273 results match your criteria Naegleria Infection


The Effect of Different Environmental Conditions on the Viability of Naegleria fowleri Amoebae.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, 23219, Virginia, USA.

Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba found in soil and freshwater environments, is the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis. Infection occurs when amoebae enter the nasal cavity, attach to the nasal mucosa and travel along olfactory neurons towards the olfactory bulb. Upon reaching the central nervous system, the amoebae replicate very rapidly and can cause death in 3 to 10 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12719DOI Listing
February 2019

Mouse neutrophils release extracellular traps in response to Naegleria fowleri.

Parasite Immunol 2019 Feb 9;41(2):e12610. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Laboratorio de Inmunobiología Molecular y Celular, Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México City, México.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba, which is able to infect humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N fowleri infection. Recently, a new biological defence mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12610DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads
2.143 Impact Factor

Exotic Tourist Destinations and Transmission of Infections by Swimming Pools and Hot Springs-A Literature Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 12 3;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Egaleo, Greece.

A growing number of people undertake international travel, and yet faster growth of such travel is expected in the tropics. Information on the hazards presented by pool and hot spring waters in tropical countries is very limited. This review aims to collate available information on pool water quality, alongside data on cases and outbreaks associated with swimming in pools in tropical regions affecting both local populations and travellers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122730DOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

An Experimental Model of Primary Amoebic Meningoence phalitis Due to in Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):369-372

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The main aim of the present research was to develop the experimental meningo encephalitis due to isolated from geothermal water sources in mice model, November 2017 in Iran.

Methods: was isolated from geothermal water sources in northern Iran. The number of amoebae was adjusted to be 1×10/ml amoebae. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243162PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Exploitation of Mangrove Endophytic Fungi for Infectious Disease Drug Discovery.

Mar Drugs 2018 Oct 10;16(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

There is an acute need for new and effective agents to treat infectious diseases. We conducted a screening program to assess the potential of mangrove-derived endophytic fungi as a source of new antibiotics. Fungi cultured in the presence and absence of small molecule epigenetic modulators were screened against and the ESKAPE panel of bacterial pathogens, as well as two eukaryotic infective agents, and . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16100376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6212984PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

Enzymatic chokepoints and synergistic drug targets in the sterol biosynthesis pathway of Naegleria fowleri.

PLoS Pathog 2018 09 13;14(9):e1007245. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can also act as an opportunistic pathogen causing severe brain infection, primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), in humans. The high mortality rate of PAM (exceeding 97%) is attributed to (i) delayed diagnosis, (ii) lack of safe and effective anti-N. fowleri drugs, and (iii) difficulty of delivering drugs to the brain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6136796PMC
September 2018
3 Reads

Outbreaks Associated with Untreated Recreational Water - United States, 2000-2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jun 29;67(25):701-706. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water can be caused by pathogens, toxins, or chemicals in fresh water (e.g., lakes, rivers) or marine water (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6725a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6023190PMC
June 2018
18 Reads

Identification and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis in China.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Jul 8;72:28-33. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Communicable Diseases of Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Naegleria fowleri is the only Naegleria spp. known to cause an acute, fulminant, and rapidly fatal central nervous system infection in humans called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In 2016, a patient with suspected PAM was found in Zhejiang Province of China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.05.001DOI Listing
July 2018
5 Reads

Fatal case of amoebic encephalitis masquerading as herpes.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2018 May 3;2018(5):omy010. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Medicine, National Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Medicine, Pashupati Sadak, Kathmandu-9, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare, fulminating, hemorrhagic infection of the brain caused by , a thermophilic, free-living amoeba. A 74-year male presented with sudden severe global headache and fever with features of anomic aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested herpes encephalitis and acyclovir (IV) was started but the patient developed altered sensorium, agitation and progressive weakness of lower limbs with gradual truncal weakness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/omcr/omy010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5934662PMC
May 2018
9 Reads

The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP 14).

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2018 Nov 25;65(6):934-939. Epub 2018 May 25.

Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, 10461.

The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10-12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); for example, free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6215512PMC
November 2018
5 Reads

Innovative Methodology in the Discovery of Novel Drug Targets in the Free-Living Amoebae.

Curr Drug Targets 2019 ;20(1):60-69

Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi, Pakistan.

Despite advances in drug discovery and modifications in the chemotherapeutic regimens, human infections caused by free-living amoebae (FLA) have high mortality rates (~95%). The FLA that cause fatal human cerebral infections include Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. Novel drug-target discovery remains the only viable option to tackle these central nervous system (CNS) infection in order to lower the mortality rates caused by the FLA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450119666180426100452DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads
3.021 Impact Factor

An In Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier: Naegleria fowleri Affects the Tight Junction Proteins and Activates the Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2018 Nov 25;65(6):804-819. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico City, 07360, Mexico.

Naegleria fowleri causes a fatal disease known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This condition is characterized by an acute inflammation that originates from the free passage of peripheral blood cells to the central nervous system through the alteration of the blood-brain barrier. In this work, we established models of the infection in rats and in a primary culture of endothelial cells from rat brains with the aim of evaluating the activation and the alterations of these cells by N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12522DOI Listing
November 2018
6 Reads

Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against .

Front Microbiol 2018 6;9:414. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba , popularly known as the "brain-eating ameba." The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5845744PMC
March 2018
5 Reads

Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors as new drug leads against Naegleria fowleri.

Exp Parasitol 2018 May 15;188:36-41. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC0755, La Jolla, CA 92093-0755, USA. Electronic address:

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. PAM occurs principally in healthy children of less than 13 years old with a history of recent exposure to warm fresh water. While as yet not a reportable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) documents a total of 143 cases in the United States. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.03.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5918159PMC
May 2018
6 Reads

The therapeutic strategies against Naegleria fowleri.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Apr 1;187:1-11. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil. Electronic address:

Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic amoeboflagellate most prominently known for its role as the etiological agent of the Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a disease that afflicts the central nervous system and is fatal in more than 95% of the reported cases. Although being fatal and with potential risks for an increase in the occurrence of the pathogen in populated areas, the organism receives little public health attention. A great underestimation in the number of PAM cases reported is assumed, taking into account the difficulty in obtaining an accurate diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.02.010DOI Listing
April 2018
2 Reads

Neuroinvasions caused by parasites

Ann Parasitol 2017;63(4):243–253

Department of Diagnostics and Treatment of Parasitic Diseases and Mycoses, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Pomorska 251 (C5), 92-213 Lodz, Poland

Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Many human parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma cruzi, Taenia solium, Echinococcus spp., Toxocara canis, T. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17420/ap6304.111DOI Listing
May 2018
3 Reads

CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 12 28;11(12):e0006104. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5746216PMC
December 2017
14 Reads

Brain-Eating Amoebae: Silver Nanoparticle Conjugation Enhanced Efficacy of Anti-Amoebic Drugs against Naegleria fowleri.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2017 12 5;8(12):2626-2630. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University , Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia.

The overall aim of this study was to determine whether conjugation with silver nanoparticles enhances effects of available drugs against primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Amphotericin B, Nystatin, and Fluconazole were conjugated with silver nanoparticles, and synthesis was confirmed using UV-visible spectrophotometry. Atomic force microscopy determined their size in range of 20-100 nm. Read More

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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00430
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00430DOI Listing
December 2017
30 Reads

Toll-like receptors participate in Naegleria fowleri recognition.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jan 11;117(1):75-87. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Av. IPN 2508, 07360, Mexico City, Mexico.

Naegleria fowleri is a protozoan that invades the central nervous system and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. It has been reported that N. fowleri induces an important inflammatory response during the infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-017-5666-9DOI Listing
January 2018
21 Reads

Case Series of Primary Ameobic Meningoencephalitis from Karachi, Pakistan.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Nov 10;97(5):1600-1602. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) which is almost always fatal. is waterborne, and its infections are usually associated with aquatic activities but it can also be transmitted via the domestic water supply. An increasing number of cases have been reported from Pakistan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5817751PMC
November 2017
10 Reads

Future Priorities in Tackling Infections Due to Brain-Eating Amoebae.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2017 11 21;8(11):2355. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University , Selangor, 47500, Malaysia.

Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri) can cause opportunistic infections involving the central nervous system. It is troubling that the mortality rate is more than 90% despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy over the last few decades. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00343DOI Listing
November 2017
10 Reads

A case report: primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a young Zambian adult.

BMC Infect Dis 2017 08 1;17(1):532. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University Teaching Hospital and University of Zambia- School of Medicine, Lusaka, Zambia.

Background: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant disease of the brain caused by Naegleria fowleri. Although the disease is rare, the case fatality rate is very high. In this report, we describe the first case of PAM in Zambia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2638-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540533PMC
August 2017
10 Reads

Brain-Eating Amoebae: Predilection Sites in the Brain and Disease Outcome.

J Clin Microbiol 2017 07 12;55(7):1989-1997. Epub 2017 Apr 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Malaysia.

spp. and are causative agents of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE), while causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). PAM is an acute infection that lasts a few days, while GAE is a chronic to subacute infection that can last up to several months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02300-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5483900PMC
July 2017
18 Reads

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis in Children: A Report of Two Fatal Cases and Review of the Literature.

Pediatr Neurol 2017 05 22;70:75-79. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatric Neurology and Developmental Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, almost uniformly fatal disease of cerebral invasion by Naegleria fowleri, occurring most commonly after swimming in warm fresh water in summer months. Treatment using the experimental medication miltefosine demonstrated improved survival and favorable neurocognitive outcome in a 2013 North American patient. There is little information about the electroencephalographic findings of such patients, and our understanding of factors predicting survival is limited. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S08878994163076
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2017.02.004DOI Listing
May 2017
56 Reads

Fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in a Norwegian tourist returning from Thailand.

JMM Case Rep 2016 Jun 25;3(3):e005042. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital - Ullevaal, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare disease caused by the free-living amoeba . Infection occurs by insufflation of water containing amoebae into the nasal cavity, and is usually associated with bathing in freshwater. Nasal irrigation is a more rarely reported route of infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmmcr.0.005042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5330229PMC
June 2016
9 Reads

Development of Untargeted Metabolomics Methods for the Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 04 29;51(8):4210-4219. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University , P.O. Box 644630, Pullman, Washington 99164, United States.

Despite comparatively low levels of infection, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) induced by Naegleria fowleri is extremely lethal, with mortality rates above 95%. As a thermophile, this organism is often found in moderate-to-warm climates and has the potential to colonize drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). Current detection approaches require days to obtain results, whereas swift corrective action can maximize the benefit of public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b05969DOI Listing
April 2017
8 Reads

Targeting Brain-Eating Amoebae Infections.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2017 04 22;8(4):687-688. Epub 2017 Feb 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sunway University , Selangor, 47500, Malaysia.

Brain infections due to Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri often lead to death. Despite differences in the preferential sites of infection in the brain, the mode of delivery of drugs is often intravenous. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00049DOI Listing
April 2017
5 Reads

Pathogenic waterborne free-living amoebae: An update from selected Southeast Asian countries.

PLoS One 2017 17;12(2):e0169448. Epub 2017 Feb 17.

Department of Parasitology (Southeast Asia Water Team), Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Data on the distribution of free-living amoebae is still lacking especially in Southeast Asian region. The aquatic environment revealed a high occurrence of free-living amoebae (FLA) due to its suitable condition and availability of food source, which subsequently causes infection to humans. A total of 94 water samples consisted of both treated and untreated from Laos (31), Myanmar (42), and Singapore (21) were investigated for the presence of pathogenic FLA. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0169448PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5315373PMC
August 2017
10 Reads

Surviving Naegleria fowleri infections: A successful case report and novel therapeutic approach.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2017 Mar - Apr;16:49-51. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Institute of Occupational and Social Medicine, RWTH Aachen Technical University, Pauwelsstr. 30, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.

Naegleria fowleri is a deadly human pathogen recognized as the causative agent of Primary Amoebic Meningitis (PAM). N. fowleri is commonly found in warm freshwater environments such as natural or man-made lakes, hot springs, and resort spas frequented by tourists. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S14778939163021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2016.12.005DOI Listing
October 2017
4 Reads

Biology and pathogenesis of Naegleria fowleri.

Acta Trop 2016 Dec 9;164:375-394. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sunway University, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Naegleria fowleri is a protist pathogen that can cause lethal brain infection. Despite decades of research, the mortality rate related with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis owing to N. fowleri remains more than 90%. Read More

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http://www.caister.com/hsp/prelims/naegleria.pdf
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http://eprints.sunway.edu.my/430/1/Naegleria%20review.pdf
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http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0001706X1630589
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.09.009DOI Listing
December 2016
12 Reads

Coexistence of free-living amoebae and bacteria in selected South African hospital water distribution systems.

Parasitol Res 2017 Jan 12;116(1):155-165. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Water and Health Research Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 17011, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa.

Pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA), such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species isolated from aquatic environments have been implicated in central nervous system, eye and skin human infections. They also allow the survival, growth and transmission of bacteria such as Legionella, Mycobacteria and Vibrio species in water systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the co-occurrence of potentially pathogenic FLA and their associated bacteria in hospital water networks in Johannesburg, South Africa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5271-3DOI Listing
January 2017
47 Reads

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: What Have We Learned in the Last 5 Years?

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2016 Sep;18(10):31

Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd NE, MS C-09, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a devastating infection of the brain caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba, Naegleria fowleri. Infection can occur when water containing the ameba enters the body through the nose, usually during recreational water activities such as swimming or diving. Historically, in the USA, cases were mostly reported from the warmer southern-tier states. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11908-016-0539
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11908-016-0539-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5100007PMC
September 2016
2 Reads

Excretory and Secretory Proteins of Naegleria fowleri Induce Inflammatory Responses in BV-2 Microglial Cells.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2017 03 23;64(2):183-192. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, 16499, Korea.

Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that is found in diverse environmental habitats, can cause a type of fulminating hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), in humans. The pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, but it is likely to be primarily caused by disruption of the host's nervous system via a direct phagocytic mechanism by the amoeba. Naegleria fowleri trophozoites are known to secrete diverse proteins that may indirectly contribute to the pathogenic function of the amoeba, but this factor is not clearly understood. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/jeu.12350
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12350DOI Listing
March 2017
62 Reads

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Neurochemotaxis and Neurotropic Preferences of Naegleria fowleri.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2016 08 22;7(8):1026-9. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University , Karachi 74800, Pakistan.

Naegleria fowleri causes one of the most devastating necrotic meningoencephalitis in humans. The infection caused by this free-living amoeba is universally fatal within a week of onset of the signs and symptoms of the disease called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In all the affected patients, there is always a history of entry of water into the nose. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00197DOI Listing
August 2016
7 Reads
4.362 Impact Factor

Naegleria fowleri after 50 years: is it a neglected pathogen?

J Med Microbiol 2016 Sep 4;65(9):885-896. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

1​ Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico City 07360, Mexico.

It has been 50 years since the first case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), an acute and rapidly fatal disease of the central nervous system (CNS), was reported in Australia. It is now known that the aetiological agent of PAM is Naegleria fowleri, an amoeba that is commonly known as 'the brain-eating amoeba'. N. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000303DOI Listing
September 2016
6 Reads

Infections Acquired via Fresh Water: From Lakes to Hot Tubs.

Authors:
Bertha Ayi

Microbiol Spectr 2015 12;3(6)

Global Infectious Disease Services, PC, Sioux City, IA 51104.

This chapter is unique in its focus on infections that are acquired in water. For those who like to swim and spend time in water parks and pools, the exposure to water and therefore the risk of infection is higher. Recreational water illnesses are illnesses related to recreation in water. Read More

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http://www.asmscience.org/content/journal/microbiolspec/10.1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/microbiolspec.IOL5-0019-2015DOI Listing
December 2015
4 Reads

NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in THP-1 Target Cells Triggered by Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

Infect Immun 2016 09 19;84(9):2422-8. Epub 2016 Aug 19.

Department of Microbiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Ajou University, Suwon, Republic of Korea

Naegleria fowleri, known as the brain-eating amoeba, causes acute primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. During swimming and other recreational water activities, N. fowleri trophozoites penetrate the nasal mucosa and invade the olfactory bulbs, resulting in intense inflammatory reactions in the forebrain tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00275-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995905PMC
September 2016
10 Reads

Neutrophils extracellular traps damage Naegleria fowleri trophozoites opsonized with human IgG.

Parasite Immunol 2016 08 13;38(8):481-95. Epub 2016 Jun 13.

Laboratorio de Inmunobiología Molecular y Celular, Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico City, D.F., Mexico.

Naegleria fowleri infects humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N. fowleri infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pim.12337DOI Listing
August 2016
4 Reads

Notes from the Field: Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated with Exposure to Swimming Pool Water Supplied by an Overland Pipe - Inyo County, California, 2015.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Apr 29;65(16):424. Epub 2016 Apr 29.

On June 17, 2015, a previously healthy woman aged 21 years went to an emergency department after onset of headache, nausea, and vomiting during the preceding 24 hours. Upon evaluation, she was vomiting profusely and had photophobia and nuchal rigidity. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid was consistent with meningitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6516a4DOI Listing
April 2016
11 Reads

Presence of Balamuthia mandrillaris in hot springs from Mazandaran province, northern Iran.

Epidemiol Infect 2016 08 18;144(11):2456-61. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology,Faculty of Medicine,Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran,Iran.

Balamuthia mandrillaris is an opportunistic free-living amoeba that has been reported to cause cutaneous lesions and Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis. The biology and environmental distribution of B. mandrillaris is still poorly understood and isolation of this pathogen from the environment is a rare event. Read More

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http://www.journals.cambridge.org/abstract_S095026881600073X
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S095026881600073XDOI Listing
August 2016
3 Reads

Pharmacy Students' Knowledge Assessment of Naegleria fowleri Infection.

Scientifica (Cairo) 2016 15;2016:2498283. Epub 2016 Feb 15.

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Karachi, Karachi, Sindh 75270, Pakistan.

A cross-sectional study was conducted from April to August 2015 to assess the knowledge of pharmacy students towards Naegleria fowleri infection. A questionnaire was distributed to senior pharmacy students in different private and public sector universities of Karachi. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate students' demographic information and their responses to the questionnaire. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2498283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770154PMC
March 2016
2 Reads

Meningoencephalitis due to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri in ruminants in Algeria.

Parasite 2016 15;23:11. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Université de Lyon, UMR 5240, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, 69622 Villeurbanne, France.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection in most cases, caused by the amoeba flagellate Naegleria fowleri. This report describes the first cases of PAM in Algeria, in a cow and a ewe from Batna, north-eastern Algeria. The death of both ruminants occurred a week after the first clinical manifestations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2016011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4793182PMC
October 2016
8 Reads

Detection of Balamuthia mandrillaris DNA in the storage case of contact lenses in Germany.

Parasitol Res 2016 May 11;115(5):2111-4. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Laboratory of Medical Parasitology, Central Institute of the Bundeswehr Medical Service, Koblenz, Andernacherstrasse 100, 56070, Koblenz, Germany.

Acanthamoeba spp. are frequently the etiological agents of a severe form of sight-threatening keratitis, called Acanthamoeba keratitis. The contact lens storage solution of a patient with keratitis of unknown genesis was screened using our diagnostic tools to detect potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-4979-4DOI Listing
May 2016
22 Reads

Comparison of the clinical presentations of Naegleria fowleri primary amoebic meningoencephalitis with pneumococcal meningitis: a case-control study.

Infection 2016 Aug 27;44(4):505-11. Epub 2016 Feb 27.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Background: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare but fatal infection caused by Naegleria fowleri. The infection is acquired by deep nasal irrigation with infected water. Patients present with signs and symptoms similar to pneumococcal meningitis, leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment and hence high mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-016-0878-yDOI Listing
August 2016
21 Reads
2 Citations
2.620 Impact Factor

Permissiveness of freshly isolated environmental strains of amoebae for growth of Legionella pneumophila.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2016 Mar 31;363(5):fnw022. Epub 2016 Jan 31.

Université de Poitiers, Laboratoire Ecologie et Biologie des Interactions, CNRS UMR 7267, Equipe Microbiologie de l'Eau 1 rue Georges Bonnet, 86073 Poitiers Cedex, France

Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium commonly found in water and responsible for severe pneumonia. Free-living amoebae are protozoa also found in water, which feed on bacteria by phagocytosis. Under favorable conditions, some L. Read More

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http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/content/femsle/363/5/fnw022
Web Search
http://femsle.oxfordjournals.org/lookup/doi/10.1093/femsle/f
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnw022DOI Listing
March 2016
6 Reads

Morphological and Molecular Survey of Naegleria spp. in Water Bodies Used for Recreational Purposes in Rasht city, Northern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2015 Oct-Dec;10(4):523-9

Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Naegleria spp. is a free-living amoeba of which some species including N. fowleri and N. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4724827PMC
January 2016
9 Reads

Fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in a newly diagnosed patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Neurol India 2016 Jan-Feb;64(1):101-4

Department of Pathology, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) caused by certain species belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, or Naegleria presents as a subacute or chronic illness. Amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba is seen more often in immunosuppressed individuals. Thus, it may often be associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), organ transplantation, administration of steroids and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Read More

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http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2016/64/1/101/173662
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.173662DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

Detection of the free living amoeba Naegleria fowleri by using conventional and real-time PCR based on a single copy DNA sequence.

Exp Parasitol 2016 Feb 11;161:35-9. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5240, Université Lyon 1, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address:

The amoeba-flagellate Naegleria fowleri is a causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). This thermophilic species occurs worldwide and tends to proliferate in warm aquatic environment. The PAM cases remain rare but this infection is mostly fatal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2015.12.007DOI Listing
February 2016
6 Reads

Use of the Novel Therapeutic Agent Miltefosine for the Treatment of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis: Report of 1 Fatal and 1 Surviving Case.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 Mar 17;62(6):774-6. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant central nervous system infection caused by the thermophilic free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. Few survivals have been documented and adequate treatment is lacking. We report 2 PAM cases, 1 fatal and 1 surviving, treated with the novel antiparasitic agent miltefosine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ1021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4775347PMC
March 2016
11 Reads