193,401 results match your criteria Nasal Fracture Imagings


Anterior Nasal Cavity Mass in a Neonate.

JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

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December 2018
3 Reads

Co-localization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues of pigs and llamas.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

The present study investigated the co-localization of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) across respiratory and lymphoid organs of experimentally MERS-CoV infected pigs and llamas by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess the ciliary integrity of respiratory epithelial cells in both species. In pigs, on day 2 post-inoculation (p. Read More

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December 2018

Does skin thickness affect satisfaction post rhinoplasty? Middle Eastern population as an example.

Saudi Med J 2018 Dec;39(12):1238-1241

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail.

Objectives: To determine the mean nasal skin thickness in the Middle Eastern population and to assess the effect of skin thickness on patients' satisfaction following rhinoplasty surgeries. Methods: Radiological measurements of skin thickness at the 3 vertical thirds of the nasal dorsum were taken. A total of 154 patients (80 females and 74 males) who were scheduled for computed tomography scan for the paranasal sinuses were included in the study. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

An extended Levinson-Durbin algorithm and its application in mixed excitation linear prediction.

Heliyon 2018 Nov 24;4(11):e00948. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Key Laboratory of Underwater Acoustic Environment, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.

Ten order all-pole model is used in the 2400 bit/second mixed excitation linear prediction to describe human vocal tract. Traditional Levinson-Durbin algorithm is one of the methods to solve the Yule-Walker equations conducted by the ten order linear prediction model. Taking the iteration step of traditional Levinson-Durbin algorithm as 1, an extended algorithm with any positive integer iteration step which is no larger than the order of Teoplitz matrix is proposed. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Loss of horizontal macular ganglion cell complex asymmetry: an optical coherence tomography indicator of chiasmal compression.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 25;3(1):e000195. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Section of Specialized Endocrinology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To estimate the macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) asymmetry in patients with suprasellar tumours, to compare its diagnostic performance to the nasal GCC thickness and visual field (VF) and to investigate how the parameters correlate with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

Methods And Analysis: Cross-sectional study of patients with suprasellar tumours affecting the optic chiasm. Macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans were evaluated for nasal GCC sector thinning and loss of normal GCC asymmetry between corresponding nasal-temporal sectors. Read More

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October 2018

Nasal microbiota and symptom persistence in acute respiratory tract infections in infants.

ERJ Open Res 2018 Oct 3;4(4). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

University Children's Hospital Basel UKBB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in infancy have been implicated in the development of chronic respiratory disease, but the complex interplay between viruses, bacteria and host is not completely understood. We aimed to prospectively determine whether nasal microbiota changes occur between the onset of the first symptomatic ARI in the first year of life and 3 weeks later, and to explore possible associations with the duration of respiratory symptoms, as well as with host, environmental and viral factors. Nasal microbiota of 167 infants were determined at both time-points by 16S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene PCR amplification and subsequent pyrosequencing. Read More

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October 2018

Life threatening polyserositis post oesophagectomy.

Respir Med Case Rep 2019 15;26:42-44. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Great Western Hospital, Swindon, Marlborough Road, SN3 6BB, UK.

A 46 year old lady presented three weeks after an oesophagectomy for oesophageal carcinoma with increasing breathlessness and a large left-sided pleural effusion. Computed tomography (CT) scan of her thorax, abdomen and pelvis revealed a large left-sided and small right-sided pleural effusions, a pericardial effusion, ascites and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy. The patient underwent both pericardial and pleural fluid drainage, however, unfortunately, deteriorated despite these interventions with increasing oxygen requirements requiring nasal high flow oxygen on the Intensive Care Unit. Read More

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November 2018

Composition and Comparison of the Ocular Surface Microbiome in Infants and Older Children.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2018 Nov 30;7(6):16. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: Unlike other microbiomes of the body, the composition of the ocular surface microbiome (OSM) in children has yet to be thoroughly explored. Our goal was to evaluate the OSM in young infants and compare its composition to older children using both culture dependent and independent methodologies to assess for differences with age.

Methods: Prospective, observational, cross-sectional study of children <18 years of age at a university-based institution. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Elevated expression of IL-17RB and ST2 on myeloid dendritic cells is associated with a Th2-skewed eosinophilic inflammation in nasal polyps.

Clin Transl Allergy 2018 29;8:50. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

1Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, 510080 Guangdong China.

Background: Interleukin(IL)-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) underlie the crosstalk between epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs) during the development of Th2 responses. This study aimed to measure the expressions of IL-17RB, ST2 and TSLPR, receptor of IL-25, IL-33, and TSLP respectively, on myeloid DCs in nasal polyps (NP) and evaluate their association with local Th2 inflammation and disease severity in patients with NP.

Methods: Samples were collected from 30 NP patients and 16 control subjects recruited prospectively. Read More

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November 2018

Will an electronic nose help at high altitude?

Breathe (Sheff) 2018 Dec;14(4):322-324

Dept of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital, Besançon, France.

http://ow.ly/IPCt30mbIBV. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Atypical Manifestation of Disseminated Sporotrichosis in an AIDS Patient.

Case Rep Dermatol 2018 Sep-Dec;10(3):231-237. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Sector of Dermatology and Post-Graduation Course, HUCFF-UFRJ and School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Sporotrichosis is an infection caused by fungi of the complex. The clinical lymphocutaneous presentation corresponds to the great majority of cases. With the increased incidence of sporotrichosis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, atypical clinical forms have been reported with increasing frequency, usually associated with immunosuppression. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Effective nose-to-brain delivery of exendin-4 via coadministration with cell-penetrating peptides for improving progressive cognitive dysfunction.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17641. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Drug Delivery Systems, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University, 1-1-3 Minatojima, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-8586, Japan.

In a recent study, we demonstrated the potential of a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin to deliver the peptide drug insulin to the brain via nasal administration, and its pharmacological effect on the mild cognitive dysfunction in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8). However, the therapeutic potential of intranasal insulin administration was attenuated when applied to the aged SAMP8 with severe cognitive dysfunction. The present study, therefore, aimed to overcome the difficulty in treating severe cognitive dysfunction using insulin by investigating potential alternatives, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists such as exendin-4. Read More

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December 2018

Supraglottic airway devices for surfactant treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Perinatol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Woman's and Child's Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Objective: To compare surfactant administration via supraglottic airway device (SAD) vs. nasal CPAP alone or INSURE.

Study Design: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Associations of greenness, greyness and air pollution exposure with children's health: a cross-sectional study in Southern Italy.

Environ Health 2018 Dec 5;17(1):86. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

National Research Council, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, via Ugo La Malfa 153, 90146, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Due to the complex interplay among different urban-related exposures, a comprehensive approach is advisable to estimate the health effects. We simultaneously assessed the effect of "green", "grey" and air pollution exposure on respiratory/allergic conditions and general symptoms in schoolchildren.

Methods: This study involved 219 schoolchildren (8-10 years) of the Municipality of Palermo, Italy. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular characterization of Mannheimia haemolytica isolates associated with pneumonic cases of sheep in selected areas of Central Ethiopia.

BMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 5;18(1):205. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

National Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 19, Bishoftu, Ethiopia.

Background: Mannheimia haemolytica has been recognized as the principal cause of pneumonic pasteurellosis in sheep and goats. It is one of the important diseases of small ruminants in Ethiopia. While annual vaccination using a monovalent vaccine (inactivated Pasteurella multocida biotype A) is common, respiratory diseases are still reported in various parts of Ethiopia. Read More

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December 2018

USA300 Staphylococcus aureus persists on multiple body sites following an infection.

BMC Microbiol 2018 Dec 5;18(1):206. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a community- and hospital-acquired pathogen that frequently causes infections but also can survive on the human body asymptomatically as a part of the normal microbiota. We devised a comparative genomic strategy to track colonizing USA300 at different body sites after an initial infection. We sampled ST8 S. Read More

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December 2018

Probable Roles of Coagulation Cascade and Fibrinolysis System in the Development of Allergic Rhinitis.

Am J Rhinol Allergy 2018 Dec 6:1945892418816015. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

3 Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Dysregulation of the coagulation cascade and fibrinolysis system may play an etiologic role in many diseases. Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis, and conjunctivitis are also associated with fibrin accumulation caused by a change in hemostasis. However, only a few studies have dealt with the relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) and the coagulation system. Read More

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December 2018

Sex Differences in the Timing Behavior Performance of 3xTg-AD and Wild-Type Mice in the Peak Interval Procedure.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Electronic address:

We investigated interval timing behavior of 10-month-old male and female 3xTg-AD mice compared with their B6129F2/J wild type controls using the peak interval procedure with a 15 s target interval. Multiple parameters reflecting different aspects of timing performance were extracted from steady-state anticipatory nose-poking behavior using two different approaches: single trial analyses and averaged response curve analyses. These measures can dissociate the differences in performance due to distortions in the interval timing ability or to motivational decline (i. Read More

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November 2018

Interferon-lambda1 enhances Staphylococcus aureus clearance in healthy nasal mucosa, not in nasal polyps.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Upper Airways Research Laboratory, Department of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; Division of ENT Diseases, Clintec, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is characterized by a Th2-skewed inflammation and an increased colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Interferon-lambda 1(IFN-λ1) is known for its antiviral activity, there is little information on its anti-bacterial role. Read More

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November 2018

Rationale for vaccination with trivalent or quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccines: Protective vaccine efficacy in the ferret model.

PLoS One 2018 3;13(12):e0208028. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

International Institutional Cooperation, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Paris, France.

Background And Aim: The majority of seasonal influenza vaccines are trivalent, containing two A virus strains (H1N1 and H3N2) and one B virus strain. The co-circulation of two distinct lineages of B viruses can lead to mismatch between the influenza B virus strain recommended for the trivalent seasonal vaccine and the circulating B virus. This has led some manufacturers to produce quadrivalent influenza vaccines containing one strain from each B lineage in addition to H1N1 and H3N2 strains. Read More

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December 2018
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Tissue tropisms opt for transmissible reassortants during avian and swine influenza A virus co-infection in swine.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Dec 3;14(12):e1007417. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi State, Mississippi, United States of America.

Genetic reassortment between influenza A viruses (IAVs) facilitate emergence of pandemic strains, and swine are proposed as a "mixing vessel" for generating reassortants of avian and mammalian IAVs that could be of risk to mammals, including humans. However, how a transmissible reassortant emerges in swine are not well understood. Genomic analyses of 571 isolates recovered from nasal wash samples and respiratory tract tissues of a group of co-housed pigs (influenza-seronegative, avian H1N1 IAV-infected, and swine H3N2 IAV-infected pigs) identified 30 distinct genotypes of reassortants. Read More

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December 2018

Novel Methods for Intranasal Administration Under Inhalation Anesthesia to Evaluate Nose-to-Brain Drug Delivery.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 14(141). Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Nihon University;

Intranasal administration has been reported to be a potential pathway for nose-to-brain delivery of therapeutic agents that circumvents the blood-brain barrier. However, there have been few reports regarding not only the quantitative analysis but also optimal administration conditions and dosing regimens for investigations of nose-to-brain delivery. The limited progress in research on nose-to-brain pathway mechanisms using rodents represents a significant impediment in terms of designing nose-to-brain delivery systems for candidate drugs. Read More

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November 2018

Omalizumab for chronic rhinosinusitis.

Medwave 2018 Nov 23;18(7):e7347. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Proyecto Epistemonikos, Santiago, Chile; Departamento de Otorrinolaringología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Email: Address: Centro Evidencia UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Diagonal Paraguay 476, Santiago, Chile.

Introduction: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a high prevalence chronic inflammatory disease that involves nasal mucosa and paranasal sinuses. Immunoglobulin E is an inflammatory mediator that plays an etiopathogenic role in this condition, so omalizumab, an anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody, might be a therapeutic alternative.

Methods: We searched in Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. Read More

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November 2018

Use of Modified Islanded Paramedian Forehead Flap for Complex Periocular Facial Reconstruction.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Plastic Surgery, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

The paramedian forehead flap is a workhorse flap for reconstructing the nose and periorbital regions. Many variants are described including an islanded flap. However, eyebrow reconstruction is not usually performed with these flaps. Read More

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November 2018

Microsurgical Replantation of Completely Avulsed Nasal Segment.

J Craniofac Surg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Harvard Integrated Plastic Surgery Program, Boston, MA.

Complete avulsion of the nose is a devastating injury that may result in permanent disfigurement. Microvascular reattachment is technically difficult due to small size of the injured vessels, associated avulsion or crush injury, and relative inability to achieve venous anastomosis. This report describes a successful case of microsurgical replantation of the distal third of the nose in a 47-year-old patient after a dog bite injury with the use of a superficial temporal vein graft for arterial repair and leeching for venous outflow. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Hexavalent Chromium Exposure and Nasal Tissue Effects at a Commercial Aircraft Refinishing Facility.

J Occup Environ Med 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio Division of Global HIV & TB, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio Occupational Disease Control and Prevention Department, Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China.

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November 2018
1 Read

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells and eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan.

Purpose Of Review: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease and is recently classified into two phenotypes, eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS. ECRS is characterized by Th2-biased eosinophilic inflammation, and non-ECRS is characterized by Th1-biased neutrophilic inflammation. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) rapidly produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and exert critical roles in Th2-type immune responses. Read More

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November 2018

Histopathologic analysis in the diagnosis and management of chronic rhinosinusitis.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Purpose Of Review: New research in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis has shed light on an emerging classification system based on endotypes, which help to explain the individualized mechanism of disease in patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis with and without nasal polyps. The purpose of this review is to advocate the use of structured histopathologic analysis in the diagnosis and management of patients affected by chronic rhinosinusitis with and without polyps.

Recent Findings: Numerous studies have demonstrated the role of inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis and the ensuing histopatholgic changes. Read More

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November 2018

Current indications for balloon sinuplasty.

Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Rhinology & Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery, UCLA Department of Head & Neck Surgery, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of the review is to evaluate the current indications and contraindications for balloon sinuplasty and review the clinical trials performed in this area.

Recent Findings: The indications for balloon sinus dilatation are somewhat similar to those for endoscopic sinus surgery. Balloon sinus ostial dilation (BSD) has been found to be most effective in the treatment of recurrent acute sinusitis (RARS) and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) that has been refractory to medical therapy. Read More

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November 2018

Intravascular abscess in Lemierre's syndrome due to meticillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Nov 24;18(11):1287. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Ear, Nose & Throat, Head & Neck Surgery, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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November 2018

Cell Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease: Regenerative Basal Cell Amplification.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The human airway epithelium is regenerated by basal cells. Thus, basal cell therapy has the potential to cure cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. We previously reported that the human basal cells repopulated the mouse airway epithelium after transplantation, and we estimated that 60 million cells would be needed to treat a human patient. Read More

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December 2018

French validation of the FACE-Q Rhinoplasty module.

Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Aix Marseille Univ, APHM, La Conception University Hospital, ENT - Head and Neck Surgery Department Marseille, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to translate the FACE-Q "Rhinoplasty" module into French and validate its use for the French-speaking population.

Design: "Satisfaction with the nose" and "Satisfaction with nostrils" questionnaires were used and translated.

Settings: We were granted permission to use the FACE-Q Rhinoplasty module by the development team. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Giving epistaxis two fingers.

Clin Otolaryngol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Royal Berkshire Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London Road, Reading, RG1 5AN.

Epistaxis is a common presentation to ENT and the use of ice packs is a generally accepted first aid measure. Traditional ice packs on the forehead, bridge of the nose or back of neck can be cumbersome and often requires someone holding onto the ice pack. We describe a simple method to create an ice pack that sits neatly on the nose. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Histopathological effects of septoplasty techniques on nasal septum mucosa: an experimental study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Otorhinolaryngology Department, Health Sciences University Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Sakarya Mh. Ulucanlar Cd. No: 89, 06230, Altındağ, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the histopathological effects of septoplasty techniques on the nasal septal mucosa of rabbits with light and electron microscope.

Methods: The study was performed on 21 rabbits between August 2016 and February 2017. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical behaviours and prognoses of high- and low-risk parotid malignancies based on histology.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Otolaryngology-HNS, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Key Clinical Disciplines of Otorhinolaryngology, Fudan University School of Medicine, 83 Fenyang Road, Shanghai, 200031, China.

Purpose: To report 5-year survival in patients with primary parotid malignant tumours and assess the impact of various factors on survival or local control among diverse histologic groups.

Methods: A total of 65 patients with primary parotid malignant tumours who had surgery between 2003 and 2014 were identified. Demographic characteristics including age, T stage, N stage and clinical or pathological performance were analysed. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Untreated incomplete isolated cleft palate: cadaveric findings.

Anat Sci Int 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Seattle Science Foundation, 550 17th Avenue, Suite 600, Seattle, WA, 98122, USA.

Isolated cleft palate without cleft lip is a rare deformity. Cleft lip and cleft palate can sometimes develop in combination with a syndrome due to genetic causes. Affected patients have morbidity through life from birth and experience comprehensive treatment for such clefts including surgery. Read More

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November 2018

Prenatal Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1885:221-231

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease characterized by the accumulation of thick, sticky mucus which damages epithelia in organs such as the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and other parts of the body. The most common symptoms are sinopulmonary disease and chronic gastrointestinal tract problems resulting from decreased mucociliary clearance and inflammation. CF is the most common life-limiting autosomal recessive disorder in people of northern European ancestry and it affects other populations with different prevalence. Read More

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January 2019
1 Read

Nasal septal abscess: a 10-year retrospective study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, No. 325, Cheng-Kung Road Section 2, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC.

Objective: Nasal septal abscess is an uncommon condition but it can cause potentially life-threatening intracranial complications and cosmetic nasal deformity.

Methods: We analyzed ten years of cases to determine the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. A retrospective review of case notes from Tri-Service General Hospital archives was performed. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Novel roles for nasal epithelium in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

Rhinology 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Otorhinolaryngology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Airway epithelial cells have a well-accepted role in the regulation of local inflammatory processes in allergic and innate defence responses. However, their role the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. The objective was to investigate whether potential differences in the mRNA expression profile of nasal epithelia from healthy individuals and from CRSwNP patients would shed new light on disease mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

Immunomodulators in chronic rhinosinusitis.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 10;4(3):186-192. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: To provide new insight into how chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is conceptualized and treated with a focus on immunomodulator therapy.

Data Sources: Pubmed, Medline, and Embase.

Methods: A current review of the evidence is provided for immunomodulators investigated for treatment of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Read More

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September 2018

Current understanding of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 9;4(3):179-185. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Studying the pathophysiology of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) has proved challenging. While this clinical entity is easily distinguishable based on the clinical criteria set forth by Bent and Kuhn twenty-five years ago, studies examining type 2 inflammatory profiles in AFRS can make it seem more alike other CRS subtypes than it is different. Still, evolving research seems to clearly delineate this subtype from others in CRS. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Exosomes and chronic rhinosinusitis.

Authors:
Sarina K Mueller

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 1;4(3):175-178. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Waldstrasse 1, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.

The objective of this manuscripts to review current knowledge regarding exosomes as they relate to the physiology and pathology of the human nose as well as their role as biomarkers of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Exosomes are 30-150 nm membrane-bound vesicles secreted by virtually all cell types. Exosomes contribute to the rapid inter-epithelial transfer of proteins and mediate innate immunosurveillance and defense mechanisms in the human nasal cavity. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

P-glycoprotein and chronic rhinosinusitis.

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 24;4(3):169-174. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Department of Otolaryngology, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo School of Medical Sciences, RuaDoutorCesário Motta Júnior, 61 - Vila Buarque, São Paulo, SP, 01221-020, Brazil.

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous definition that includes different disease states that usually are associated with abnormal inflammatory responses. Besides being prevalent, the mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis are not clear and there are few therapeutic options with tolerable side effects. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux pump responsible of extruding xenobiotics and cellular metabolites from multiple cell types. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Pathogenesis of NSAID-induced reactions in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

Authors:
Tanya M Laidlaw

World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Sep 5;4(3):162-168. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Boston, MA, USA.

It is well-established that following ingestion of aspirin or any other inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1, patients with Samter's disease, or aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) develop the sudden onset of worsening respiratory clinical symptoms, which usually involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, wheezing and bronchospasm. Gastrointestinal distress, nausea, a pruritic rash and angioedema can also occasionally develop. However, the underlying pathologic mechanism that drives these clinical reactions remains elusive. Read More

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September 2018
1 Read

Macrolide antibiotics in the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis: evidence from a meta-analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Oct;10(10):5913-5923

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the subjective and objective outcomes of macrolide therapy for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).

Methods: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched for clinical trials detailing the effects of macrolide therapy in patients with CRS and published up to December 2017. Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT), endoscopic scores and computed tomography scans (CT) scores were assessed by mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval. Read More

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October 2018
2 Reads

Ontogeny and phylogeny of the mammalian chondrocranium: the cupula nasi anterior and associated structures of the anterior head region.

Zoological Lett 2018 24;4:29. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

3Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment (HEP) at Eberhard Karls Universität, Sigwartstraße 10, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Background: The study of chondrocrania has a long tradition with a focus on single specimens and stages. It revealed great interspecific diversity and a notion of intraspecific variation. As an embryonic structure, the chondrocranium is subject to major changes in ontogeny with resorption and ossification of different cartilaginous structures. Read More

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November 2018

A Pilot Randomized-Controlled Trial on the Effect of CPAP Treatment on Glycemic Control in Gestational Diabetes: Study Design and Methods.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 16;9:659. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with adverse short- and long-term maternal and fetal outcomes. Observational data support a link between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) during pregnancy and GDM. However, it is unknown whether treatment of SDB with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves glucose control in this patient population. Read More

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November 2018

Bilateral orbital glial heterotopia: A rare case report.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2018 Sep-Dec;11(3):288-290

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Glial heterotopia is a rare congenital mass that often presents as a unilateral mass lesion in or around the nose. Complete surgical excision is the treatment of choice. However, before any surgical intervention for suspected glial heterotopia, distinction should be made both clinically and radiologically from the pathologically related encephalocele to prevent the risk of cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis. Read More

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December 2018