519,264 results match your criteria Nature Cell Biology [Journal]


Behavioral and Imaging Studies of Infant Artificial Grammar Learning.

Top Cogn Sci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona.

Artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigms have proven to be productive and useful to investigate how young infants break into the grammar of their native language(s). The question of when infants first show the ability to learn abstract grammatical rules has been central to theoretical debates about the innate vs. learned nature of grammar. Read More

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December 2018

Three-Dimensional Printing in Anatomy Education:Assessing Potential Ethical Dimensions.

Authors:
D Gareth Jones

Anat Sci Educ 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

New technological developments have frequently had major consequences for anatomy education, and have raised ethical queries for anatomy educators. The advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing of human material is showing considerable promise as an educational tool that fits alongside cadaveric dissection, plastination, computer simulation, and anatomical models and images. At first glance its ethical implications appear minimal, and yet the more extensive ethical implications around clinical bioprinting suggest that a cautious approach to 3D printing in the dissecting room is in order. Read More

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December 2018

Debunking a myopic view of nature versus nurture.

Authors:
John L Hopper

Clin Exp Optom 2019 Jan;102(1):1-2

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia.

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January 2019

Impact of large-scale tree planting in Yunnan Province, China, on the water supply balance in Southeast Asia.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Dec 15;191(1):20. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Chongqing College of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing, 402160, China.

Along with rapid economic development and population growth, anthropogenic disturbances to natural ecosystems increase the progressively worsening environmental problems in and around water resources, making the potential ecological risks more severe and unpredictable. In order to cope with the increasingly serious issues related to the ecological environment and poverty alleviation, the Government of Yunnan in Southwest China launched a large-scale afforestation campaign (plantation forestry) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which is the main source of several major river systems in Southeast Asia. In this study, we use GIS to investigate the impacts of a large-scale afforestation on the water storage balance of Southeast Asia. Read More

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December 2018

Transmission electron microscopy and histological analysis of the peridural membrane.

Ir J Med Sci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Orthopaedics, University Hospital Galway, Newcastle Road, Galway, Ireland.

Introduction: While first described in 1904, the characterisation of the peridural membrane, which is frequently encountered, yet usually unnoticed, during lumbar decompression surgery, remains inconclusive. This relatively little known membrane is continuous with the posterior longitudinal ligament and lines the epidural space. In this study, we are comparing the membrane and ligamentum flavum from patients to analyse the variations of the histological and ultrastructural compositions. Read More

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December 2018

Thrombotic microangiopathy in a patient with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis: case-based review.

Rheumatol Int 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada, Spain.

The correct diagnosis, classification and therapeutic management of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) continue to be a challenge for the clinician. We report a rare case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) as a trigger for complement-mediated TMA in a 57-year-old man who was successfully treated with corticoids, cyclophosphamide and therapeutic plasma exchange. Additionally, we review few other cases reported in the literature and the pathophysiological pathway of association between TMA and EGPA. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular and NLO Properties of Red Fluorescent Coumarins - DFT Computations Using Long-Range Separated and Conventional Functionals.

J Fluoresc 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, 80832, Mauritius.

Comparative study of nonlinear optical properties of red fluorescent coumarins was carried out with density functional theory based ab initio method using the popular global hybrid (GH) and range separated hybrid (RSH) functionals and correlated with the spectroscopic values. The GHs - M06 L, PBE1PBE, M06, BHHLYP, M062X and M06HF and RSHs - HISSbPBE, wB97, wB97X, HSEH1PBE, CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD in combination with the double zeta basis function 6-311 + G(d,p) were used. The computed polarizability (α), hyperpolarizability of the first order (β) and second order (γ) computed by the RSHs are closer to the spectroscopic values compared to GHs. Read More

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December 2018

Pore-forming bacteriocins: structural-functional relationships.

Arch Microbiol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Institute of Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russian Federation.

Peptides and proteins are important bioorganic compounds in nature, among which a special place is occupied by antimicrobial substances. There are more than 2000 different antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by a variety of living organisms. Bacteriocins produced by bacteria are the minor group, whose chemical structures are most complicated among all AMPs. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular dynamics simulation study of the effect of halothane on mixed DPPC/DPPE phospholipid membranes.

J Mol Model 2018 Dec 15;25(1). Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Departamento de Física, Universidad de Sonora, Rosales y Luis Encinas s/n, 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

We report results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of the effect of one general anesthetic, halothane, on some properties of mixed DPPC/DPPE phospholipid membranes. This is a suitable model for the study of simple, two-phospholipid membrane systems. From the simulation runs, we determined several membrane properties for five different molecular proportions of DPPC/DPPE. Read More

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December 2018

A taxonomy of duties to report child sexual abuse: Legal developments offer new ways to facilitate disclosure.

Authors:
Ben Mathews

Child Abuse Negl 2018 Dec 13;88:337-347. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

School of Law, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, Australia; Faculty of Law, QUT, Australia; Childhood Adversity Research Program, Faculty of Health, QUT, Australia; Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Child sexual abuse is undisclosed for many reasons that are resistant to change. Citizens can play an important role in disclosing cases of child sexual abuse to authorities. Professionals who deal with children also play a crucial role. Read More

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December 2018

Regulation of TIM-3 expression in a human T cell line by tumor-conditioned media and cyclic AMP-dependent signaling.

Mol Immunol 2018 Dec 13;105:224-232. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Microbiology and Ajou University School of Medicine, Youngtongku Worldcupro 206, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Sciences (Graduate Program of Molecular Medicine), Ajou University Graduate School of Medicine, Suwon, 16499, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3) expression increases in exhausted T cells, which inhibits T cell function. TIM-3 expression is supposedly up-regulated in tumor-bearing individuals via chronic antigenic stimulation of T cells. Considering the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment, we investigated whether tumor-secreted molecules might enhance TIM-3 expression in Jurkat T cells. Read More

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December 2018

Recent advances in metalloporphyrins for environmental and energy applications.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 4;219:617-635. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China; Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Solid Waste Treatment, Disposal and Recycling, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST), Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

Porphyrin-based chemistry has reached an unprecedented period of rapid development after decades of study. Due to attractive multifunctional properties, porphyrins and their analogues have emerged as multifunctional organometals for environmental and energy purposes. In particular, pioneer works have been conducted to explore their application in pollution abatement, energy conversion and storage and molecule recognition. Read More

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December 2018

Five financial incentives to revive the Gulf of Mexico dead zone and Mississippi basin soils.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 13;233:30-38. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA, USA.

A central challenge in the Mississippi River Basin is how to continue to support profitable agricultural production, provide water supply, flood control, transportation, and other benefits, while reducing the current burden of environmental degradation. Several practices have been shown to reduce nutrient runoff and water pollution, and improve soil fertility, while often yielding profits for farmers. Yet many of these beneficial practices remain underutilized. Read More

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December 2018

Efficient capture of eosin yellow and crystal violet with high performance xanthan-acacia hybrid super-adsorbent optimized using response surface methodology.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Dec 10;175:314-323. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Chemistry, Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.

Blending of xanthan and acacia gives a unique hybrid that was used for the synthesis of semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) in which poly(acrylamide) chains were grafted onto hybrid of xanthan-acacia followed by their cross-linking (Xan-Aca-cl-poly(AAm)). Optimization was carried out under response surface methodology-central composite design (RSM-CCD). Maximum percentage swelling of semi-IPN obtained was 496. Read More

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December 2018

Biodegradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA by insolubilized laccase and identification of enzymatic byproduct using MALDI-ToF-MS: Toxicity assessment studies by Daphnia magna and Chlorella vulgaris.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 13;170:453-460. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Biochemical Processing and Biomaterial Research Laboratory, Gazi University, 06500 Teknikokullar, Ankara, Turkey.

The presented paper describes a detailed study on the use of immobilized laccase for effective degradation of Cibacron Blue 3GA dye. The amount of laccase loading on the cyclic carbonate groups containing poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-vinylene carbonate), p(HEMA-co-VC), microbeads was 27.8 mg g, and the retained immobilized enzyme activity was 73% compared to free enzyme. Read More

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December 2018

De novo transcriptome assembly and preliminary analyses of two avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium delichoni and Plasmodium homocircumflexum.

Genomics 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Dept. of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA.

Parasites of the genus Plasmodium infect a wide array of hosts, causing malaria in all major groups of terrestrial vertebrates including primates, reptiles, and birds. Molecular mechanisms explaining why some Plasmodium species are virulent, while other closely related malaria pathogens are relatively benign in the same hosts, remain unclear. Here, we present the RNA sequencing and subsequent transcriptome assembly of two avian Plasmodium parasites which can eventually be used to better understand the genetic mechanisms underlying Plasmodium species pathogenicity in an avian host. Read More

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December 2018

Blind fMRI Source Unmixing via Higher-Order Tensor Decompositions.

J Neurosci Methods 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Computer Technology Institute & Press "Diophantus" (CTI), Greece; Dept. of Informatics and Telecommunications, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece; Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, China.

Background: The growing interest in neuroimaging technologies generates a massive amount of biomedical data of high dimensionality. Tensor-based analysis of brain imaging data has been recognized as an effective analysis that exploits its inherent multi-way nature. In particular, the advantages of tensorial over matrix-based methods have previously been demonstrated in the context of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) source localization. Read More

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December 2018

New insights into the role of melatonin in plants and animals.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Morrill I, N344, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003, USA. Electronic address:

Melatonin is a hormone produced in animals by the pineal gland and in plants under stress. Melatonin research has expanded rapidly, affecting an impressive enhancement in the understanding of its functions in plants and animals. However, far less focus has been directed to clarifying the nature of melatonin dose-response relationships. Read More

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December 2018

Histopathologic Characterization of Peripheral Arteries in Subjects With Abundant Risk Factors: Correlating Imaging With Pathology.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the pathology of the lower extremity arteries across their entire length in subjects dying with abundant risk factors and to evaluate the clinical and imaging implications of the pathological characteristics.

Background: Lower extremity peripheral arterial disease is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity, but a systematic characterization of the pathology has never been undertaken.

Methods: Twelve legs were obtained from 8 cadavers with histories of coronary risk factors (median age 82 years, 6 men); 8 of 12 legs were evaluated using computed tomography before the major peripheral arteries were dissected along their entire length. Read More

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December 2018

Descriptive epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica infection in a high-incidence area over an 8-year period, 2006-2013. EDICS project.

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Sección Epidemiología, Centro Salud Pública, Castelló, España; CIBER-ESP grupo 41; Departamento de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universitat Jaume I (UJI), España. Electronic address:

Descriptive epidemiology of Yersinia enterocolitica infection in an area of Castellón (Spain) between 2006 and 2013 from Yersinia enterocolitica strains isolated in the area and confirmed by the Spanish national reference laboratory. There were a total of 144 cases. The estimated incidence was 9. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison of different PCR protocols and respective primer sets from pool of TAMS 1 gene for diagnosis of calf theileriosis from semi arid India.

Biologicals 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

U P Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, 281001, India.

The polymorphic nature of Theileria annulata merozoite surface antigen (TAMS 1) attributes to limitation in PCR based detection of various T. annulata genotypes present in different geographical domains across the globe. Multiple reports of failure of detection of tropical theileriosis using classical N516/517 primer set in the studied area were noticed. Read More

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December 2018

Miniaturised 'antibody'-drug conjugates for solid tumours?

Drug Discov Today Technol 2018 Dec 17;30:47-53. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Antikor Biopharma Ltd, Stevenage Bioscience Catalyst, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2FX, UK; Dept. of Chemistry, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK. Electronic address:

With Antibody-Drug Conjugate strategies firmly focussed on the precise conjugation to the large protein Immunoglobulin-G format, it is easy to miss the more recent technological innovations in small-format drug conjugates. Here, the targeting ligand can be at 50-95% reduced in size, or even smaller if peptidic in nature. Antibody domains or alternative binding scaffolds, chemically-modified with ultra-potent cytotoxic payloads offer an alternative approach for oncology therapeutics, promising a wider therapeutic window by virtue of superior solid tumour penetration properties and more rapid system clearance. Read More

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December 2018

Developing safety archetypes of construction industry at project level using system dynamics.

J Safety Res 2018 Dec 27;67:17-26. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Department of Occupational Health and Safety Engineering, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Introduction: Safe behavior and work conditions are a major concern in construction projects. However, accidents occur due to system failures, not a single factor such as unsafe behavior or condition. Construction safety should be investigated by a systematic view capable of illustrating the complex nature of accidents. Read More

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December 2018

Easy fabrication of aromatic-rich cellulose-urethane polymer for preferential adsorption of acetophenone over 1-phenylethanol.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 19;206:716-725. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Resource Processing and Process Intensification Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, PR China; Fine Chemical Industry Research Institute, School of Chemistry, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, PR China. Electronic address:

A novel aromatic-rich cellulose-urethane polymer (ACUP) was easily fabricated by crosslinking cellulose with 4,4',4''-triphenylmethane triisocyanate for preferential adsorption of acetophenone (AP) over 1-phenyethanol (PE). The successful synthesis of ACUP was confirmed by the instrumental analyses, e.g. Read More

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February 2019

Ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Camptotheca acuminata fruits and its antitumor activity.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 10;206:557-564. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Key Laboratory of Forest Plant Ecology, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, an efficient ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) procedure for the polysaccharides from the fruit of Camptotheca acuminata (CAFP) was investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (ratio of liquid to raw material 30 mL/g, microwave irradiation time of 20 min, microwave irradiation power of 570 W and a fixed ultrasonic power of 50 W obtained by the response surface analysis with Box-Behnken design, satisfactory yields of CAFP (6.81 ± 0. Read More

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February 2019

Nanocellulose-based multilayer barrier coatings for gas, oil, and grease resistance.

Carbohydr Polym 2019 Feb 31;206:281-288. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 8005, Raleigh, NC, 27695-8005, USA. Electronic address:

Cellulose derivatives such as cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) have enormous potential to reduce or replace petroleum and fluorochemicals for food and other packaging applications. CNFs have been studied for their excellent oxygen and gas barrier properties; however, their performance rapidly decreases in the presence of moisture and higher humidity. CNCs are less sensitive to moisture due to their highly crystalline nature; however, coatings and films made of CNCs are much more prone to fracture due to their high brittleness. Read More

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February 2019

Effect of the chemical environment of the DNA guanine quadruplex on the free energy of binding of Na and K ions.

J Chem Phys 2018 Dec;149(22):225102

Department of Chemistry, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7, Canada.

Guanine quadruplex (G-quadruplex) structures play a vital role in stabilizing the DNA genome and in protecting healthy cells from transforming into cancer cells. The structural stability of G-quadruplexes is greatly enhanced by the binding of monovalent cations such as Na or K into the interior axial channel. We computationally study the free energy of binding of Na and K ions to two intramolecular G-quadruplexes that differ considerably in their degree of rigidity and the presence or absence of terminal nucleotides. Read More

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December 2018

Perspective: Computational modeling of accurate cellular membranes with molecular resolution.

Authors:
Jeffery B Klauda

J Chem Phys 2018 Dec;149(22):220901

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA.

Modeling lipid bilayers using molecular simulations has progressed from short simulations of single-component lipids to currently having the ability to model complex cellular membranes with nearly 100 different lipid types on a s time scale. This perspective article presents a review of how the chemical physics field has provided insight into the structure and dynamics of accurate cellular membrane models. A short review of lipid force fields is presented, and how lower-resolution models can allow for assemblies and time scales not attainable with all-atom models. Read More

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December 2018

Heat transfer statistics in mixed quantum-classical systems.

J Chem Phys 2018 Dec;149(22):224104

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2, Canada.

The modelling of quantum heat transfer processes at the nanoscale is crucial for the development of energy harvesting and molecular electronic devices. Herein, we adopt a mixed quantum-classical description of a device, in which the open subsystem of interest is treated quantum mechanically and the surrounding heat baths are treated in a classical-like fashion. By introducing such a mixed quantum-classical description of the composite system, one is able to study the heat transfer between the subsystem and bath from a closed system point of view, thereby avoiding simplifying assumptions related to the bath time scale and subsystem-bath coupling strength. Read More

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December 2018

Stored potential energy increases and elastic properties alterations are produced after restoring dentin with Zn-containing amalgams.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2018 Dec 6;91:109-121. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

University of Granada, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Materials Section, Colegio Máximo de Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.

The aim of this research was to ascertain the mechanical and chemical behavior of sound and caries-affected dentin (CAD), after the placement of Zn-free vs containing amalgam restorations. Peritubular and intertubular dentin were evaluated using, a) nanoindenter in scanning mode; the load and displacement responses were used to perform the nano-Dynamic mechanical analysis and to estimate the complex (E * ) and storage modulus (E'); b) Raman spectroscopy was used to describe the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Assessments were performed before restoration placement and after restoring, and after 3 months of storage with thermocycling (100,000cy/5 °C and 55 °C). Read More

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December 2018

Primary cultured neuronal networks and type 2 diabetes model mouse fatty liver tissues in aqueous liquid observed by atmospheric SEM (ASEM): Staining preferences of metal solutions.

Micron 2018 Nov 23;118:9-21. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Japan. Electronic address:

Neural networking, including axon targeting and synapse formation, is the basis of various brain functions, including memory and learning. Diabetes-mellitus affects peripheral nerves and is known to cause fatty liver disease. Electron microscopy (EM) provides the resolution required to observe changes in fine subcellular structures caused by such physiological and pathological processes, but samples are observed in vacuum. Read More

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November 2018

Attentional priming: recent insights and current controversies.

Curr Opin Psychol 2018 Nov 28;29:71-75. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Icelandic Vision Laboratory, School of Humanitites and Social Sciences, University of Akureyri. Hafnarstræti 97, Akureyri IS600, Iceland.

Humans possess a primitive memory system for attention deployments that allows quick reorientation of visual attention to stimuli that are relevant to behavior at any given moment. We review recent evidence regarding such attentional priming effects from a number of different perspectives. We discuss recent findings on the time course and duration of such effects, the potential interaction of priming and top-down attentional guidance; how priming can be used to probe the nature of visual representations and attentional templates; findings on the basic nature of priming effects and recent relevant findings on so-called serial dependencies that share many characteristics with attentional priming. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Establishing a decision-support system for eco-design of biological wastewater treatment: A case study of bioaugmented constructed wetland.

Bioresour Technol 2018 Dec 7;274:425-429. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Section of Sanitary Engineering, Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628CN, The Netherlands; Veolia Water Technologies Techno Center Netherlands B.V., Tanthofdreef 21, 2623 EW Delft, The Netherlands.

Deep treatment is a common approach to enhance pollutant removal for biological wastewater treatment technologies (BWTTs), and life cycle assessment (LCA) holds substantial advantages to support process optimization. However, there lacks of LCA-based benchmarks that cover human-nature nexuses and stakeholder involvement, which limits the guidance and eco-design of BWTTs. This study proposed a decision-support system (DSS) by linking LCA with Water Quality Model and Conjoint Analysis. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

A framework for offline evaluation and optimization of real-time algorithms for use in neurofeedback, demonstrated on an instantaneous proxy for correlations.

Neuroimage 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Section on Functional Imaging Methods, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Interest in real-time fMRI neurofeedback has grown exponentially over the past few years, both for use as a basic science research tool, and as part of the search for novel clinical interventions for neurological and psychiatric illnesses. In order to expand the range of questions which can be addressed with this tool however, new neurofeedback methods must be developed, going beyond feedback of activations in a single region. These new methods, several of which have already been proposed, are by their nature complex, involving many possible parameters. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Zika Virus Diagnosis: Challenges and Solutions.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. Miami, FL, 33133 USA.

Background: Since its sudden appearance and link to microcephaly in 2015, the number of PubMed references for Zika virus (ZIKV) has risen from 181 to 5,163, as of writing, with a vast proportion focused on the consequences of ZIKV infection during pregnancy. This level of attention underlies increased demand for sensitive and specific diagnostic tools able to assess risk to an unborn child, as well as to understand the dynamics and consequences of viral persistence.

Aim: Review the expanding knowledge on ZIKV persistence and diagnostic challenges and summarize current advancements in detection. Read More

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December 2018

Immune cells in the retina and choroid: Two different tissue environments that require different defenses and surveillance.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Anatomy and Developmental Biology, Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.

In the eye immune defenses must take place in a plethora of differing microenvironments ranging from the corneal and conjunctival epithelia facing the external environment to the pigmented connective tissue of the uveal tract containing smooth muscle, blood vessels and peripheral nerves to the innermost and highly protected neural retina. The extravascular environment of the neural retina, like the brain parenchyma, is stringently controlled to maintain conditions required for neural transmission. The unique physiological nature of the neural retina can be attributed to the blood retinal barriers (BRB) of the retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelium, which both tightly regulate the transport of small molecules and restrict passage of cells and macromolecules from the circulation into the retina in a similar fashion to the blood brain barrier (BBB). Read More

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December 2018

Protocol for evaluation of topical ophthalmic drug products in different compartments of fresh eye tissues in a rabbit model.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Office of Translational Science, Office of Clinical Pharmacology, Division of Applied Regulatory Science, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, White Oak Federal Research Center, 10903 New Hampshire Ave, Silver Spring, MD 20993, USA. Electronic address:

Topical ophthalmic drugs are the most commonly used dosage form to treat diseases of the anterior segment of the eye. Although this dosage form has the advantages of ease of application, small volume dose, and rapid action and is largely devoid of systemic adverse effects, the bioavailability is low due to pre-corneal anatomical barriers and the nature of the drug formulation itself. Some complex generic formulations (suspensions, ointments, gels) for topical ophthalmic products face impediments to rapid regulatory approval because of the complex nature of the formulations and difficulties in determining bioequivalence with the innovator product. Read More

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December 2018

Mosaic modularity: an updated perspective and research agenda for the evolution of vascular cambial growth.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Pacific Southwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Davis, CA, 95618.

Secondary growth from a vascular cambium, present today only in seed plants and isoetalean lycophytes, has a 400-million-year evolutionary history that involves considerably broader taxonomic diversity, most of it hidden in the fossil record. Approaching vascular cambial growth as a complex developmental process, we review data from living plants and fossils that reveal diverse modes of secondary growth. These are consistent with a modular nature of secondary growth, when considered as a tracheophyte-wide structural feature. Read More

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December 2018

Cortical interlaminar astrocytes across the therian mammal radiation.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Interlaminar astrocytes (ILA) in the cerebral cortex possess a soma in layer I and extend an interlaminar process that runs perpendicular to the pia into deeper cortical layers. We examined cerebral cortex from 46 species that encompassed most orders of therian mammalians, including 22 primate species. We described two distinct cell types with interlaminar processes that have been referred to as ILA, that we termed pial ILA and supial ILA. Read More

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December 2018
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Specific features of immune complexes in patients with sarcoidosis and pulmonary tuberculosis.

Immunol Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

FGBU "St. Petersburg Scientific Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology" of the Ministry of Health of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Clinical and radiological features of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are quite overlapping, and therefore, a diagnostic dilemma often persists. There are no commonly accepted criteria for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis due to the lack of data on the etiology of the disease. The exclusion of tuberculosis in every patient with suspected sarcoidosis is a mandatory stage of diagnosis, especially in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. Read More

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December 2018
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High Speed Pneumatic Stepper Motor for MRI Applications.

Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Presented in this paper is an exploration into the efficacy of a plastic, four-cylinder piston pneumatic motor designed for driving medical instruments inside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Because of the increasing use of MRI for diagnostic and interventional purposes and the benefits that could be realized by operating with real-time MR image guidance, there exists a significant need for MRI compliant surgical devices. Some type of actuation mechanism is necessary to drive such devices. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Hydration differences between the major and minor grooves of DNA revealed from heat capacity measurements.

Eur Biophys J 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Biophysics Laboratories, School of Biology, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 2DT, UK.

The nature of water on the surface of a macromolecule is reflected in the temperature dependence of the heat effect, i.e., the heat capacity change, ΔCp, that accompanies its removal on forming a complex. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

2018: Choice cuts from this year's News & Views articles.

Authors:

Nature 2018 Dec;564(7736):356-357

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December 2018
1 Read

Skewed X-inactivation is common in the general female population.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

X-inactivation is a well-established dosage compensation mechanism ensuring that X-chromosomal genes are expressed at comparable levels in males and females. Skewed X-inactivation is often explained by negative selection of one of the alleles. We demonstrate that imbalanced expression of the paternal and maternal X-chromosomes is common in the general population and that the random nature of the X-inactivation mechanism can be sufficient to explain the imbalance. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Disarming the guards of change.

Authors:
Sian Lewis

Nat Rev Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nature Reviews Neuroscience, .

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December 2018
1 Read

Temporal trend and spatial clustering of cholera epidemic in Kumasi-Ghana.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17848. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.

Knowledge of the temporal trends and spatial patterns will have significant implications for effective preparedness in future epidemics. Our objective was to investigate the temporal trends and the nature of the spatial interaction of cholera incidences, dwelling on an outbreak in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. We developed generalized nonparametric and segmented regression models to describe the epidemic curve. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Visualizing the heterogeneous breakdown of a fractal microstructure during compaction by neutron dark-field imaging.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 14;8(1):17845. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging, Paul Scherrer Institut, Zurich, Switzerland.

Structural properties of cohesive powders are dominated by their microstructural composition. Powders with a fractal microstructure show particularly interesting properties during compaction where a microstructural transition and a fractal breakdown happen before compaction and force transport. The study of this phenomenon has been challenging due to its long-range effect and the subsequent necessity to characterize these microstructural changes on a macroscopic scale. Read More

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December 2018
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A CD4 T cell population provides B cell help in SLE.

Authors:
Susan J Allison

Nat Rev Rheumatol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Nature Reviews Nephrology, .

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December 2018
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Influenza Virus N-linked Glycosylation and Innate Immunity.

Biosci Rep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, 30324, United States

Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics and sporadic pandemics in humans. The virus's ability to change its antigenic nature through mutation and recombination, and the difficulty in developing highly effective universal vaccines against it, make it a serious global public health challenge. Influenza virus's surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, are all modified by the host cell's N-linked glycosylation pathways. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on FOLFOX and CapeOx Regimens in Colorectal Cancer.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: First-line adjuvant chemotherapy options for early-stage colorectal cancer (CRC) include CapeOx (capecitabine, intravenous oxaliplatin) and FOLFOX (intravenous 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin). Capecitabine is an oral prodrug analog of 5-fluorouracil, and recent studies have suggested that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may detrimentally affect capecitabine efficacy. Conversely, some literature suggests that PPIs may negatively affect CRC itself. Read More

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November 2018
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