669 results match your criteria Naegleria Infection


Ultrastructural, cytochemical and comparative genomic evidence of peroxisomes in three genera of pathogenic free-living amoebae, including the first morphological data for the presence of this organelle in Heteroloboseans.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Ciudad de México, México.

Peroxisomes perform various metabolic processes that are primarily related to the elimination of reactive oxygen species and oxidative lipid metabolism. These organelles are present in all major eukaryotic lineages, nevertheless, information regarding the presence of peroxisomes in opportunistic parasitic protozoa is scarce and in many cases it is still unknown whether these organisms have peroxisomes at all. Here, we performed ultrastructural, cytochemical and bioinformatic studies to investigate the presence of peroxisomes in three genera of free-living amoebae from two different taxonomic groups that are known to cause fatal infections in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa129DOI Listing

Streptococcus pneumoniae Meningitis Associated With Over-the-Counter Sinus Irrigation.

Cureus 2020 May 24;12(5):e8258. Epub 2020 May 24.

Emergency Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, USA.

We present the first reported case of bacterial meningitis that may be associated with use of an over-the-counter sinus irrigation. Sinus rinse or "Neti Pot" use is a common remedy for sinus congestion and is felt to be relatively safe. Given its widespread use, it is important to report possible associations with disease, in this case meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313434PMC

Adaptive iron utilization compensates for the lack of an inducible uptake system in Naegleria fowleri and represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 18;14(6):e0007759. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, BIOCEV, Charles University, Vestec, Czech Republic.

Naegleria fowleri is a single-cell organism living in warm freshwater that can become a deadly human pathogen known as a brain-eating amoeba. The condition caused by N. fowleri, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, is usually a fatal infection of the brain with rapid and severe onset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326272PMC

A Fatal Case of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis from Recreational Waters.

Case Rep Crit Care 2020 28;2020:9235794. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Medicine, AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center, Atlantic City, NJ, USA.

Background: Naegleria Fowleri is a single-cell, thermophilic amphizoid amoeba, and a rare known causative agent for primary amoebic meningoencephalitis with >97% mortality rate. The amoeba resides in freshwater lakes and ponds but can also survive in inadequately chlorinated pools and recreational waters. The mode of infection includes activities such as diving or jumping into freshwater or submerging the head under the water. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9235794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275226PMC

Gold-Conjugated Curcumin as a Novel Therapeutic Agent against Brain-Eating Amoebae.

ACS Omega 2020 Jun 18;5(21):12467-12475. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah 26666, United Arab Emirates.

and are free-living amoebae that cause infection of the central nervous system, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), respectively. The fact that mortality rates for cases of GAE and PAM are more than 95% indicates the need for new therapeutic agents against those amoebae. Considering that curcumin exhibits a wide range of biological properties and has shown efficacy against , we evaluated the amoebicidal properties of curcumin against and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c01305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7271413PMC

Identification of Immunogenic Antigens of Adjuvanted by Cholera Toxin.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 10;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Laboratorio de Microbiología, Grupo CyMA, Unidad de Investigación Interdisciplinaria en Ciencias de la Salud y la Educación, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM FES Iztacala, Los Reyes Iztacala, Tlalnepantla C.P. 54090, Mexico.

The intranasal administration of lysates plus cholera toxin (CT) increases protection against meningoencephalitis in mice, suggesting that humoral immune response mediated by antibodies is crucial to induce protection against the infection. In the present study, we applied a protein analysis to detect and identify immunogenic antigens from , which might be responsible for such protection. A Western blot assay of polypeptides was performed using the serum and nasal washes from mice immunized with lysates, either alone or with CT after one, two, three, or four weekly immunizations and challenged with trophozoites of Immunized mice with plus CT, after four doses, had the highest survival rate (100%). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9060460DOI Listing

Rheumatoid meningitis and infection in absence of rheumatoid arthritis history: review of 31 cases.

Clin Rheumatol 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Health & Hospitals Kings County, Brooklyn, NY, 11201, USA.

A 62-year-old healthy male presents with leg weakness and fever. Imaging revealed leptomeningeal enhancement (LE). After cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures were negative, he was discharged with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis, but was readmitted due to worsening symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-020-05221-1DOI Listing

Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation as a new target to treat Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC University Medical Center Rotterdam

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living amoeba The amoeba migrates along the olfactory nerve to the brain, resulting in seizures, coma and eventually death. Previous research has shown that a close relative of , prefers lipids over glucose as an energy source. Therefore, we tested several already approved inhibitors of fatty acid oxidation alongside the currently used drugs amphotericin B and miltefosine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00344-20DOI Listing

Evaluation of Indolocarbazoles from as a Novel Source of Therapeutic Agents against the Brain-Eating Amoeba .

Microorganisms 2020 May 25;8(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias (IUETSPC), Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez s/n, 38203 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.

is an opportunistic pathogenic free-living amoeba which is able to rapidly colonize the central nervous system (CNS) and causes a lethal infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Furthermore, more than 98% of the known cases of PAM are fatal and affect mainly children under 12 and young adults. Until now, no fully effective therapeutic agents against are available and hence the urgent need to find novel agents to treat PAM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285321PMC

Naegleria fowleri: differential genetic expression following treatment with Hesperidin conjugated with silver nanoparticles using RNA-Seq.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jul 26;119(7):2351-2358. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, University City, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Naegleria fowleri causes a deadly infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). To our knowledge, there are very few transcriptome studies conducted on these brain-eating amoebae, despite rise in the number of cases. Although the Naegleria genome has been sequenced, currently, it is not well annotated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06711-6DOI Listing

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the global prevalence of Naegleria spp. in water sources.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Naegleria species (spp.) is a free-living amoeba whose pathogenic species such as N. fowleri pose a significant health risk to young people, and the most important source of infection is water source. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13635DOI Listing
May 2020
2.944 Impact Factor

Activity of Auranofin against Multiple Genotypes of and Its Synergistic Effect with Amphotericin B .

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0756, United States.

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis, caused by brain infection with a free-living ameba, , leads to extensive inflammation of the brain and death within 3-7 days after symptoms begin. Treatment of primary amebic meningoencephalitis relies on amphotericin B in combination with other drugs, but use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Despite a fatality rate of over 97%, economic incentive to invest in development of antiamebic drugs by the pharmaceutical industry is lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00165DOI Listing

Novel Azoles as Antiparasitic Remedies against Brain-Eating Amoebae.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Apr 17;9(4). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah 26666, UAE.

and are opportunistic protozoan pathogens capable of producing infection of the central nervous system with more than 95% mortality rate. Previously, we have synthesized several compounds with antiamoebic properties; however, synthesis of compounds that are analogues of clinically used drugs is a highly desirable approach that can lead to effective drug development against these devastating infections. In this regard, compounds belonging to the azole class possess wide range of antimicrobial properties and used clinically. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9040188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235764PMC

Identification of anisomycin, prodigiosin and obatoclax as compounds with broad-spectrum anti-parasitic activity.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 03 20;14(3):e0008150. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States of America.

Parasitic infections are a major source of human suffering, mortality, and economic loss, but drug development for these diseases has been stymied by the significant expense involved in bringing a drug though clinical trials and to market. Identification of single compounds active against multiple parasitic pathogens could improve the economic incentives for drug development as well as simplifying treatment regimens. We recently performed a screen of repurposed compounds against the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, causative agent of amebic dysentery, and identified four compounds (anisomycin, prodigiosin, obatoclax and nithiamide) with low micromolar potency and drug-like properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112225PMC

Identification of differential protein recognition pattern between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis.

Parasite Immunol 2020 Jun 28;42(6):e12715. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Laboratorio de Inmunobiología Molecular y Celular, Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, Mexico.

Many pathogenicity factors are involved in the development of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by N fowleri. However, most of them are not exclusive for N fowleri and they have not even been described in other nonpathogenic Naegleria species. Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify differential proteins and protein pattern recognition between Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria lovaniensis using antibodies anti-N fowleri as strategy to find vaccine candidates against meningoencephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12715DOI Listing
June 2020
2.143 Impact Factor

Repurposing of Drugs Is a Viable Approach to Develop Therapeutic Strategies against Central Nervous System Related Pathogenic Amoebae.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 Mar 2. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah 26666, United Arab Emirates.

Brain-eating amoebae including spp., , and cause rare infections of the central nervous system that almost always result in death. The high mortality rate, lack of interest for drug development from pharmaceutical industries, and no available effective drugs present an alarming challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00613DOI Listing

Isolation of spp from a Brazilian Water Source.

Pathogens 2020 Jan 31;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, São Carlos 13560-590, SP, Brazil.

The genus , of the free-living amoeba (FLA) group, has been investigated mainly due to its human health impact, resulting in deadly infections and their worldwide distribution on freshwater systems. , colloquially known as the "brain-eating amoeba," is the most studied species because it causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) of high lethality. The assessment of FLA biodiversity is fundamental to evaluate the presence of pathogenic species and the possibility of human contamination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7169387PMC
January 2020

Fowlerstefin, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Naegleria fowleri, induces inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells in vitro.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jan 29;13(1):41. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, 52727, Republic of Korea.

Background: Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that causes an opportunistic fatal infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. Cysteine proteases produced by the amoeba may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of infection. In this study, a novel cysteine protease inhibitor of N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-3909-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988287PMC
January 2020

Metagenomic analysis of viruses, bacteria and protozoa in irrigation water.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2020 03 24;224:113440. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Laboratory of Viruses Contaminants of Water and Food. Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Statistics, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Viruses (e.g., noroviruses and hepatitis A and E virus), bacteria (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.113440DOI Listing

Naegleria fowleri in Pakistan.

Lancet Infect Dis 2020 01;20(1):27-28

Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Punjab 46000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30675-9DOI Listing
January 2020

Targeting CNS Related Protist Pathogens: Calcium Ion Dependency in the Brain-Eating Amoebae.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 Dec 16. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences , Aga Khan University , Karachi 74800 , Pakistan.

Of the free-living amoebae (FLA) , , and spp. are known to cause encephalitis. Coined with the term "brain-eating amoebae" (BEA), infection of the central nervous system with FLA has a high mortality rate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00635DOI Listing
December 2019
5 Reads
4.362 Impact Factor

Investigation of potential pathogenicity of Willaertia magna by investigating the transfer of bacteria pathogenicity genes into its genome.

Sci Rep 2019 12 4;9(1):18318. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Aix-Marseille Université UM63, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement IRD 198, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (AP-HM), Microbes, Evolution, Phylogeny and Infection (MEΦI), Institut Hospitalo-Universitaire (IHU) - Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.

Willaertia magna c2c maky is a thermophilic amoeba closely related to the genus Naegleria. This free-living amoeba has the ability to eliminate Legionella pneumophila, which is an amoeba-resisting bacterium living in an aquatic environment. To prevent the proliferation of L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54580-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892926PMC
December 2019

Fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to free-living amoebae in two boys in two different hospitals in Lima, Perú.

Neuropathology 2020 Apr 22;40(2):180-184. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Departamento de Enfermedades infecciosas, Tropicales y Dermatologícas, Hospital Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by free-living amoebae is a rare condition that is difficult to diagnose and hard to treat, generally being fatal. Anti-amoebic treatment is often delayed because clinical signs and symptoms may hide the probable causing agent misleading the appropriate diagnostic test. There are four genera of free-living amoeba associated with human infection, Naegleria, Acanthamoeba sp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12617DOI Listing

Is Naegleria fowleri an Emerging Parasite?

Trends Parasitol 2020 Jan 18;36(1):19-28. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Departamento de Obstetricia, Ginecología, Pediatría, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Toxicología, Medicina Legal y Forense y Parasitología. Universidad de la Laguna., Avda. Astrofísico Fco. Sánchez, S/N, 38206 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain. Electronic address:

Naegleria fowleri causes an uncommon but deadly disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). There has been an increase of reported PAM cases, particularly since 2000. Although water is the dominant route of transmission of PAM, infection through soil/dust is a possible alternative route. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.10.008DOI Listing
January 2020

Molecular detection of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens in rural Louisiana's drinking water distribution system.

Environ Res 2020 02 15;181:108847. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in drinking water distribution systems are responsible for causing numerous infections such as Legionnaires' disease and pneumonia through the consumption of contaminated drinking water. The incidence of opportunistic pathogens and the number of individuals at risk of contracting infections caused by these OPPPs in drinking water has risen drastically in the past decade. Preflush and postflush water samples were collected from 64 houses in a rural town in northeast Louisiana to determine drinking water quality in terms of understanding abiotic and biotic factors on potential proliferation of OPPPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2019.108847DOI Listing
February 2020

A case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Bangladesh.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jan 16;119(1):339-344. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop H23-9, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

We present the first recognized case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri in a 15-year-old male from Bangladesh. He performed daily nasal rinsing with untreated ground water and bathed in untreated ground water or river water, which likely exposed him to N. fowleri. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06463-yDOI Listing
January 2020
2.327 Impact Factor

Identification of plicamycin, TG02, panobinostat, lestaurtinib, and GDC-0084 as promising compounds for the treatment of central nervous system infections caused by the free-living amebae Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia.

Int J Parasitol Drugs Drug Resist 2019 12 22;11:80-94. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Stanford University, Grant Building, S-143, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. Electronic address:

The free-living amebae Naegleria, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia cause rare but life-threatening infections. All three parasites can cause meningoencephalitis. Acanthamoeba can also cause chronic keratitis and both Balamuthia and Acanthamoeba can cause skin and systemic infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpddr.2019.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849155PMC
December 2019
1 Read

Response and remediation actions following the detection of Naegleria fowleri in two treated drinking water distribution systems, Louisiana, 2013-2014.

J Water Health 2019 Oct;17(5):777-787

Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA E-mail:

Naegleria fowleri causes the usually fatal disease primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), typically in people who have been swimming in warm, untreated freshwater. Recently, some cases in the United States were associated with exposure to treated drinking water. In 2013, a case of PAM was reported for the first time in association with the exposure to water from a US treated drinking water system colonized with culturable N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2019.239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7075671PMC
October 2019

Nanoparticle-Mediated Drug Delivery: Blood-Brain Barrier as the Main Obstacle to Treating Infectious Diseases in CNS.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(37):3983-3996

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Parasitic infections affecting the central nervous system (CNS) present high morbidity and mortality rates and affect millions of people worldwide. The most important parasites affecting the CNS are protozoans (Plasmodium sp., Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma brucei), cestodes (Taenia solium) and free-living amoebae (Acantamoeba spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666191014171354DOI Listing
June 2020
2 Reads
3.452 Impact Factor

Repositioning of Guanabenz in Conjugation with Gold and Silver Nanoparticles against Pathogenic Amoebae and .

ACS Infect Dis 2019 12 12;5(12):2039-2046. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences , American University of Sharjah , Sharjah 26666 , United Arab Emirates.

Brain-eating amoebae cause devastating infections in the central nervous system of humans, resulting in a mortality rate of 95%. There are limited effective therapeutic options available clinically for treating granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by () and (), respectively. Here, we report for the first time that guanabenz conjugated to gold and silver nanoparticles has significant antiamoebic activity against both and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00263DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Naegleria fowleri: Sources of infection, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management; a review.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2020 Feb 15;47(2):199-212. Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Eastern Medicine, Directorate of Medical Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Naegleria fowleri, a thermophilic flagellate amoeba known as a "brain-eating" amoeba, is the aetiological agent of a perilous and devastating waterborne disease known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), both in humans as well as in animals. PAM is a rare but fatal disease affecting young adults all around the world, particularly in the developed world but recently reported from developing countries, with 95%-99% mortality rate. Swimmers and divers are at high risk of PAM as the warm water is the most propitious environment adapted by N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.13192DOI Listing
February 2020
2 Reads

Identification of Four Amoebicidal Nontoxic Compounds by a Molecular Docking Screen of Sterol Δ8-Δ7-Isomerase and Phenotypic Assays.

ACS Infect Dis 2019 12 17;5(12):2029-2038. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science , University of California, San Diego , 9500 Gilman Drive , La Jolla , California 92093 , United States.

is a free-living amoeba causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a rapid-onset brain infection in humans with over 97% mortality rate. Despite some progress in the treatment of the disease, there is no single, proven, evidence-based treatment with a high probability of cure. Here we report the chemical library screening and experimental identification of four new compounds with amoebicidal effects against . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085920PMC
December 2019
2 Reads

Isolation and Phylogenetic Analysis of Free-Living Amoebae (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, and Vermamoeba) in the Farmland Soils and Recreational Places in Iran.

Acta Parasitol 2020 Mar 30;65(1):36-43. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Free-living amoeba (FLA) including Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria are among the soil-born parasites. There are reports of FLA-related keratitis with a history of contact with soil and dust sources, particularly among the farmers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00126-9DOI Listing
March 2020
8 Reads
0.965 Impact Factor

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in an infant.

Indian J Med Microbiol 2019 Jan-Mar;37(1):120-122

Department of Medical Parasitology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is rare but fatal disease encountered in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we present a case of a previously healthy 8-month-old female child, who presented with features of meningoencephalitis of 2 days' duration. Rapidly moving trophozoites of amoeba were observed in cerebrospinal fluid, which were confirmed to be Naegleria fowleri on polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.IJMM_18_371DOI Listing
December 2019
1 Read

Host Invasion by Pathogenic Amoebae: Epithelial Disruption by Parasite Proteins.

Genes (Basel) 2019 08 14;10(8). Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, CINVESTAV-IPN, Mexico City 07360, Mexico.

The epithelium represents the first and most extensive line of defence against pathogens, toxins and pollutant agents in humans. In general, pathogens have developed strategies to overcome this barrier and use it as an entrance to the organism. , and spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes10080618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6723116PMC
August 2019
2 Reads

Detection of Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp, and Balamuthia mandrillaris in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissues by Real-Time Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction.

Am J Clin Pathol 2019 11;152(6):799-807

Division of Clinical Microbiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objectives: Pathogenic free-living amebae (FLAs) cause skin, ocular, and central nervous system (CNS) infections with significant morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of FLA infections by pathologic examination of tissue sections can be aided using molecular assays. This study investigated the performance characteristics of a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (FLA-PCR) for detection and differentiation of FLAs in clinical specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcp/aqz103DOI Listing
November 2019
1 Read

Occurrence and the first report of Naegleria australiensis presence in a major lake in the Philippines.

J Water Health 2019 Aug;17(4):647-653

Medical Faculty, Anatomy Center, University of Cologne, Cologne 50923, Germany.

Laguna de Bay or Laguna Lake is one of the six major lakes in the Philippines to be in close contact with population activities due to the expansion of urban settlements in the immediate cities surrounding the lake, thus pushing the population to settle upon its shores. To date, there are no data showing the biodiversity of free-living amoebae (FLA) present in this lake. The present study aims to isolate and identify the FLA present in Laguna de Bay, Philippines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wh.2019.034DOI Listing
August 2019
2 Reads

Naegleria fowleri.

Trends Parasitol 2019 10 9;35(10):848-849. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Canarias, Departamento de Obstetricia, Ginecología, Pediatría, Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Toxicología, Medicina Legal y Forense y Parasitología, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.06.011DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: A Case Report.

Korean J Parasitol 2019 Jun 30;57(3):291-294. Epub 2019 Jun 30.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang, China.

Primary amebic encephalitis (PAM) is a devastating central nervous system infection caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, which can survive in soil and warm fresh water. Here, a 43-year-old healthy male was exposed to warm freshwater 5 days before the symptom onset. He rapidly developed severe cerebral edema before the diagnosis of PAM and was treated with intravenous conventional amphotericin B while died of terminal cerebral hernia finally. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2019.57.3.291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6616161PMC
June 2019
3 Reads

Primary amebic meningoencephalomyelitis caused by in a south-central black rhinoceros ().

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2019 07;255(2):219-223

A 20-year-old female south-central black rhinoceros () was evaluated because of an acute onset of CNS deficits. The rhinoceros had no history of illness. Clinical signs included acute lethargy, ataxia, and decreased appetite. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.255.2.219DOI Listing
July 2019
8 Reads

Pathogenic free-living amoebic encephalitis in Japan.

Neuropathology 2019 Aug 26;39(4):251-258. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan.

Over 600 cases of amoebic encephalitis caused by pathogenic free-living amoebas (Balamuthia mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri) have been reported worldwide, and in Japan, 24 cases have been reported from the first case in 1976 up to 2018. Among these cases, 18 were caused by B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/neup.12582DOI Listing
August 2019
5 Reads

Meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in cattle in southern Brazil.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2019 Jun 6;28(3):514-517. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Departamento de Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba commonly found in the environment, mainly in fresh water and soil. This protozoon is occasionally involved in cases of fatal central nervous system disease in humans and other animal species. We describe here a case of meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in cattle, in southern Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612019021DOI Listing
June 2019
13 Reads

Killer amoebas: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a changing climate.

JAAPA 2019 Jun;32(6):30-35

At the University of Toledo (Ohio) Medical Center, Amanda Marie Cooper is a physician assistant, Shaza Aouthmany is an associate program director, and Kruti Shah is a medical resident. Paul P. Rega is an assistant professor in the University of Toledo's School of Population Health. The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) caused by Naegleria fowleri is a rare and deadly disease that requires prompt treatment with multiple therapies. Although N. fowleri previously was only found in warmer areas, climate change appears to be contributing to its geographic spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JAA.0000558238.99250.4aDOI Listing
June 2019
4 Reads

Cellular characterization of actin gene concerned with contact-dependent mechanisms in Naegleria fowleri.

Parasite Immunol 2019 08 26;41(8):e12631. Epub 2019 May 26.

Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

Free-living amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, destroys target cells through contact-dependent mechanisms, such as phagocytosis and/or trogocytosis. A previous experiment showed that the nf-actin gene consisted of 1.2 kbp, produced a 50. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12631DOI Listing
August 2019
4 Reads

trans-Cinnamic Acid Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles as Potent Therapeutics against Brain-Eating Amoeba Naegleria fowleri.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 06 24;10(6):2692-2696. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology , Sunway University , Subang Jaya 47500 , Selangor Malaysia.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a deadly brain infection, is caused by brain-eating amoeba Naegleria fowleri. The current first line of treatment against PAM is a mixture of amphotericin B, rifampin, and miltefosine. Since, no single effective drug has been developed so far, the mortality rate is above 95%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00111DOI Listing
June 2019
13 Reads

"Proposals for Amendments in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Encephalitis caused by Free-living Amoebae".

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(2):115-121

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Encephalitis caused by Free-living amoebae (FLA) has a mortality rate of around 95- 98%, a fraction that has not changed in the past decades. Pathogenic FLA include Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri that are known to target the brain after an extra cerebral infection in the case of Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia mandrillaris, or directly the brain, as in the case of the Naegleria fowleri. The Acanthamoeba spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526519666190405170601DOI Listing
January 2020
16 Reads

A local case of fulminant primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

Rural Remote Health 2019 04 9;19(2):4313. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Gold Coast University Hospital, 1 Hospital Boulevard, Southport, Gold Coast, QLD 4215, Australia

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is an extremely rare, predominantly fulminant central nervous system infection caused by the amoeba Naegleria fowleri, first described in Australia in 1965. Despite the ubiquitous presence of N. fowleri, as few as 300 cases of infection have since been reported worldwide, with a case fatality rate approaching 98%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.22605/RRH4313DOI Listing
April 2019
6 Reads

Isolation and Molecular Identification of Naegleria australiensis in Irrigation Water of Fuerteventura Island, Spain.

Acta Parasitol 2019 Jun 2;64(2):331-335. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Instituto Universitario de Enfermedades Tropicales y Salud Pública de Islas Canarias, Universidad de La Laguna, Av. Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez s/n, Tenerife, Spain.

Introduction: Saline groundwater desalination has recently emerged as an alternative source of irrigation water in arid and semiarid regions due to the gradual reduction in the quantity and quality of conventional water resources for agricultural use. In Fuerteventura Island (Spain), an extremely arid territory in the European Union, brackish water desalination is one of the few available water sources for agricultural production. Very little research has been conducted on the microbiological quality of this water mainly used for irrigation of vegetable crops. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11686-019-00046-8DOI Listing
June 2019
18 Reads
0.965 Impact Factor

Tissue and blood protozoa including toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, Babesia, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, and Naegleria in solid organ transplant recipients- Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.

Clin Transplant 2019 09 29;33(9):e13546. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

These updated guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation review the diagnosis, prevention, and management of tissue and blood protozoal infections in the pre- and post-transplant period. Significant new developments in the field have made it necessary to divide the previous single guideline published in 2013 into two sections, with the intestinal parasites separated from this guideline devoted to tissue and blood protozoa. The current update reflects the increased focus on donor screening and risk-based recipient monitoring for parasitic infections. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ctr.13546
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.13546DOI Listing
September 2019
42 Reads

Brain-eating Amoebae Infection: Challenges and Opportunities in Chemotherapy.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2019 ;19(12):980-987

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Subang Jaya 47500, Selangor, Malaysia.

Pathogenic free-living amoeba are known to cause a devastating infection of the central nervous system and are often referred to as "brain-eating amoebae". The mortality rate of more than 90% and free-living nature of these amoebae is a cause for concern. It is distressing that the mortality rate has remained the same over the past few decades, highlighting the lack of interest by the pharmaceutical industry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557519666190313161854DOI Listing
August 2019
15 Reads