518,706 results match your criteria Nature Chemical Biology [Journal]


Characteristics of interactions at protein segments without non-local intramolecular contacts in the Protein Data Bank.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(12):e0205052. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

The principle of three-dimensional protein structure formation is a long-standing conundrum in structural biology. A globular domain of a soluble protein is formed by a network of atomic contacts among amino acid residues, but regions without intramolecular non-local contacts are often observed in the protein structure, especially in loop, linker, and peripheral segments with secondary structures. Although these regions can play key roles for protein function as interfaces for intermolecular interactions, their nature remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Synthesizing, characterizing, and toxicity evaluating of Phycocyanin-ZnO nanorod composites: A back to nature approaches.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 4;175:221-230. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Division of Industrial & Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), P.O. Box 14155-6343, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

C-Phycocyanin pigment was purified from a native cyanobacterial strain using a novel consecutive multi-step procedure and utilized for the first time for the green synthesis of phycocyanin-zinc oxide nanorods (PHY-ZnO NRs) by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach. The PHY-ZnO NRs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurement, FTIR, SEM, TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), and EDX spectroscopy analysis. The UV-vis spectra showed an absorption band at 364 nm which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs). Read More

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December 2018

A roadmap towards a functional paradigm for learning & memory in plants.

J Plant Physiol 2018 Nov 8;232:209-215. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Institute of Applied Biosciences, Center for Research & Technology (CERTH), Thessaloniki, Greece.

In plants, the acquisition, processing and storage of empirical information can result in the modification of their behavior according to the nature of the stimulus, and yet this area of research remained relatively understudied until recently. As the body of evidence supporting the inclusion of plants among the higher organisms demonstrating the adaptations to accomplish these tasks keeps increasing, the resistance by traditional botanists and agricultural scientists, who were at first cautious in allowing the application of animal models onto plant physiology and development, subsides. However, the debate retains much of its heat, a good part of it originating from the controversial use of nervous system terms to describe plant processes. Read More

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November 2018

Occurrence and contamination of heavy metals in urban mangroves: A case study in Shenzhen, China.

Chemosphere 2018 Nov 27;219:165-173. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Guangdong Neilingding Futian National Nature Reserve, Shenzhen, 518000, China.

Urban mangroves are affected by surrounding anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals in urban mangroves lack systematic evaluation, and their relationships with surrounding anthropogenic activities have not been explored with quantified data. In this study, urban mangroves with different urban functional zonings were selected in Shenzhen, South China, including: Shajing mangrove (SJM) and Xixiang mangrove (XXM) featured with industry district, Futian mangrove (FTM) and Baguang mangrove (BGM) featured with central business district and ecological preserve, respectively. Read More

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November 2018

Biopolymers - Calcium phosphates composites with inclusions of magnetic nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Bioengineering, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Iasi, Romania. Electronic address:

Composites based on combination of biopolymers (chitosan, hyaluronic acid and bovine serum albumin or gelatin), calcium phosphates (CP) and magnetic nanoparticles have been prepared by a biomimetic co-precipitation method. The biomimetic strategy is inspired by natural mineralization processes, where the synthesized minerals are usually combined with proteins, polysaccharides or other mineral forms to form composite, in physiological conditions of temperature and pH. The morphology of the magnetic composites, studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated a macroporous structure, which influenced the retention of simulated biological fluids. Read More

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December 2018

Strain State Dependent Anisotropic Viscoelasticity of Tendon-to-Bone Insertion.

Math Biosci 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, R3158 Engineering Building 3, Campus Box 7910, 911 Oval Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695. Electronic address:

Tendon-to-bone insertion tissues may be considered as functionally-graded connective tissues, providing a gradual transition from soft tendon to hard bone tissue, and functioning to alleviate stress concentrations at the junction of these tissues. The tendon-to-bone insertion tissues demonstrate pronounced viscoelastic behavior, like many other biological tissues, and are designed by the nature to alleviate stress at physiological load rates and strains states. In this paper we present experimental data showing that under biaxial tension tendon-to-bone insertion demonstrates rate-dependent behavior and that stress-strain curves for the in-plane components of stress and strain become less steep when strain rate is increased, contrary to a typical viscoelastic behavior, where the opposite trend is observed. Read More

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December 2018

Sleeping site and tree selection by Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Baihe Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China.

Am J Primatol 2018 Dec;80(12):e22936

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan, China.

For non-human primates to optimize their survival chances, sleeping site selection is crucial as they spend much of their time sleeping. We studied sleeping site and tree selection by a group of wild Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the temperate forests of Baihe Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China, to assess if certain site and tree characteristics were selected. We identified a total of 39 sleeping sites and 111 sleeping trees over a period of 1 year. Read More

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December 2018

Trust, Money, and Power: Life Cycle Dynamics in Alliances Between Management Partners and Accountable Care Organizations.

Milbank Q 2018 Dec;96(4):755-781

Gillings School of Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Policy Points Accountable care organizations (ACOs) form alliances with management partners to access financial, technical, and managerial support. Alliances between ACOs and management partners are subject to destabilizing tension around decision-making authority, distribution of shared savings, and conflicting goals and values. Management partners may serve either as trainers, ultimately breaking off from the ACO, or as central drivers of the ACO. Read More

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December 2018

Natural Products and Chemical Biology Tools: Alternatives to Target Epigenetic Mechanisms in Cancers.

Chem Rec 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Epigenetic Chemical Biology, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724, Paris cedex 15, France.

DNA methylation and histone acetylation are widely studied epigenetic modifications. They are involved in numerous pathologies such as cancer, neurological disease, inflammation, obesity, etc. Since the discovery of the epigenome, numerous compounds have been developed to reverse DNA methylation and histone acetylation aberrant profile in diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Microbial production of natural and non-natural monolignols with Escherichia coli.

Chembiochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Forschungszentrum Julich, Institute of Bio- and Geosciences, Leo-Brandt-Straße, 52425, Juelich, GERMANY.

Phenylpropanoids and phenylpropanoid-derived plant polyphenols find numerous applications in food and pharmaceutical industries. In recent years, several microbial platform organisms were engineered towards producing such compounds. However, for the most part, microbial (poly)phenol production is inspired by nature, and thus predominantly naturally occurring compounds have been produced to this date. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Validation of the Acetabulum As a Skeletal Indicator of Age at Death in Modern European-Americans.

J Forensic Sci 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Anthropology, University of West Florida, 11000 University Parkway, Bldg. 13, Pensacola, FL, 32514.

Progressive changes in the acetabulum have been used in modern skeletal age estimation, but they have not been completely understood. If their age correlations are weakened by the influence of factors like physical activity and obesity, acetabular changes should not be used for age estimation. To investigate their utility for aging, the acetabular variables of Rissech et al. Read More

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December 2018

Tilorone activates NK cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes that kill HLA-negative tumor cells.

IUBMB Life 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Molecular Immunogenetics of cancer laboratory, Institute of gene biology, RAS, Moscow, 119334, Russia.

Tilorone hydrochloride, a low-molecular-weight synthetic compound, induces interferon production and has been reported to have both antiviral and antitumor activities. Here, we have demonstrated the ability of tilorone to activate NK cells and specific subpopulations of cytotoxic CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes that recognize immune-evasive tumor cells and kill them via the FasL-Fas interaction. We have also performed a comparative analysis of characteristics between lymphocytes activated in the fraction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) upon treatment with different stimulants of the immune response: tilorone, innate immunity protein Tag7, and cytokine IL-2, a regulator of adaptive immunity. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Treatment-resistant PLA2R-negative membranous nephropathy responsive to low-density lipoprotein apheresis.

J Clin Apher 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Transfusion Medicine, National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland.

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in nondiabetic adults. The antibody most often implicated is the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) antibody, found in >70% of primary membranous nephropathy cases. First-line therapy is immunosuppressive in nature, but for patients who are treatment-resistant there is a significant risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality. Read More

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December 2018

Salvianolic acid B inhibits the development of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by suppressing autophagy and apoptosis.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of SalB on high glucose (HG)-induced excessive autophagy and apoptosis in vitro.

Methods: The proliferation and apoptosis of RSC96 cells were determined using the MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the expression of autophagy and apoptosis-related proteins. Read More

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December 2018

Activating Mas receptor protects human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells against LPS-induced apoptosis via the NF-kB p65/P53 feedback pathways.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University affiliated to The Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

The balance between Ang II/AT1R and Ang-(1-7)/Mas plays a pivotal role in the development of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the mechanisms underlying the balancing process still remain unclear. Here we investigated the roles of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and p53 in regulating AT1R and Mas expression. Read More

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December 2018

Food intolerance in dogs and cats.

Authors:
J M Craig

J Small Anim Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Re-Fur-All Referrals, Newbury, Berkshire, UK.

Food intolerance refers to any abnormal physiological response to a food or food additive, believed not to be immunological in nature. Mechanisms include food toxicity, pharmacological reactions, metabolic reactions, dysmotility, dysbiosis, physical effects and non-specific dietary sensitivity. Food intolerance reactions are variable, typically dose-dependent, and can occur at any age. Read More

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December 2018
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Study of pancreatic lipase inhibition kinetics and LC-QTOF-MS based identification of bioactive constituents of Momordica charantia fruits.

Biomed Chromatogr 2018 Dec 9:e4463. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

AB Sciex, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

The different parts of Momordica charantia are well reported for its several therapeutic applications against hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia associated with pancreatic lipase (PL). Inhibition of this enzyme prevents the absorption of dietary triglyceride in the intestine, and thus exerts the anti-obesity effect. This study was aimed to investigate the bioactive constituents of the fruits of M. Read More

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December 2018
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Science for Policy: A Case Study of Scientific Polarization, Values, and the Framing of Risk and Uncertainty.

Risk Anal 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

The Institute for Resources, Environment and Sustainability (IRES), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

It is well documented that more research can lead to hardened positions, particularly when dealing with complex, controversial, and value-laden issues. This study is an attempt to unveil underlying values in a contemporary debate, where both sides use scientific evidence to support their argument. We analyze the problem framing, vocabulary, interpretation of evidence, and policy recommendations, with particular attention to the framing of nature and technology. Read More

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December 2018

microRNA-148a-3p inhibited the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition progression of non-small-cell lung cancer via modulating Ras/MAPK/Erk signaling.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Son of sevenless (SOS) is one of the guanine nucleotide exchange factors that can regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase signal pathway via controlling the activation of Ras. microRNAs are key regulon of gene expression and would be treated as tumor biomarkers or therapeutic targets. In this study, we find that miR-148a-3p acts as a tumor-suppressor in the development and progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Read More

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December 2018

The 3D Cancer Nucleus.

Authors:
Sabine Mai

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Cell Biology, Research Institute for Oncology and Hematology, CancerCare Manitoba, The University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

Research into the three-dimensional (3D) organization of the cancer cell genome started over 100 years ago. We follow an exciting avenue of research in this field, from Hansemann's early observations of aberrant mitoses and nuclei in cancer cells in the late 19 century to Boveri's theory of the cancer cell in the early 20 century, to current views of nuclear organization and its changes in cancer. Molecular and imaging methods go hand in hand with providing us with a better understanding of the spatial nature of the cancer cell genome. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Mentoring beginning immigrant teachers: How culture may impact the message.

Int J Psychol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Independent Consultant, San Rafael, CA, USA.

Beginning immigrant teachers may experience cross-cultural conflicts because their home cultures may differ in important ways from U.S. school culture. Read More

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December 2018
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Ethynylpyrene Linked Benzocrown Ethers as Fluorescent Sensors for Metal Ions.

Photochem Photobiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Material Chemistry, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, 920-1192, Japan.

Substances containing ethynylpyrenes linked to either one or four benzocrown ethers were synthesized and their absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic responses to metal ions were assessed. Addition of metal perchlorates to solutions of these substances promotes short wavelength shifts in their absorption and fluorescence maxima and increases in their fluorescence intensities. The magnitudes of the fluorescence intensity increases are dependent on the ring size and number of the crown ether and the nature of the metal cation. Read More

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December 2018

Preparation and Partial Characterization of Films Made with Dual-Modified (Acetylation and Crosslinking) Potato Starch.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Instituto Politécnico Nacional - CEPROBI, Km 8.5, Carretera Yautepec-Jojutla, Colonia San Isidro, Apartado Postal 24, 62731 Yautepec, Mor, Mexico.

Background: Starch is an alternative material for the production of biodegradable plastics; however, native starches have drawbacks due to their hydrophilic nature. Chemical modifications such as acetylation and crosslinking are used to broaden the potential end-uses of starch. Dual modification of starch increases their functionality compared to that of starches with similar single modifications. Read More

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December 2018
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Social capital: Implications for neurology.

Brain Behav 2018 Dec 8:e01169. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Queen Mary University of London, Blizard Institute, London, UK.

Social capital (SC) is a broad term that encompasses the many resources derived from social connections. The contemporary study of SC in public health has deep roots in the related fields of sociology, economics, and politics. Its multidisciplinary nature and the varying potential ways it could affect individuals have resulted in different but overlapping models to approach SC in the health field. Read More

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December 2018
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Nanocatalysts-Augmented and Photothermal-Enhanced Tumor-Specific Sequential Nanocatalytic Therapy in Both NIR-I and NIR-II Biowindows.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 9:e1805919. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050, P. R. China.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) has been increasingly recognized as a crucial contributor to tumorigenesis. Based on the unique TME for achieving tumor-specific therapy, here a novel concept of photothermal-enhanced sequential nanocatalytic therapy in both NIR-I and NIR-II biowindows is proposed, which innovatively changes the condition of nanocatalytic Fenton reaction for production of highly efficient hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and consequently suppressing the tumor growth. Evidence suggests that glucose plays a vital role in powering cancer progression. Read More

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December 2018

Analysis of agriculture-related life-threatening injuries presenting to emergency departments of rural generalist hospitals in Southern Queensland.

Emerg Med Australas 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Sunshine Coast Hospital and Health Service, Sunshine Coast Region, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: Agricultural industries are among the most dangerous in Australia posing significant public health risks. This study analyses the nature and management of agriculture-related injuries presenting to EDs in selected hospitals in Southern Queensland.

Methods: Data on agricultural injury presentations over a 6 month period was collected at four rural hospitals by a dedicated onsite hospital data coordinator. Read More

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December 2018

Melatonin release by exocytosis in the rat parotid gland.

J Anat 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cytomorphology, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Several beneficial effects on oral health are ascribed to melatonin. Due to its lipophilic nature, non-protein-bound circulating melatonin is usually thought to enter the saliva by passive diffusion through salivary acinar gland cells. Recently, however, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), melatonin was found in acinar secretory granules of human salivary glands. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Sowing social inclusion for marginalised residents of a social housing development through a community garden.

Health Promot J Austr 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

School of Health and Social Development, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Aim: In addition to food, physical activity, mental health and environmental benefits, community gardens (CGs) provide opportunities for social inclusion and increased social capital. These are particularly important to the socially isolated residents of Social Housing Developments (SHD). This scoping study explored the feasibility of a CG program for tenants of social housing development in inner eastern Melbourne by assessing their interest in, and requirements for, inclusively designed CGs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Amber Suppression Coupled with Inducible Surface Display Identifies Cells with High Recombinant Protein Productivity.

Biotechnol Bioeng 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Antibody Discovery and Protein Engineering, Medimmune, Gaithersburg, MD.

Cell line development for biotherapeutics is a time- and resource-intensive process requiring the isolation and screening of large numbers of clones to identify high producers. Novel methods aimed at enhancing cell line screening efficiency using markers predictive of productivity early in the CLD process are needed to reliably generate high yielding cell lines. To enable efficient and selective isolation of antibody expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we developed a strategy for the expression of antibodies containing a switchable membrane associated domain to anchor an antibody to the membrane of the expressing cell. Read More

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December 2018

Partner-specific Prediction of RNA-binding Residues in Proteins: A Critical Assessment.

Proteins 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Bioinformatics and Genomics Graduate Program, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.

RNA-protein interactions play essential roles in regulating gene expression. While some RNA-protein interactions are "specific", i.e. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Site-Selective and van der Waals Epitaxial Growth of Rhenium Disulfide on Graphene.

Small 2018 Dec 11:e1804133. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Low Dimensional Carbon Materials Center, Perovtronics Research Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan, 44919, Republic of Korea.

The surface property of growth substrate imposes significant influence in the growth behaviors of 2D materials. Rhenium disulfide (ReS ) is a new family of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides with unique distorted 1T crystal structure and thickness-independent direct bandgap. The role of growth substrate is more critical for ReS owing to its weak interlayer coupling property, which leads to preferred growth along the out-of-plane direction while suppressing the uniform in-plane growth. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Superior detection of metastatic cystic lymphadenopathy in patients with papillary thyroid cancer by utilization of thyroglobulin washout.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has been the standard of care in the workup of cervical lymph nodes (LNs) in patients with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and suspicious cervical LNs. Recently, FNA thyroglobulin (TG) washout measurement has been proposed as an adjunct in the management of these patients. We hypothesize that using FNA-TG washout for suspicious cervical LNs would increase the accuracy of diagnosing metastatic disease especially in cystic and highly vascular cervical LN in patients with recurrent PTC. Read More

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December 2018

Applying the handicap principle to biofilms: condition-dependent signaling in Bacillus subtilis microbial communities.

Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Bacteria in nature often reside in differentiated communities termed biofilms. These communities, which are composed of a number of functionally distinct cell types, are an interesting example of division of labor in microbes, and as such have been used as a system to study the evolution of cooperation. The structured population of the biofilm also plays a critical role in the persistence of infections, and biofouling of medical and industrial devices. Read More

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December 2018

Supramolecular Antibacterial Materials for Combatting Antibiotic Resistance.

Adv Mater 2018 Dec 7:e1805092. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have emerged as a severe threat to human health. As effective antibacterial therapies, supramolecular materials display unprecedented advantages because of the flexible and tunable nature of their noncovalent interactions with biomolecules and the ability to incorporate various active agents in their platforms. Herein, supramolecular antibacterial materials are discussed using a format that focuses on their fundamental active elements and on recent advances including material selection, fabrication methods, structural characterization, and activity performance. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Humoral immunodeficiencies: conferred risk of infections and benefits of immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3056-3064

Division of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) diseases result from genetic defects of the immune system that increase a patient's susceptibility to infections. The types of infections that occur in patients with PID diseases are dictated largely by the nature of the immunodeficiency, which can be defined by dysfunction of cellular or humoral defenses. An increasing number of PID diseases, including those with both cellular and humoral defects, have antibody deficiency as a major feature, and as a result can benefit from immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Lyme neuroborreliosis- clinical outcomes, controversy, pathogenesis, and polymicrobial infections.

Ann Neurol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Pathology, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

Lyme Borreliosis is the object of numerous misconceptions. In this review, we revisit the fundamental manifestations of neuroborreliosis (meningitis and cranial and radiculoneuritis) as these have withstood the test of time. We also discuss other manifestations that are less frequent. Read More

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December 2018

Incidence of severe critical events in paediatric anaesthesia in the United Kingdom: secondary analysis of the anaesthesia practice in children observational trial (APRICOT study).

Anaesthesia 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Paediatric Anaesthesia and Pain Management, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

The anaesthesia practice in children observational trial of 31,127 patients in 261 European hospitals revealed a high (5.2%) incidence of severe critical events in the peri-operative period and wide variability in practice. A sub-analysis of the UK data was undertaken to investigate differences compared with the non-UK cohort in the incidence and nature of peri-operative severe critical events and to attempt to identify areas for quality improvement. Read More

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December 2018

Exercise interventions for people undergoing multimodal cancer treatment that includes surgery.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 11;12:CD012280. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Background: People undergoing multimodal cancer treatment are at an increased risk of adverse events. Physical fitness significantly reduces following cancer treatment, which is related to poor postoperative outcome. Exercise training can stimulate skeletal muscle adaptations, such as increased mitochondrial content and improved oxygen uptake capacity may contribute to improved physical fitness. Read More

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December 2018

[Speech and Language Disorders in the Elderly].

Authors:
Arno Olthoff

Laryngorhinootologie 2018 Dec 10;97(12):846-851. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Phoniatrie und Pädaudiologie Göttingen, Klinik für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohrenheilkunde.

Cerebrovascular insults and neurodegenerative diseases are the main causes of acquired speech and language disorders. A massive increase in the prevalence of both is evident from the age of 65 years. By the age of 90 years, more than 10 % of the population would have experienced a stroke and 30 % would have suffered from neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

District-level implementation of British Columbia's school food and beverage sales policy: a realist evaluation exploring intervention mechanisms in urban and rural contexts.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Sustainable Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Intervention: British Columbia's (BC) provincial school food and beverage sales policy.

Research Question: What are the processes associated with district-level implementation of BC's school food and beverage sales policy?

Methods: We adopted a realist approach and a qualitative, multiple case study design that included three urban and two rural BC school districts. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with health, education, and industry stakeholders, observations, document analysis and website scans. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A new one-step multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of avian haemosporidian parasites.

Parasitol Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Molecular Ecology and Evolution Laboratory, Department of Biology, Lund University, SE-223 62, Lund, Sweden.

Accurate detection and identification are essential components for epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary surveys of avian haemosporidian parasites. Microscopy has been used for more than 100 years to detect and identify these parasites; however, this technique requires considerable training and high-level expertise. Several PCR methods with highly sensitive and specific detection capabilities have now been developed in addition to microscopic examination. Read More

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December 2018

The Nature of the Shared Environment.

Behav Genet 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

While a standard part of twin modeling, the magnitude of shared environment (c) is rarely examined by comparing estimates obtained using other methods. To clarify these effects on familial resemblance, we estimated c for 20 diverse phenotypes in: (i) monozygotic and dizygotic twins, (ii) all step-siblings, and (iii) reared together and apart half-siblings, ascertained from the Swedish general population. The mean c estimates (± 95% CIs) differed across methods and were higher from twins (0. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Smarter through group living: A response to Smulders.

Learn Behav 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Centre for Ecology and Conservation, University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Treliever Road, Penryn, TR10 9FE, UK.

We recently identified a strong, positive relationship between group size and individual cognitive performance, and a strong, positive relationship between female cognitive performance and reproductive success (Ashton, Ridley, Edwards, & Thornton in Nature, 554, 364-367, 2018). An opinion piece by Smulders (Learning & Behavior, https://doi.org/10. Read More

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December 2018
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Influence of dronedarone (a class III antiarrhythmic drug) on the anticonvulsant potency of four classical antiepileptic drugs in the tonic-clonic seizure model in mice.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.

Increasing evidence indicates that some antiarrhythmic drugs play a pivotal role in seizures, not only in vivo studies on animals, but also in clinical trials. Some of these antiarrhythmic drugs potentiate or alleviate the anticonvulsant action of the classical antiepileptic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of dronedarone (DRO-a multichannel blocker belonging to the class III of antiarrhythmic drugs) on the anticonvulsant effects of four standard antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin and valproate) in the tonic-clonic seizure model in mice. Read More

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December 2018

PhenoMeNal: Processing and analysis of Metabolomics data in the Cloud.

Gigascience 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Cheminformatics and Computational Metabolomics, Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Lessingstr. 8, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Background: Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of a multitude of small molecules to gain insight into an organism's metabolism. The research field is dynamic and expanding with applications across biomedical, biotechnological and many other applied biological domains. Its computationally-intensive nature has driven requirements for open data formats, data repositories and data analysis tools. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Withdrawal Symptom, Treatment Mechanism, and/or Side Effect? Developing an Explicit Measurement Model for Smoking Cessation Research.

Nicotine Tob Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.

Introduction: Assessment of withdrawal symptoms, treatment mechanisms, and side effects is central to understanding and improving smoking cessation interventions. Though each domain is typically assessed separately with widely-used questionnaires to separately assess each domain (e.g. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

TRACK EVENT THEORY: A CELL SURVIVAL and RBE MODEL CONSISTENT WITH NANODOSIMETRY.

Radiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Physics, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich, Switzerland.

A simple model for cell survival which is valid also at high dose has been developed. The model parameters can be traced back to measurable quantities from nanodosimetry. It is assumed that a cell is killed by an event which is defined by two or more double strand breaks in differently sized lethal interaction volumes (LIVs). Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Neurobiological responses in the adolescent striatum to being "tested".

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA.

While emerging research implicates the striatum in adolescents' ability to learn from feedback, little is known about how motivational contexts, such as emphasizing the evaluative nature of learning tasks, modulate adolescents' striatal learning. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a feedback-based learning task, in conjunction with a within-subject evaluative threat manipulation, to determine whether evaluation threat influences behavioral and neural responses to feedback in adolescents. On average, adolescents were less sensitive than adults to the evaluation threat. Read More

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December 2018
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PDX Finder: A portal for patient-derived tumor xenograft model discovery.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main Street, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.

Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) mouse models are a versatile oncology research platform for studying tumor biology and for testing chemotherapeutic approaches tailored to genomic characteristics of individual patients' tumors. PDX models are generated and distributed by a diverse group of academic labs, multi-institution consortia and contract research organizations. The distributed nature of PDX repositories and the use of different metadata standards for describing model characteristics presents a significant challenge to identifying PDX models relevant to specific cancer research questions. Read More

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December 2018

Clarifying the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention: A combined behavioral and neurophysiological study.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Psychology, Michigan State University.

Mindfulness is frequently associated with improved attention. However, the nature of the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention, a core function of the attentional system, is surprisingly unclear. Studies employing behavioral measures of executive attention have been equivocal. Read More

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December 2018
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