1,277 results match your criteria Naegleria Infection


Anti-Parasitic Activity of Auranofin Against Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, Ames, Iowa, 50011.

We report that the gold containing anti-rheumatoid drug auranofin is amoebicidal against human pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Treatment of N. fowleri cultures at biologically relevant concentrations of 0. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Exotic Tourist Destinations and Transmission of Infections by Swimming Pools and Hot Springs-A Literature Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 Dec 3;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of West Attica, 12243 Egaleo, Greece.

A growing number of people undertake international travel, and yet faster growth of such travel is expected in the tropics. Information on the hazards presented by pool and hot spring waters in tropical countries is very limited. This review aims to collate available information on pool water quality, alongside data on cases and outbreaks associated with swimming in pools in tropical regions affecting both local populations and travellers. Read More

View Article
December 2018

An Experimental Model of Primary Amoebic Meningoence phalitis Due to in Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2018 Jul-Sep;13(3):369-372

Dept. of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The main aim of the present research was to develop the experimental meningo encephalitis due to isolated from geothermal water sources in mice model, November 2017 in Iran.

Methods: was isolated from geothermal water sources in northern Iran. The number of amoebae was adjusted to be 1×10/ml amoebae. Read More

View Article
November 2018

species population found in pond water of parks in Mashhad city, Can the physicochemical factors affect it?

MethodsX 2018 24;5:1427-1430. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

species are the ubiquitous free-living amoebas that are found worldwide in soil and water. Among spp., can cause primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Potentially pathogenic genera of free-living amoebae coexisting in a thermal spring.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Dec 26;195:54-58. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas y Veterinarias, Mexico; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias en Biotecnología, Mexico. Electronic address:

Little is known about the prevalence of Balamuthia mandrillaris within the environment due to its difficult isolation, but once an axenic culture is established, it is relatively easy to maintain. As most of the time researchers are interested mainly in isolating B. mandrillaris from environmental samples, the flora that accompanies it becomes second in importance. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Phenotypic screens reveal posaconazole as rapidly cidal combination partner for treatment of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis.

J Infect Dis 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Global Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

Naegleria fowleri, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is fatal in >97% of cases. In this study, we aimed to identify new, rapidly acting drugs to increase survival rates. We conducted phenotypic screens of libraries of FDA-approved compounds and the MMV Pathogen Box and validated 14 hits (IC50s < 1μM). Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

Clinically Approved Drugs against CNS Diseases as Potential Therapeutic Agents To Target Brain-Eating Amoebae.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology , Sunway University , Selangor 47500 , Malaysia.

Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species and Naegleria fowleri are rare but fatal. A major challenge in the treatment against the infections caused by these amoebae is the discovery of novel compounds that can effectively cross the blood-brain barrier to penetrate the CNS. It is logical to test clinically approved drugs against CNS diseases for their potential antiamoebic effects since they are known for effective blood-brain barrier penetration and affect eukaryotic cell targets. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Identification of free-living amoebae isolated from tap water in Istanbul, Turkey.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Dec 15;195:34-37. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Specific Prophylaxis and Tropical Medicine, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Kinderspitalgasse 15, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely spread in the environment and also known to cause rare but often serious infections. The present work focuses on a local survey on FLA. It is essential to know the prevalence and distribution of these microorganisms in order to get infections caused by them under control. Read More

View Article
December 2018
5 Reads

Lipids Are the Preferred Substrate of the Protist Naegleria gruberi, Relative of a Human Brain Pathogen.

Cell Rep 2018 Oct;25(3):537-543.e3

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Naegleria gruberi is a free-living non-pathogenic amoeboflagellate and relative of Naegleria fowleri, a deadly pathogen causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). A genomic analysis of N. gruberi exists, but physiological evidence for its core energy metabolism or in vivo growth substrates is lacking. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Exploitation of Mangrove Endophytic Fungi for Infectious Disease Drug Discovery.

Mar Drugs 2018 Oct 10;16(10). Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Chemistry, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA.

There is an acute need for new and effective agents to treat infectious diseases. We conducted a screening program to assess the potential of mangrove-derived endophytic fungi as a source of new antibiotics. Fungi cultured in the presence and absence of small molecule epigenetic modulators were screened against and the ESKAPE panel of bacterial pathogens, as well as two eukaryotic infective agents, and . Read More

View Article
October 2018

Application of untargeted metabolomics for the detection of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri in an operational drinking water distribution system.

Water Res 2018 Nov 4;145:678-686. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, P.O. Box 644630, Pullman, WA, 99164, USA. Electronic address:

Found in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs), swimming pools, and recreational waters, N. fowleri, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Although cases of N. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Enzymatic chokepoints and synergistic drug targets in the sterol biosynthesis pathway of Naegleria fowleri.

PLoS Pathog 2018 Sep 13;14(9):e1007245. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that can also act as an opportunistic pathogen causing severe brain infection, primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), in humans. The high mortality rate of PAM (exceeding 97%) is attributed to (i) delayed diagnosis, (ii) lack of safe and effective anti-N. fowleri drugs, and (iii) difficulty of delivering drugs to the brain. Read More

View Article
September 2018
2 Reads

The genome of Naegleria lovaniensis, the basis for a comparative approach to unravel pathogenicity factors of the human pathogenic amoeba N. fowleri.

BMC Genomics 2018 Sep 5;19(1):654. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Biology Division, Spiez Laboratory, Federal Office for Civil Protection, Austrasse, Spiez, Switzerland.

Background: Members of the genus Naegleria are free-living eukaryotes with the capability to transform from the amoeboid form into resting cysts or moving flagellates in response to environmental conditions. More than 40 species have been characterized, but only Naegleria fowleri (N. fowleri) is known as a human pathogen causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), a fast progressing and mostly fatal disease of the central nervous system. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

[Isolation of Balamuthia mandriallaris parasite from air conditioning of the houses in south and southeast of Turkey].

Authors:
Fadime Eroğlu

Mikrobiyol Bul 2018 Jul;52(3):284-292

FaBiyosit Microbiology-Biotechnology R&D Co., Adana, Turkey.

The free living amoebae cause various infections such as Acanthamoeba keratitis, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, primer amoebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. The free living amoebae Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia mandriallis, Naegleria fowleria and Sappinia species that cause disease in humans have been isolated from many environmental materials until today. However, no isolation has been reported from the filters of the air conditions from the houses used for ventilation. Read More

View Article
July 2018
2 Reads

Importance of Theranostics in Rare Brain-Eating Amoebae Infections.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Sep 10. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology , Sunway University , Selangor 47500 , Malaysia.

Pathogenic free-living amoebae including Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS), which almost always prove fatal. The mortality rate is high with the CNS infections caused by these microbes despite modern developments in healthcare and antimicrobial chemotherapy. Read More

View Article
September 2018

DETECTION OF WATER-BORNE PARASITES IN DRINKING WATER OF BAGHDAD, IRAQ.

Afr J Infect Dis 2018 18;12(2):1-6. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Ministry of Science and Technology, Directorate of Water and Environment, Iraq.

Background: Within the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of water-borne disease outbreaks and emergence of newly recognized waterborne parasites. Several factors which contribute to the spread of these diseases include: water, heavy rains and agricultural residues which transfer the parasites to water surface from the soil. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parasites in the river and drinking water of Al-Wahdaa and Al-Rasheed Drinking Project and household water tanks from some regions of Baghdad. Read More

View Article

A case of Naegleria fowleri related primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in China diagnosed by next-generation sequencing.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Jul 28;18(1):349. Epub 2018 Jul 28.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Immunity, State Key Discipline of Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, 29 Bulan Rd, Shenzhen, 518112, China.

Background: Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), caused by Naegleria fowleri, is a rare protozoan infectious disease in China. A fatality rate of over 95% had been reported due to extremely rapid disease progression in the USA and other countries. Rapid and precise identification of the causative agent is very important to clinicians for guiding their choices for administering countermeasures in the clinic. Read More

View Article
July 2018
1 Read
2.610 Impact Factor

Microbial Ecology and Water Chemistry Impact Regrowth of Opportunistic Pathogens in Full-Scale Reclaimed Water Distribution Systems.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Aug 2;52(16):9056-9068. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Via Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering , Virginia Tech , Blacksburg , Virginia 24061 , United States.

Need for global water security has spurred growing interest in wastewater reuse to offset demand for municipal water. While reclaimed (i.e. Read More

View Article
August 2018
3 Reads

Comparison of next-generation droplet digital PCR with quantitative PCR for enumeration of Naegleria fowleri in environmental water and clinical samples.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2018 Oct 22;67(4):322-328. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Naegleria fowleri in recreational waters is a serious health threat. A rapid and accurate method to determine this pathogen in water is vital to develop effective control strategies. In this study, we compared two molecular methods: droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in identifying N. Read More

View Article
October 2018

First identification of Naegleria species and Vahlkampfia ciguana in Nile water, Cairo, Egypt: Seasonal morphology and phylogenetic analysis.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2018 Jul 3. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Microbiology Department, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt.

Background/purpose: In Egypt, there is a scarcity of data concerning Naegleria (N.) family, with a shortage of phylogenetic studies. This study's aim was molecular detection, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of morphologically identified Nagleria and to determine natural seasonal distribution of Nagleria species in water sources of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Read More

View Article
July 2018
1 Read
2.350 Impact Factor

Outbreaks Associated with Untreated Recreational Water - United States, 2000-2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Jun 29;67(25):701-706. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water can be caused by pathogens, toxins, or chemicals in fresh water (e.g., lakes, rivers) or marine water (e. Read More

View Article
June 2018
12 Reads

Dataset of cathepsin L-like CP inhibition of and by ppTvCP4r from .

Data Brief 2018 Jun 13;18:404-408. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Departamento de Infectómica y Patogénesis Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Av. IPN # 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Delg. Gustavo A. Madero, CP 07360 Ciudad de México, Mexico.

The recombinant TvCP4 prepro region (ppTvCP4r) acts as an exogenous inhibitor of cathepsin L-like CPs from (Cárdenas-Guerra et al., 2015 [1]). Here, we present the dataset of the trichomonad ppTvCP4r inhibitory effect against the CP proteolytic activities from other microorganisms, such as and free-living amoeba. Read More

View Article
June 2018
16 Reads

Effects of Culture Media On Naegleria fowleri Growth At Different Temperatures.

J Parasitol 2018 Oct 6;104(5):451-456. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

2   Department of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong St., Beitou District, Taipei (112), Taiwan.

Nelson medium and modified PYNFH medium were used for the axenic culture of the Naegleria fowleri clinical strain LDL to compare the effects of different temperatures on the organism's growth. In addition, Nelson medium supplemented with 1% peptone (N + pep) and modified PYNFH medium without peptone (PYNFH - pep), without yeast extract (PYNFH - yext), without folic acid (PYNFH - folac), and without yeast nucleic acid (PYNFH - yna) were used in order to compare the various effects of these medium components. In general, N. Read More

View Article
October 2018
14 Reads

Preferential feeding in Naegleria fowleri; intracellular bacteria isolated from amoebae in operational drinking water distribution systems.

Water Res 2018 09 6;141:126-134. Epub 2018 May 6.

CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag No.5, Wembley, Western Australia 6913, Australia. Electronic address:

The amoeba Naegleria fowleri is the causative agent of the highly fatal disease, primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, and estimated to cause 16 deaths per year in the United States alone. Colonisation of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) by the N. fowleri is a significant public health issue. Read More

View Article
September 2018
1 Read

Metagenomic profiling for assessing microbial diversity and microbial adaptation to degradation of hydrocarbons in two South African petroleum-contaminated water aquifers.

Sci Rep 2018 May 15;8(1):7564. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Environmental, Water and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Arcadia Campus, P/Bag X680, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa.

Biodegradation of hydrocarbons by indigenous populations of microorganisms found in petroleum-contaminated water sources represents one of the primary mechanisms by which petroleum and other hydrocarbon pollutants are eliminated from the aquatic environment. The identification of these microorganisms, which have capabilities to convert the majority of toxic hydrocarbons into compounds that are less harmful for end-users, is therefore crucial for bioremediation purposes. The aim of this study was to profile the microbial diversity of two South African petroleum-contaminated water aquifer sites and to determine the microbial adaptation to hydrocarbon degradation using a metagenomics approach. Read More

View Article
May 2018
1 Read

Identification and molecular typing of Naegleria fowleri from a patient with primary amebic meningoencephalitis in China.

Int J Infect Dis 2018 Jul 8;72:28-33. Epub 2018 May 8.

Department of Communicable Diseases of Control and Prevention, Zhejiang Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Naegleria fowleri is the only Naegleria spp. known to cause an acute, fulminant, and rapidly fatal central nervous system infection in humans called primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). In 2016, a patient with suspected PAM was found in Zhejiang Province of China. Read More

View Article
July 2018
3 Reads

Fatal case of amoebic encephalitis masquerading as herpes.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2018 May 3;2018(5):omy010. Epub 2018 May 3.

Department of Medicine, National Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Medicine, Pashupati Sadak, Kathmandu-9, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare, fulminating, hemorrhagic infection of the brain caused by , a thermophilic, free-living amoeba. A 74-year male presented with sudden severe global headache and fever with features of anomic aphasia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested herpes encephalitis and acyclovir (IV) was started but the patient developed altered sensorium, agitation and progressive weakness of lower limbs with gradual truncal weakness. Read More

View Article
May 2018
7 Reads

Monitoring of Noxious Protozoa for Management of Natural Water Resources.

Korean J Parasitol 2018 Apr 30;56(2):205-210. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22212, Korea.

Waterborne parasitic protozoa, particularly and spp., are common causes of diarrhea and gastroenteritis worldwide. The most frequently identified source of infestation is water, and exposure involves either drinking water or recreation in swimming pools or natural bodies of water. Read More

View Article

Iron economy in Naegleria gruberi reflects its metabolic flexibility.

Int J Parasitol 2018 Aug 5;48(9-10):719-727. Epub 2018 May 5.

Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

Naegleria gruberi is a free-living amoeba, closely related to the human pathogen Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of the deadly human disease primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Herein, we investigated the effect of iron limitation on different aspects of N. gruberi metabolism. Read More

View Article

The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP 14).

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2018 Nov 25;65(6):934-939. Epub 2018 May 25.

Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, 10461.

The 14th International Workshops on Opportunistic Protists (IWOP-14) was held August 10-12, 2017 in Cincinnati, OH, USA. The IWOP meetings focus on opportunistic protists (OIs); for example, free-living amoebae, Pneumocystis spp., Cryptosporidium spp. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Innovative Methodology in the Discovery of Novel Drug Targets in the Free-Living Amoebae.

Curr Drug Targets 2019 ;20(1):60-69

Aga Khan University, Stadium Road, Karachi, Pakistan.

Despite advances in drug discovery and modifications in the chemotherapeutic regimens, human infections caused by free-living amoebae (FLA) have high mortality rates (~95%). The FLA that cause fatal human cerebral infections include Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. Novel drug-target discovery remains the only viable option to tackle these central nervous system (CNS) infection in order to lower the mortality rates caused by the FLA. Read More

View Article
January 2019
8 Reads
3.021 Impact Factor

Development of nanoparticle-assisted PCR assay in the rapid detection of brain-eating amoebae.

Parasitol Res 2018 Jun 20;117(6):1801-1811. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, Sunway University, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.

Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) have gained increasing attention owing to their capacity to produce severe human and animal infections involving the brain. Early detection is a pre-requisite in successful prognosis. Read More

View Article
June 2018
7 Reads

Detection of serum antibodies in children and adolescents against Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri and Acanthamoeba T4.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Jun 16;189:28-33. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Departamento de Ciencias Agronómicas y Veterinarias, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, Cd. Obregón, Son, Mexico; Programa de Doctorado en Ciencias en Biotecnología, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, Cd. Obregón, Son, Mexico; Programa de Maestría en Ciencias en Recursos Naturales, Instituto Tecnológico de Sonora, Cd. Obregón, Son, Mexico. Electronic address:

The presence of free-living amoebae of the genera Naegleria, Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia, which contain pathogenic species for humans and animals, has been demonstrated several times and in different natural aquatic environments in the northwest of Mexico. With the aim of continuing the addition of knowledge about immunology of pathogenic free-living amoebae, 118 sera from children and adolescents, living in three villages, were studied. Humoral IgG response against B. Read More

View Article
June 2018
2 Reads

An In Vitro Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier: Naegleria fowleri Affects the Tight Junction Proteins and Activates the Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2018 Nov 25;65(6):804-819. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Infectomics and Molecular Pathogenesis, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico City, 07360, Mexico.

Naegleria fowleri causes a fatal disease known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. This condition is characterized by an acute inflammation that originates from the free passage of peripheral blood cells to the central nervous system through the alteration of the blood-brain barrier. In this work, we established models of the infection in rats and in a primary culture of endothelial cells from rat brains with the aim of evaluating the activation and the alterations of these cells by N. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Fe-S cluster assembly in the supergroup Excavata.

J Biol Inorg Chem 2018 Jun 5;23(4):521-541. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice (Budweis), Czech Republic.

The majority of established model organisms belong to the supergroup Opisthokonta, which includes yeasts and animals. While enlightening, this focus has neglected protists,  organisms that represent the bulk of eukaryotic diversity and are often regarded as primitive eukaryotes. One of these is the "supergroup" Excavata, which comprises unicellular flagellates of diverse lifestyles and contains species of medical importance, such as Trichomonas, Giardia, Naegleria, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Read More

View Article

Enrichment of free-living amoebae in biofilms developed at upper water levels in drinking water storage towers: An inter- and intra-seasonal study.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Aug 21;633:157-166. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Chimiothérapie Antiparasitaire, UMR CNRS 8076, BioCIS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 5 rue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:

Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous organisms present in various natural and artificial environments, such as drinking water storage towers (DWST). Some FLA, such as Acanthamoeba sp., Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris, can cause severe infections at ocular or cerebral level in addition to being potential reservoirs of other pathogens. Read More

View Article
August 2018
128 Reads

Efficacy of Ebselen and BAY 11-7082 Against .

Front Microbiol 2018 6;9:414. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba , popularly known as the "brain-eating ameba." The drugs of choice in treating PAM are the antifungal amphotericin B and an antileishmanial miltefosine, but these are not FDA-approved for this indication and use of amphotericin B is associated with severe adverse effects. Moreover, very few patients treated with the combination therapy have survived PAM. Read More

View Article
March 2018
3 Reads

Identification of cysteine protease inhibitors as new drug leads against Naegleria fowleri.

Exp Parasitol 2018 May 15;188:36-41. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC0755, La Jolla, CA 92093-0755, USA. Electronic address:

Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rapidly fatal infection caused by the free-living ameba Naegleria fowleri. PAM occurs principally in healthy children of less than 13 years old with a history of recent exposure to warm fresh water. While as yet not a reportable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) documents a total of 143 cases in the United States. Read More

View Article
May 2018
3 Reads

Identification and characterisation of a cryptic Golgi complex in .

J Cell Sci 2018 Apr 9;131(7). Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Molecular and Evolutionary Parasitology, RAPID group, School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, UK

Although the Golgi complex has a conserved morphology of flattened stacked cisternae in most eukaryotes, it has lost the stacked organisation in several lineages, raising the question of what range of morphologies is possible for the Golgi. In order to understand this diversity, it is necessary to characterise the Golgi in many different lineages. Here, we identify the Golgi complex in , one of the first descriptions of an unstacked Golgi organelle in a non-parasitic eukaryote, other than fungi. Read More

View Article
April 2018
5 Reads
5.430 Impact Factor

The therapeutic strategies against Naegleria fowleri.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Apr 1;187:1-11. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590, São Carlos, SP, Brazil; Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil. Electronic address:

Naegleria fowleri is a pathogenic amoeboflagellate most prominently known for its role as the etiological agent of the Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), a disease that afflicts the central nervous system and is fatal in more than 95% of the reported cases. Although being fatal and with potential risks for an increase in the occurrence of the pathogen in populated areas, the organism receives little public health attention. A great underestimation in the number of PAM cases reported is assumed, taking into account the difficulty in obtaining an accurate diagnosis. Read More

View Article
April 2018
1 Read

Structural studies of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Naegleria gruberi, the first one from phylum Percolozoa.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2018 May - Jun;1866(5-6):581-588. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Chemistry, State University of Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa 84030-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Naegleria gruberi is a free life amoeba believed to have more than one billion years of existence; it is not pathogenic and had its genome sequenced, which revealed a high complexity in the metabolic pathways. This paper presents the experimental structure of GAPDH from N. gruberi, the first one belonging to the phylum Percolozoa, comparisons to structures from various species and molecular dynamics studies of some particular features. Read More

View Article

Design, Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Evaluation of -Alkyl Chain Tethered C-5 Functionalized Bis-Isatins.

Medchemcomm 2017 19;8(10):1982-1992. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005, India.

A series of -alkyl tethered C-5 functionalized bis-isatins were synthesized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary evaluation studies revealed the compound , with an optimal combination of bromo-substituent at the C-5 position of isatin ring along with propyl chain linker being most active among the synthesized series exhibiting an IC value of 3.72 μM against while exhibited an IC value of 14. Read More

View Article
September 2017
1 Read

Complete Genome Sequence of the Circular Extrachromosomal Element of Strain EGB Ribosomal DNA.

Genome Announc 2018 Feb 8;6(6). Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.

The circular extrachromosomal element of strain EGB was linearized, molecularly cloned, and fully sequenced. The sequence comprises 14,007 bp and encodes the organism's rRNA genes, two potential open reading frames, and numerous repeated sequence regions. Read More

View Article
February 2018

Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis Associated With Rafting on an Artificial Whitewater River: Case Report and Environmental Investigation.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 Feb;66(4):548-553

Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Naegleria fowleri is a thermophilic ameba found in freshwater that causes primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) when it enters the nose and migrates to the brain. Patient exposure to water containing the ameba typically occurs in warm freshwater lakes and ponds during recreational water activities. In June 2016, an 18-year-old woman died of PAM after traveling to North Carolina, where she participated in rafting on an artificial whitewater river. Read More

View Article
February 2018
1 Read

Competition between Naegleria fowleri and Free Living Amoeba Colonizing Laboratory Scale and Operational Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 Mar 21;52(5):2549-2557. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

CSIRO Land and Water , Private Bag No. 5 , Wembley , Western Australia 6913 , Australia.

Free living amoebae (FLA), including pathogenic Naegleria fowleri, can colonize and grow within pipe wall biofilms of drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). Studies on the interactions between various FLA species in biofilms are limited. Understanding the interaction between FLA and the broader biofilm ecology could help better predict DWDS susceptibility to N. Read More

View Article
March 2018
4 Reads

Neuroinvasions caused by parasites

Ann Parasitol 2017;63(4):243–253

Department of Diagnostics and Treatment of Parasitic Diseases and Mycoses, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Pomorska 251 (C5), 92-213 Lodz, Poland

Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system are associated with high mortality and morbidity. Many human parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii, Entamoeba histolytica, Trypanosoma cruzi, Taenia solium, Echinococcus spp., Toxocara canis, T. Read More

View Article
May 2018
2 Reads

Long-term survival of Naegleria polaris from Antarctica after 10 years of storage at 4 °C.

Parasitol Res 2018 Mar 29;117(3):937-941. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, North-12, West-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-0812, Japan.

A free-living amoeba, Naegleria is ubiquitously distributed in various natural environments. Since some Naegleria spp. are exclusively distributed in the Arctic and sub-Antarctic regions, we hypothesized that the amoeba may be useful to determine long-term survival of Naegleria in laboratory conditions at 4 °C. Read More

View Article

Elucidating Waterborne Pathogen Presence and Aiding Source Apportionment in an Impaired Stream.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 03 1;84(6). Epub 2018 Mar 1.

University of Utah, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are the basis for water quality regulations and are considered proxies for waterborne pathogens when conducting human health risk assessments. The direct detection of pathogens in water and simultaneous identification of the source of fecal contamination are possible with microarrays, circumventing the drawbacks to FIB approaches. A multigene target microarray was used to assess the prevalence of waterborne pathogens in a fecally impaired mixed-use watershed. Read More

View Article
March 2018
1 Read

Drug Target Discovery Methods In Targeting Neurotropic Parasitic Amoebae.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 02 29;9(2):162-164. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Dow University of Health Sciences , Karachi 74200, Pakistan.

Neurotropic parasitic amoebal infections have imposed an enormous challenge to chemotherapy in patients who fall victims to the infections caused by them. Conventional antibiotics that are given to treat these infections have a low patient compliance because of the serious adverse effects that are associated with their use. Additionally, the growing incidence of the development of drug resistance by the neurotropic parasites like Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Acanthamoeba spp has made the drug therapy more challenging. Read More

View Article
February 2018
4 Reads
4.362 Impact Factor

CYP51 is an essential drug target for the treatment of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 12 28;11(12):e0006104. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM) is caused by Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba that occasionally infects humans. While considered "rare" (but likely underreported) the high mortality rate and lack of established success in treatment makes PAM a particularly devastating infection. In the absence of economic inducements to invest in development of anti-PAM drugs by the pharmaceutical industry, anti-PAM drug discovery largely relies on drug 'repurposing'-a cost effective strategy to apply known drugs for treatment of rare or neglected diseases. Read More

View Article
December 2017
12 Reads