5,953 results match your criteria Narcolepsy

Cognitive dysfunction in central disorders of hypersomnolence: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2021 Jun 3;59:101510. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

IRCCS Istituto Delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy. Electronic address:

Central disorders of hypersomnolence (CDH) are characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness not related to comorbid sleep or medical disturbances. We systematically examined scientific literature on cognitive functions in patients suffering from CDH. Forty-eight studies proved eligible and were analyzed separately for Narcolepsy Type 1 (NT1), Narcolepsy Type 2 (NT2), Idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) and Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS). Read More

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Morphological and Age-Related Changes in the Narcolepsy Brain.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, People's Republic of China.

Morphological changes in the cortex of narcolepsy patients were investigated by surface-based morphometry analysis in this study. Fifty-one type 1 narcolepsy patients and 60 demographically group-matched healthy controls provided resting-state functional and high-resolution 3T anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans. Vertex-level cortical thickness (CT), gyrification, and voxel-wise functional connectivity were calculated. Read More

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An Unusual Case of Type 1 Narcolepsy in an Ethiopian Patient.

Ethiop J Health Sci 2021 Jan;31(1):205-208

Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3800 Reservoir Rd NW, 20007.

Background: Narcolepsy is a chronic disabling central neurological disorder of daytime hypersomnia. It is categorized into two subtypes-type 1 (N1) and type 2 (N2). Symptoms of N1 commonly include excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnogogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, and disturbed nighttime sleep. Read More

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January 2021

The importance of social zeitgeber in paediatric type 1 narcolepsy: What we can learn from the COVID-19 restrictions adopted in Italy?

J Sleep Res 2021 Jun 22:e13423. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche, Bologna, Italy.

The lockdown due to the new coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has led to unparalleled changes in several aspects of human behaviour. During the lockdown, the general population delayed sleep timing and spent more time in bed; however, little is known on the effects of COVID-19 restriction on children and adolescents suffering type 1 narcolepsy. In the last months of 2019, we performed follow-up actigraphy in 18 type 1 narcolepsy children and adolescents under stable pharmacological treatment with sodium oxybate. Read More

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Cognitive impairment following clinical or recreational use of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). A systematic review.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Background: GHB (gamma-hydroxybutyric acid; sodium oxybate) is a general anaesthetic that is clinically used for the treatment of narcolepsy, cataplexy, alcohol withdrawal and alcohol relapse prevention. In addition, GHB is recreationally used. Most clinical and recreational users regard GHB as an innocent drug devoid of adverse effects, despite its high dependence potential and possible neurotoxic effects. Read More

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Narcolepsy management in Australia: time to wake up.

Med J Aust 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW.

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Neural circuitry underlying REM sleep: A review of the literature and current concepts.

Prog Neurobiol 2021 Jun 15:102106. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences and State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China. Electronic address:

As one of the fundamental sleep states, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is believed to be associated with dreaming and is characterized by low-voltage, fast electroencephalographic activity and loss of muscle tone. However, the mechanisms of REM sleep generation have remained unclear despite decades of research. Several models of REM sleep have been established, including a reciprocal interaction model, limit-cycle model, flip-flop model, and a model involving γ-amino butyric acid, glutamate, and aminergic/orexin/melanin-concentrating hormone neurons. Read More

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Dream Activity in Narcoleptic Patients During the COVID-19 Lockdown in Italy.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:681569. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Some studies highlighted that patients with narcolepsy type-1 (NT1) experience high lucid dream frequency, and this phenomenon has been associated with a creative personality. Starting from the well-known "pandemic effect" on sleep and dreaming, we presented a picture of dream activity in pharmacologically treated NT1 patients during the Italian lockdown. Forty-three NT1 patients completed a web-survey during Spring 2021 and were compared with 86 matched-controls. Read More

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Psychostimulant Use Disorder, an Unmet Therapeutic Goal: Can Modafinil Narrow the Gap?

Front Neurosci 2021 26;15:656475. Epub 2021 May 26.

Medication Development Program, Molecular Targets and Medication Discovery Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States.

The number of individuals affected by psychostimulant use disorder (PSUD) has increased rapidly over the last few decades resulting in economic, emotional, and physical burdens on our society. Further compounding this issue is the current lack of clinically approved medications to treat this disorder. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a common target of psychostimulant actions related to their use and dependence, and the recent availability of atypical DAT inhibitors as a potential therapeutic option has garnered popularity in this research field. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics, Bioavailability, and Bioequivalence of LOWER-SODIUM Oxybate in Healthy Participants in 2 Open-Label, Randomized, Crossover Studies.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 Jun 13. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

American Academy of Sleep Medicine practice parameters designate sodium oxybate (SXB) as a standard of care for cataplexy, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and disrupted nighttime sleep in narcolepsy. Recently, a lower-sodium oxybate (LXB) with 92% less sodium than SXB was approved in the United States for the treatment of cataplexy or EDS in patients 7 years of age and older with narcolepsy. Two phase 1, open-label, randomized, single-dose crossover pharmacokinetic studies in healthy adults were conducted. Read More

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Yeast display of MHC-II enables rapid identification of peptide ligands from protein antigens (RIPPA).

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pediatrics-Human Gene Therapy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA.

CD4 T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses via binding of antigens to their receptors through specific peptide/MHC-II complexes. To study these responses, it is essential to identify protein-derived MHC-II peptide ligands that constitute epitopes for T cell recognition. However, generating cells expressing single MHC-II alleles and isolating these proteins for use in peptide elution or binding studies is time consuming. Read More

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Increased Chin Muscle Tone during All Sleep Stages in Children Taking SSRI Antidepressants and in Children with Narcolepsy Type 1.

Sleep 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.

Study Objectives: To assess if selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are able to modify the chin EMG tone during sleep also in children.

Methods: Twenty-three children and adolescents (12 girls, mean age 14.1 years, SD 2. Read More

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[Dream content in different sleep disorders: sleep apnoea and hypopnoea syndrome, primary insomnia, idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy type 1].

Rev Neurol 2021 Jun;72(12):411-418

Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, España.

Aim: The aim of this study is to determine whether there are any differences in the dream content in different sleep disorders and to describe their characteristics.

Patients And Methods: We studied four sleep disorders: sleep apnoea and hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS), primary insomnia (PI), idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder (IRBD) and narcolepsy type I. Each patient was asked to keep a dream diary for two weeks. Read More

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Enantioseparation of solriamfetol and its major impurity phenylalaninol by capillary electrophoresis using sulfated gamma cyclodextrin.

Electrophoresis 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, Budapest, H-1085, Hungary.

R-solriamfetol is a recently approved drug used for the treatment of excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy and sleep apnea. Herein, a capillary electrophoretic method was developed, enabling the simultaneous analysis of the API and its S-enantiomer in addition to the enantiomers of its major impurity phenylalaninol. 29 different cyclodextrins (CDs), including native, neutral and charged ones were screened as potential chiral selectors, and the best results were obtained with sulfated CDs. Read More

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Discovery of Arylsulfonamides as Dual Orexin Receptor Agonists.

J Med Chem 2021 Jun 8;64(12):8806-8825. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, United States.

Loss of orexin-producing neurons results in narcolepsy with cataplexy, and orexin agonists have been shown to increase wakefulness and alleviate narcolepsy symptoms in animal models. Several OX2R agonists have been reported but with little or no activity at OX1R. We conducted structure-activity relationship studies on the OX2R agonist YNT-185 () and discovered dual agonists such as RTOXA-43 () with EC's of 24 nM at both OX2R and OX1R. Read More

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Endocrine and metabolic aspects of narcolepsy type 1 in children.

Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 May 18;33:68-74. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Study Objectives: To study whether the onset of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) in children and adolescents affects BMI, specific metabolic risk factors, the onset of puberty, longitudinal growth or other endocrine functions.

Methods: A population-based study, comprising 34 patients, was performed with a clinical evaluation, an assessment of puberty and growth, actigraphy and blood samples at fasting, from patients and controls, to evaluate pituitary function, growth factors, thyroid gland, gonads, insulin sensitivity, appetite regulation and blood lipids.

Results: In the post-H1N1 vaccination (PHV) narcolepsy group, the median BMI SDS was higher 6-12 months after the onset of narcolepsy (p < 0. Read More

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Orexin/Hypocretin and Histamine Cross-Talk on Hypothalamic Neuron Counts in Mice.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:660518. Epub 2021 May 20.

PRISM Lab, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, Center for Applied Biomedical Research, S. Orsola University Hospital, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The loss of hypothalamic neurons that produce wake-promoting orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides is responsible for narcolepsy type 1 (NT1). While the number of histamine neurons is increased in patients with NT1, results on orexin-deficient mouse models of NT1 are inconsistent. On the other hand, the effect of histamine deficiency on orexin neuron number has never been tested on mammals, even though histamine has been reported to be essential for the development of a functional orexin system in zebrafish. Read More

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Correction to: Cystic Fibrosis Revisited - A Review Study.

Med Chem 2021 ;17(5):554

Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic.

In the following article, the author reported an error in the abstract's result section [1]. The results section of the abstract has been changed as follows: Results: The main benefits (e.g. Read More

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January 2021

Symptom measures in pediatric narcolepsy patients: a review.

Ital J Pediatr 2021 Jun 2;47(1):124. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neuromedicine, Peking University People's Hospital, 11 Xizhimen South Street, Beijing, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to provide a summary of the measures to assess narcoleptic symptoms or complications in pediatric narcolepsy patients.

Methods: We searched in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) for measures of narcoleptic symptoms for pediatric patients. Further review was conducted if relevant questionnaires or information were mentioned. Read More

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Focus on the Complex Interconnection between Cancer, Narcolepsy and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Possible Case of Orexin-Dependent Inverse Comorbidity.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Oasi Research Institute-IRCCS, 94018 Troina, Italy.

Conditions such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) are less prevalent in cancer survivors and, overall, cancer is less prevalent in subjects with these neurodegenerative disorders. This seems to suggest that a propensity towards one type of disease may decrease the risk of the other. In addition to epidemiologic data, there is also evidence of a complex biological interconnection, with genes, proteins, and pathways often showing opposite dysregulation in cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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Hypocretin/Orexin, Sleep and Alzheimer's Disease.

Yves Dauvilliers

Front Neurol Neurosci 2021 28;45:139-149. Epub 2021 May 28.

National Reference Centre for Orphan Diseases, Narcolepsy - Rare Hypersomnias, Sleep Unit, Department of Neurology, CHU Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Advances in translational research provide key opportunities to explore the physiological and pathological effects of sleep in different neurodegenerative diseases. Recent findings suggest that sleep-wakefulness dysfunctions may predispose to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vice versa. New theories on the link between sleep and β-amyloid and tau secretion, accumulation and clearance, and its interaction with hypocretins/orexins (key neuropeptides regulating wakefulness) suggest mechanistic ways to better understand the impact of sleep alterations in the pathogenesis of AD. Read More

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Hypocretin/Orexin Receptor Pharmacology and Sleep Phases.

Front Neurol Neurosci 2021 28;45:22-37. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Neuroscience, Biosciences Division, SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA.

The hypocretins/orexins are two excitatory neuropeptides, alternately called HCRT1 or orexin-A and HCRT2 or orexin-B, that are the endogenous ligands for two G-protein-coupled receptors, HCRTR1/OX1R and HCRTR2/OX2R. Shortly after the discovery of this system, degeneration of hypocretin/orexin-producing neurons was implicated in the etiology of the sleep disorder narcolepsy. The involvement of this system in a disorder characterized by the loss of control over arousal state boundaries also suggested its role as a critical component of endogenous sleep-wake regulatory circuitry. Read More

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Sleep, Orexin and Cognition.

Front Neurol Neurosci 2021 28;45:38-51. Epub 2021 May 28.

School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Orexins regulate a wide variety of biological functions, most notably the sleep-wake cycle, reward and stress processing, alertness, vigilance, and cognitive functioning. Alterations of central and peripheral orexin levels are linked to conditions such as narcolepsy, anorexia nervosa, age-related cognitive decline, and neurodegenerative disease. Preliminary studies suggest that orexin mimetics can safely promote the wake signal via orexin agonism during the day and that orexin receptor antagonists can promote the sleep signal during the night. Read More

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Sleep Problems in Narcolepsy and the Role of Hypocretin/Orexin Deficiency.

Front Neurol Neurosci 2021 28;45:103-116. Epub 2021 May 28.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Since its description in the 19th century, narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) has been considered as a model sleep disorder, and after the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep onset in the disorder, a gateway to understanding REM sleep. The discovery that NT1 is caused by hypocretin/orexin deficiency, together with neurochemical studies of this system, has helped to establish how this neuropeptide regulates the organization of sleep and wake in humans. Current analyses suggest that the main functions of the hypocretin/orexin system are (1) maintenance of wakefulness in the face of moderate sleep deprivation; (2) passive wake promotion, especially in the evening, driven by the circadian clock; (3) inhibition of REM sleep, with possible differential modulating effects on various subcomponents of the sleep-stage, explaining REM sleep dissociation events in NT1. Read More

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Fundamental mechanistic insights from rare but paradigmatic neuroimmunological diseases.

Nat Rev Neurol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Infinity, Université Toulouse, CNRS, Inserm, Toulouse, France.

The pathophysiology of complex neuroimmunological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune encephalitis, remains puzzling - various mechanisms that are difficult to dissect seem to contribute, hampering the understanding of the processes involved. Some rare neuroimmunological diseases are easier to study because their presentation and pathogenesis are more homogeneous. The investigation of these diseases can provide fundamental insights into neuroimmunological pathomechanisms that can in turn be applied to more complex diseases. Read More

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Genetic links between narcolepsy and ADHD.

Drake D Duane

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 28;11(1):333. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute for Developmental Behavioral Neurology/Biological Psychiatry, 8585 East Bell Road, Suite 101, Scottsdale, AZ, 85260, USA.

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Health-related quality of life in narcolepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Sleep Res 2021 May 25:e13383. Epub 2021 May 25.

Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

To date, there has been no systematic analysis of the literature regarding health-related quality of life in narcolepsy. This systematic review aimed to examine the impact of narcolepsy on health-related quality of life, measured through standardised health-related quality of life questionnaires such as the Short Form 36 and Functional Outcome of Sleep Questionnaire. The following databases: Medline, Embase, Cinahl, and Web of Science were searched for studies that investigated health-related quality of life in adults with narcolepsy. Read More

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Pitolisant in an Adolescent with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2021 19;26(4):405-410. Epub 2021 May 19.

This case report evaluates the potential benefit of pitolisant in a 15-year-old female with Prader-Willi syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and mild intellectual disability. Due to its action on the H3 receptor, it enhances central activity of histaminergic neurons resulting in increased alertness, irrespective of the loss of orexin neurons seen in narcolepsy. Additionally, it is thought to modulate various other neurotransmitter systems including acetylcholine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Read More

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Narcolepsy: A clinical review.

Diana Anderson

JAAPA 2021 Jun;34(6):20-25

Diana Anderson is an assistant professor in the PA program at Lincoln Memorial University-School of Medical Sciences in Knoxville, Tenn. The author has disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Abstract: Narcolepsy continues to be a significantly underdiagnosed/misdiagnosed condition worldwide. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), an estimated 135,000 to 200,000 patients in the United States are living with narcolepsy. However, due to the number of patients who either do not seek medical advice for their symptoms or receive an incorrect initial diagnosis at onset, this number may be higher. Read More

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Measurement of Narcolepsy Symptoms in School-Aged Children and Adolescents: The Pediatric Narcolepsy Severity Scale.

Neurology 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Sleep-Wake Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Gui-de-Chauliac Hospital, CHU Montpellier, France

Background And Objective: We validated the Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS) in adults with NT1 to quantify the severity, frequency and consequences of the five key narcolepsy symptoms over the last month. We now developed the pediatric Narcolepsy Severity Scale (NSS-P). The aims of this study were: (1) to assess NSS-P psychometric properties, validity, and reliability, and (2) to evaluate its responsiveness to treatment in a well-characterized sample of children and adolescents with NT1. Read More

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