6dA) drives activity-induced gene expression and is required for fear extinction.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Apr 18;22(4):534-544. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Cognitive Neuroepigenetics Laboratory, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

DNA modification is known to regulate experience-dependent gene expression. However, beyond cytosine methylation and its oxidated derivatives, very little is known about the functional importance of chemical modifications on other nucleobases in the brain. Here we report that in adult mice trained in fear extinction, the DNA modification N6-methyl-2'-deoxyadenosine (m6dA) accumulates along promoters and coding sequences in activated prefrontal cortical neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0339-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462436PMC
April 2019
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Author Correction: Neural computations of threat in the aftermath of combat trauma.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

The original and corrected figures are shown in the accompanying Author Correction. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-019-0356-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0356-9DOI Listing
February 2019
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Whither variability?

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar;22(3):329-330

Dept. of Physiology and Biophysics and UW Institute for Neuroengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0344-0DOI Listing

Reduced mitochondrial fusion and Huntingtin levels contribute to impaired dendritic maturation and behavioral deficits in Fmr1-mutant mice.

Nat Neurosci 2019 Mar 11;22(3):386-400. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Fragile X syndrome results from a loss of the RNA-binding protein fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). How FMRP regulates neuronal development and function remains unclear. Here we show that FMRP-deficient immature neurons exhibit impaired dendritic maturation, altered expression of mitochondrial genes, fragmented mitochondria, impaired mitochondrial function, and increased oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41593-019-0338-yDOI Listing
March 2019
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