389 results match your criteria Nasolacrimal System Anatomy


The forgotten lacrimal gland and lacrimal drainage apparatus: pictorial review of CT and MRI findings and differential diagnosis.

Br J Radiol 2022 Jul 19;95(1135):20211333. Epub 2022 May 19.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

The lacrimal gland is a bilobed serous gland located in the superolateral aspect of the orbit. Lacrimal system pathologies can be broadly divided into pathologies of the lacrimal gland and those of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. These include distinct congenital, infectious, inflammatory, and benign, indeterminate, and malignant neoplastic lesions. Read More

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Endonasal endoscopic removal of intra-orbital (extralacrimal, extraconjunctival) oculosporidiosis: Anatomical and surgical considerations.

Ear Nose Throat J 2022 Mar 29:1455613221086022. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Regional Institute of Ophthalmology,Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

This report illustrates the successful removal of a proper intra-orbital oculosporidiosis (extralacrimal, extraconjunctival) exclusively by the endonasal endoscopic approach. It also introduces the as an important surgical landmark and describes a hitherto undefined that harbored the infestation as a nodular conglomerate. The patient, a 50-year-old woman, was operated on three years ago for rhinosporidiosis of the nasal cavity and the distal lacrimal drainage system (lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct). Read More

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Anatomy of the nasolacrimal duct in Persian cats determined by computed tomographic dacryocystography.

Vet Ophthalmol 2022 May 28;25 Suppl 1:25-36. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Comparative Ophthalmology Laboratory, School of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil.

Objective: This study sought to describe the anatomical characteristics of the nasolacrimal duct of Persian cats as observed by computed tomographic dacryocystography.

Animal Studied: Ten cats weighing 3-6 kg (three live cats and seven cadaveric specimens).

Procedures: The animals were submitted to bilateral computed tomographic dacryocystography, totaling 20 nasolacrimal ducts. Read More

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Persistent epiphora after endonasal ENT surgery: CT dacryography findings.

J Fr Ophtalmol 2022 Mar 2;45(3):306-313. Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Neuro Imaging, Centre Hospitalier National d'Ophtalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, Paris, France.

Objectives: To analyze postoperative CT dacryography features in patients with persistent epiphora after endonasal surgery.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 76 patients with a history of persistent epiphora after endonasal ENT surgery who underwent CT dacryography between January 2014 and February 2020. Volume acquisition of sub-millimeter sections allowed 2D and 3D reconstructions with virtual endoscopy of the nasosinusal cavities and the lacrimal canal. Read More

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Iatrogenic nasolacrimal duct obstruction after adnexal intervention: An avoidable consequence.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2021 Sep-Dec;14(3):157-161. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Orbit, Oculoplasty, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Services, Aditya Birla Sankara Nethralaya, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

Purpose: Isolated cases of nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) secondary to rhino-orbito-facial reconstructive surgeries have been reported previously. We report the clinical profiles and management outcomes of a series of patients with iatrogenic INDO.

Materials And Methods: Case records of all patients who presented with secondary NLDO over 5 years were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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October 2021

Evaluating malformations of the lacrimal drainage system in brachycephalic dog breeds: A comparative computed tomography analysis.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(9):e0257020. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate and compare the anatomical features of the nasolacrimal drainage system (NDS) in three brachycephalic dog breeds with those of normocephalic dogs, taking into account how the NDS was related to the malformed brachycephalic head.

Animals: Fifty-one brachycephalic dogs were examined, comprising 23 Pugs, 18 French Bulldogs, and 10 English Bulldogs. Six normocephalic dogs of different breeds served as a comparison. Read More

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November 2021

Possibility of Pseudo-Obstruction in Lacrimal Canalicular Obstruction Diagnosed with Dacryocystography.

ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 2022 23;84(3):200-204. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the treatment of choice for patients with lacrimal drainage system obstruction. Dacryocystography (DCG) is one of the most common preoperative studies and considered as a useful test demonstrating the anatomy of lacrimal drainage systems.

Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of DCG for canalicular obstruction and to compare surgical outcomes between true-obstruction versus pseudo-obstruction diagnosed with DCG. Read More

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Partial congenital arrhinia: never seen before adult presentation.

J Laryngol Otol 2021 Jul 17;135(7):652-655. Epub 2021 May 17.

Sanjeevani Ultrasound and Diagnostic Centre, Faridabad, India.

Background: Arrhinia is defined as the partial or complete absence of the nasal structures. It is a defect of embryonal origin and can be seen in association with other craniofacial anomalies, central nervous system anomalies, absence of paranasal sinuses, and other palatal and ocular abnormalities. Very few patients with arrhinia have been reported so far in the history of modern medicine. Read More

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The Anatomy of the Frontal Process of the Maxilla in the Medial Wall of the Lacrimal Drainage System in East Asians.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Sep-Oct 01;37(5):439-443

Xiamen Siming District Kaiyuan Street Community Health Service Center, Xiamen, China.

Purpose: To investigate the anatomical structure characteristics of the frontal process of the maxilla in the medial wall of the lacrimal drainage system for endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy based on the cone-beam computed tomography images.

Methods: One hundred eight sides of orbits were retrospectively evaluated in this study. The angulation and thickness of the frontal process of the maxilla in the medial wall of the lacrimal drainage system were measured and compared at 2 different levels: lacrimal sac level and nasolacrimal duct level. Read More

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October 2021

Novel Evidence Concerning Lacrimal Sac Movement Using Ultra-High-Frequency Ultrasound Examinations of Lacrimal Drainage Systems.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Jul-Aug 01;37(4):334-340

Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Ophthalmology, Lund, Sweden.

Purpose: Current hypothesis regarding the mechanism of active tear drainage is based on studies performed ex vivo or under nonphysiological conditions. Novel ultra-high-frequency ultrasound has the advantage of generating images with superior resolution, enabling measurements of low flow in small vessels, and the tracking of tissue motion in real time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lacrimal drainage system and active drainage using this modality. Read More

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Ontogenesis of the tear drainage system requires Prickle1-driven polarized basement membrane deposition.

Development 2020 11 30;147(22). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China

In terrestrial animals, the lacrimal drainage apparatus evolved to serve as conduits for tear flow; however, little is known about the ontogenesis of this system. Here, we define the anatomy of the fully formed tear duct in mice, characterize crucial morphogenetic events for the development of tear duct components and identify the site for primordial tear duct (PTD) initiation. We report that the PTD originates from the orbital lacrimal lamina, a junction formed by the epithelia of the maxillary and lateral nasal processes. Read More

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November 2020

Malformation of Tear Ducts Underlies the Epiphora and Precocious Eyelid Opening in Prickle 1 Mutant Mice: Genetic Implications for Tear Duct Genesis.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 11;61(13)

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou City, China.

Purpose: Obstruction of the tear drainage causes a range of ocular surface disorders. Hitherto, the genetics of tear duct development and obstruction has been scarcely explored, and related animal models are lacking. This study aims to study the potential role of the Wnt/PCP pathway mediated by Prickle 1 in tear duct development and diseases. Read More

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November 2020

Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Nasolacrimal Duct and Nasal Cavity and Arrangement of Mucosal Tissue in Chickens.

J Poult Sci 2020 Oct;57(4):303-309

Laboratory of Animal Functional Anatomy (LAFA), Faculty of Agriculture, Shinshu University, 8304 Minami-minowa, Kami-ina, Nagano 399-4598, Japan.

The nasal mucosa plays an important role in the immune system, with nasal mucous cells secreting mucin that, along with pili, exclude foreign substances from intervening. Nasal mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), present in the nasal lamina propria, acts as a local immune system. In birds, the Harderian gland in the orbit also plays an important role in the local immune system. Read More

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October 2020

CHARGE syndrome without colobomas: Ophthalmic findings.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2020 09 10;184(3):611-617. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Abrahamson Pediatric Eye Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

To report ophthalmic findings of patients without colobomas, and with a clinical and molecular diagnosis of CHARGE Syndrome. Retrospective study of ophthalmic findings in 67 CHARGE patients-clinically confirmed diagnosis with positive CHD7 mutation-seen in the Ophthalmology department of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center between January 1, 2008 through September 25, 2018. Criteria for inclusion in this study was absence of any form of a coloboma in either eye. Read More

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September 2020

Lacrimal drainage system involvement in Peters anomaly: clinical features and outcomes.

Orbit 2021 Dec 8;40(6):509-512. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad-34, India.

Purpose: To present first of its kind series on the clinical features and outcomes of lacrimal drainage disorders in Peters anomaly and Peters plus syndrome.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of all consecutive patients who were known cases of Peters anomaly or Peters plus anomaly and were diagnosed with associated congenital lacrimal drainage disorders. The study period was from June 2016 to Dec 2020. Read More

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December 2021

Ocular conjunctival inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 can cause mild COVID-19 in rhesus macaques.

Nat Commun 2020 09 2;11(1):4400. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

NHC Key Laboratory of Human Disease Comparative Medicine, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Models of Emerging and Remerging Infectious Diseases, Institute of Laboratory Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Comparative Medicine Center, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly transmitted through the respiratory route, but potential extra-respiratory routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission remain uncertain. Here we inoculated five rhesus macaques with 1 × 10 TCID of SARS-CoV-2 conjunctivally (CJ), intratracheally (IT), and intragastrically (IG). Nasal and throat swabs collected from CJ and IT had detectable viral RNA at 1-7 days post-inoculation (dpi). Read More

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September 2020

Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction: An Unusual Presentation of Sarcoidosis.

Ear Nose Throat J 2022 May 31;101(4):NP143-NP145. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, 1867oTufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Lacrimal drainage system disorders leading to epiphora are a common ophthalmologic complaint. When such a patient is identified, the ophthalmologist frequently collaborates with the otolaryngologist to perform a dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). In rare cases, sinonasal sarcoidosis may lead to nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLD) and dacryocystitis. Read More

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Epistaxis Complicated by Hemolacria: A Case Report.

Clin Med Res 2020 08;18(2-3):99-101

Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.

Hemolacria is a rare complication of epistaxis treated with nasal compression or tamponade. We report the case of a man, aged 81 years, with end-stage renal disease who developed hemolacria after insertion of a "Rhino Rocket" nasal tamponade device to treat persistent epistaxis. The hemolacria resolved after treatment with intranasal oxymetazoline. Read More

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New insights into the lacrimal pump.

Ocul Surf 2020 10 28;18(4):689-698. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Institute of Functional and Clinical Anatomy, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany; Sechenov University, Department of Operative Surgery and Topographic Anatomy, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address:

Purpose: To date, there are many theories about tear transport through the canaliculi of the draining lacrimal system into the lacrimal sac but only few with supportive data. It is certain that the function of the lacrimal part of orbicularis oculi muscle (Horner-Duverney's muscle) is indispensable for the transport of "used" tears. However, the muscle's exact structure and the mechanisms of its functions are as yet unclear. Read More

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October 2020

Nasolacrimal Obstruction Following the Placement of Maxillofacial Hardware.

Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr 2020 Mar 20;13(1):32-37. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: This article reviews cases of nasolacrimal obstruction (NLO) secondary to maxillofacial hardware placement.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed at a single institution from 2012 to 2017 of patients with NLO following maxillofacial reconstruction. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of California, San Francisco, adhered to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki, and was Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant. Read More

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Surgical anatomy for Asian rhinoplasty: Part II.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2020 Jun 29;21(3):143-155. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

The PLUS Plastic Surgery Clinic, Seoul, Korea.

Surgical anatomy for Asian rhinoplasty Part I reviewed layered anatomy with neurovascular system of the nose. Part II discusses upper two-thirds of nose which consists of nasal bony and cartilaginous structures. Nasal physiology is mentioned briefly since there are several key structures that are important in nasal function. Read More

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Carcinomas of the lacrimal drainage system.

Surv Ophthalmol 2020 Nov - Dec;65(6):691-707. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Malignant tumors of epithelial origin are the most frequent neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system (LDS). A total of 539 cases are reported in the literature from 1960 to 2019. LDS carcinoma is a disease of the middle-aged and elderly population, with a median age at diagnosis of 57 years. Read More

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Adding myofibroblasts to the lacrimal pump.

Acta Histochem 2020 May 8;122(4):151536. Epub 2020 Mar 8.

Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Dental Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 8 Eroilor Sanitari Blvd., RO-050474, Bucharest, Romania. Electronic address:

The lacrimal sac (LS) empties in the nasolacrimal duct to drain the tears in the inferior nasal meatus. Different studies indicated the role of the lacrimal pump in the lacrimal drainage. Although controversial, the lacrimal pump mechanism is an extrinsic one, either active, or passive. Read More

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[Retrospective investigation of spontaneous bloody tears: a report of 27 cases].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2020 Jan;56(1):53-58

Lacrimal Centre of Ophthalmology, the Third Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100039, China.

To summarize clinical experience on the clinical feature, etiology and treatment of patients with spontaneous bloody tears as the initial symptom. Retrospective series of case studies. The clinical data and follow-up data of 27 cases of bloody tears as the first symptom in Lacrimal Center of Ophthalmology, the Third Medical Center of Chinese PLA General Hospital from June 2015 to December 2018 were reviewed. Read More

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January 2020

Management of orbital complications in palatomaxillary reconstruction: A review of preemptive and corrective measures.

Head Neck 2020 03 13;42(3):556-568. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

THANC (Thyroid, Head and Neck Cancer) Foundation, New York, New York.

Background: Reconstruction of orbit-sparing palatomaxillary defects requires consideration of globe dystopia, orbital volume, eyelid position and function, and the nasolacrimal system to preserve and optimize vision, globe protection, and appearance. We describe the fundamentals of orbital and eyelid anatomy, common orbital complications related to palatomaxillary reconstruction, and preemptive and corrective surgical techniques to be utilized during and after globe-sparing palatomaxillary reconstruction.

Methods: We present a review of the literature supplemented by clinical case examples. Read More

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Lacrimal drainage anomalies in Tessier cleft 3 with unilateral anophthalmos.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2021 Mar 26;31(2):NP12-NP14. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India.

Bilateral Tessier cleft types 3 and 4 are rare and commonly involve the lacrimal drainage system owing to their anatomical location. Such clefts commonly present with associated ocular anomalies and include colobomatous eyelids, hypertelorism, microphthalmia, punctal or canalicular agenesis, and nasolacrimal duct obstruction or exstrophy. The current report presents an 18-month-old baby with bilateral Tessier cleft 3 with a unilateral anophthalmos, symmetrical eyelid colobomas, and lacrimal drainage anomalies. Read More

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[Intubation Systems in Lacrimal Drainage Surgery - a Current Overview].

Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2020 Jan 26;237(1):20-28. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Zentrum für Augenheilkunde, Universität zu Köln, Medizinische Fakultät und Uniklinik Köln, Köln.

The development of microendoscopes in lacrimal drainage surgery has led to the introduction of novel surgical procedures that maintain transcanicular anatomy, including a variety of lacrimal drainage intubation systems. Depending on the location and extent of the lacrimal duct stenosis, bicanaliculoanular, monocanalicular, monocanaliculonasal, bicanalicular, and bicanaliculonasal intubation techniques and systems, as well as a combination of these, may be used. For isolated intubation of the puncta lacrimalia, perforated punctum plugs may be used, while pure monocanalicular intubation can be performed using a Mini-Monoka. Read More

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January 2020

Poorly differentiated primary adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac and the nasolacrimal duct.

Orbit 2020 Aug 5;39(4):289-292. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Govindram Seksaria Institute of Dacryology, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute , Hyderabad, India.

Primary adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal drainage system is a rare malignancy. Poorly differentiated subtypes of this tumor demonstrate aggressive behaviors, and metastasis is not uncommon. We present a patient with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct with an orbital extension. Read More

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Investigating the effects of inferior turbinate outfracture on the lacrimal system by evaluating the results of paranasal sinus computed tomography and nasolacrimal irrigation test.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jan 19;277(1):129-134. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Health Sciences University Bursa Yüksek Ihtisas Training and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey.

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of inferior turbinate outfracture on the nasolacrimal system and tear flow.

Methods: Forty-seven patients (26 males, 21 females) between the ages 18 and 52 years (mean age-29.0 ± 9. Read More

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January 2020