Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Lab, EEFF Department, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (CSIR-IICT), Hyderabad 500 007, India.
CO2 is a resource yet to be effectively utilized in the autotrophic biotechnology, not only to mitigate and moderate the anthropogenic influence on our climate, but also to steer CO2 sequestration for sustainable development and carbon neutral status. The atmospheric CO2 concentration has seen an exponential increase with the turn of the new millennia causing numerous environmental issues and also in a way feedstock crisis. To progressively regulate the growing CO2 concentrations and to incorporate the integration strategies to our existing CO2 capturing tools, all the influencing factors need to be collectively considered. Read More
Am J Public Health 2017 Sep 21:e1-e4. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
Susan Ladwig is with the Palliative Care Program, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY. Theodore M. Brown is with the Departments of History and Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester.
After two years of discussions and delays surrounding his eventual departure, Alan Gregg, the 37-year-old associate director of the Rockefeller Foundation's Division of Medical Education (DME), set out from his Paris, France, office in late November 1927, destined for a 17-day trip to Moscow and Leningrad in the Soviet Union. His mission-the first time a Rockefeller officer had ever set foot on Soviet soil(1)-was to gather first-hand knowledge about the state of public health and medical education in Russia, as a precursor for offering training fellowships to Russian physicians. Soviet Russia was a nation in dire need of relief in the 1920s, after suffering years of civil war, famine and epidemic diseases, but supplying direct aid for "a crisis so vast that only government aid in generous amounts can cope" was not the intent of the Rockefeller Foundation (RF). Read More
Emergency Physician, St. David's South Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX.
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency are underrecognized conditions among emergency department patients, affecting an estimated 10% to 20% of critically ill patients. The signs and symptoms of cortisol deficit can be nonspecific and wide-ranging, and identification and swift treatment with stress-dosing of hydrocortisone is vital to avoid life-threatening adrenal crisis. Laboratory evaluation focuses on identification of electrolyte abnormalities typical of adrenal insufficiency, and while additional testing may depend on the type and severity of symptoms, it should not delay corticosteroid replacement. Read More
Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln , Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0308, United States.
Everyone should care deeply about statistical power and effect size given that the current estimates of wasted nonreproducible and exaggerated research findings range from 50 to 85%, combined with the mandates from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that proposal reviewers focus on scientific rigor and investigators consider sex as a biological variable. In this Viewpoint, we provide recommendations and resources regarding power analyses aimed at enhancing rigor, and hence decreasing waste, when designing experiments. As part of this effort, we also make recommendations for reporting key statistics that will aid others in estimating sample size based on published research. Read More
Stanford Headache and Facial Pain Program, Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 213 Quarry Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.
Purpose Of Review: This review is intended to help the headache physician think through and plan for management issues concerning the use of opioids. We ask the headache physician to consider if there are instances where prescribing or continuing prescriptions of opiates is plausible, and if so, how can the physician proceed as safely as possible. Our goal is to start a conversation regarding the inevitable encounter with a patient on opiates or requesting opiates. Read More
Department of Philosophy, Saint Louis University, 3800 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO, 63116, USA.
The position of clinical ethicist exists to help resolve conflicts in the hospital. Sometimes these conflicts arise because of fundamental cultural differences between the patient and the medical team, and such cases present special challenges. Should the ideology of modern medicine reject the wishes of those who hold ideologies from differing cultures? How can the medical ethicist help resolve such conflicts? To answer these questions, I rely on the works of Alasdair MacIntyre. Read More
University of Queensland, School of Public Health, Brisbane, 4006, Australia.
Civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are typically run by governments to record every birth, adoption, death, marriage, and divorce that occurs among a country's population. Registration of vital events provides individuals with a formal relationship with the State and each other, and is the foundation of a person's identity, nationality, and legal status. At a population level, vital statistics are essential for effective planning and implementation of policies and services. Read More
From the Department of Surgery (G.E.B., K.K.S., D.M.M., M.J.M.), Madigan Army Medical Center, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Washington; Department of Surgery (J.S.), University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama; Department of Pharmacology (D.M., V.P., G.C., O.G., M.R., M.G.), University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama; Basic Sciences Division (M.B.R.), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; and Trauma and Acute Care Surgery Service (M.J.M.), Legacy Emanuel Medical Center, Portland, Oregon.
Background: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3-K) inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Read More
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners identify interprofessional (IP) collaboration in education and practice as an innovative strategy that plays an important role in mitigating the global health workforce crisis. Evidence on the practice of global health level in interprofessional education (IPE) is scarce and hampered due to the absence of aggregate information. Therefore, this systematic review was conducted to examine the incidences of IPE and summarize the main features about the IPE programs in undergraduate and postgraduate education in developed and developing countries. Read More
Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:
Inhibiting Treg cell function in tumors is an attractive strategy to improve anti-cancer immunity. In a pair of papers in Immunity and Cell, Ghosh and colleagues show that the canonical NF-κB subunits p65 and c-Rel have non-redundant, critical roles in promoting Treg cell development and function (Oh et al., 2017). Read More
Istituto nazionale per la promozione della salute delle popolazioni migranti e per il contrasto delle malattie della povertà (INMP), Roma.
Objectives: to evaluate self-perceived health status of immigrants in Italy.
Design: cross-sectional study based on the representative national samples of the multipurpose surveys "Health conditions and use of health services" conducted in 2005 and 2013 by the Italian National Institute of Statistics (Istat).
Setting And Participants: the study was conducted on the age group of 18-64: No. Read More
Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley.
Science lies nowadays in the centre of several storms. The better known is the finding of non-reproducibility of many scientific results, which stretches from the medical field (clinic and pre-clinic tests) to study on behaviour (priming research). Although the bad use of statistics is reported to be a patent cause of the reproducibility crisis, its deep reasons are to be sought elsewhere; particularly, in the passage from a regimen of little science - regulated by small communities of researchers - to the current big science - identified by a hypertrophic production of millions of research papers and by the imperative "publish or perish", in a setting dominated by market. Read More
Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone was the largest epidemic of Ebola ever recorded. The healthcare workforce was diminished and exhausted as the region emerged from civil war. Few qualitative, descriptive studies have been conducted to date that concentrate on the voices of Ebola survivors and their perceptions of health messages. Read More
Pritzker School of Medicine. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, EE.UU.
Introduction: Ivermectin, a 22'23 dihydro derivative of avermectins beta-1a, is a highly effective veterinary and human anti parasitic, used to treat endoparasites of difficult control such as filariasis and onchocerciasis, with a median plasma life of at least of 16 hours. The recommended therapeutic doses range from 0.05 to 0. Read More
Pediatrics, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto.
Introduction Simulation is used for the delivery of education and on occasion assessment. Before such a tool is used routinely in neonatal training programs across Canada, a need assessment is required to determine its current usage by accredited training programs. Our aim was to characterize the type of simulation modalities used and the perceived simulation-based training needs in Canadian neonatal-perinatal medicine (NPM) training programs. Read More
Division of Liver Transplant and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.
Common bile duct injuries are associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality and are discussed frequently in the literature. These injuries may be difficult to diagnose intraoperatively and are often challenging to repair, necessitating referral to hepatobiliary surgery specialists at academic institutions. This case report highlights the management of a completely disrupted common bile duct identified post-operatively using a percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) catheter to bridge the gap between the proximal and distal ductal injury prior to operative repair. Read More
Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale UniversityNew Haven, CT, United States.
There is an emerging cultural narrative in the United States that we are entering an age of purpose-that millennials, more than any other generation, are searching for purpose and purposeful work (Sheahan, 2005) and that we are entering an era or economy of purpose (Hurst, 2014). For profit, non-profit, and educational institutions are perceiving and adapting to serve millennials' demand for purpose in life, specifically within the workplace (Klein et al., 2015). Read More
In the sixth year of the Syrian conflict, 11 million people have been displaced, including more than 1.1 million seeking refuge in Lebanon. Prior to the crisis, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) accounted for 80% of all deaths in Syria, and the underlying health behaviors such as tobacco use, obesity, and physical inactivity are still prevalent among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Read More
ISPUP-EPIUnit, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho EPE, Departamento de Pneumologia, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; Departamento de Ciências da Saúde Pública e Forenses e Educação Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal.
Introduction: Tuberculosis notification in Portugal has decreased in the last few years. As a consequence of the economic crisis, emigration has increased and immigration has decreased. Immigrants are a risk group for tuberculosis. Read More
Objective: The treatment of Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been revolutionized with the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and the combination of these agents with chemotherapy. Blinatumomab is a bispecific anti-CD3/CD19 monoclonal antibody with clinical activity as single-agent in the relapsed setting and independent of BCR-ABL1 mutational status, including T315I. The combination of blinatumomab with a TKI may further improve outcomes for this high-risk population, including higher eradication of minimal residual disease and minimize the use of chemotherapy. Read More
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, UK.
Background: Delayed childbearing is considered a risk factor for maternal-foetal health. As in other higher-income countries, in Spain age at maternity has steadily increased during the last two decades.
Aim: To quantify the impact of the delay in the age at maternity on small for gestational age (SGA) categories of <3rd, 3rd-5th and 5th-10th percentiles. Read More
Department of Economics, Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy; Health Econometrics and Data Group, University of York, UK. Electronic address:
Despite the sizeable cuts in public healthcare spending, which were part of the austerity measures recently undertaken in Southern European countries, little attention has been devoted to monitoring its distributional consequences in terms of healthcare use. This study aims at measuring socioeconomic inequities in primary and secondary healthcare use experienced some time after the crisis onset in Italy, Spain and Portugal. The analysis, based on data drawn from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), focuses on older people, who generally face significantly higher healthcare needs, and whose health appeared to have worsened in the aftermath of the crisis. Read More
The challenges in deaf education illustrate the requirement and importance of leadership in this specialized field. The significant and impending talent depletion unfolding as baby-boomers retire, positions leadership succession planning as a strategic issue. This mixed methods study is the first of its kind in New Zealand. Read More
Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling - a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology - can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals. Using a subset of these data for which the illegal hunters' identities are known, we show that the model can successfully identify the illegal hunters' home villages using the spatial locations of hunting incidences (for example, snares) as input, and show how this can be improved by manipulating the probability surface inside the Conservancy to reflect the fact that - although the illegal hunters mostly live outside the Conservancy, the majority of hunting occurs inside (in criminology, 'commuter crime'). Read More
Animal health diseases can severely affect the food supply chain by causing variations in prices and market demand. Price transmission analysis reveals in what ways price variations are transmitted along the supply chain, and how supply chains of substitute products and different regional markets are also affected. In perfect markets, a price variation would be completely and instantaneously transmitted across the different levels of the supply chain: producers, the processing industry, retailers and consumers. Read More
Introduction: The Northern Ontario School of Medicine (NOSM) opened in 2005 with a social accountability mandate to address a long history of physician shortages in northern Ontario. The objective of this qualitative study was to understand the school's effect on recruitment of family physicians into medically underserviced rural communities of northern Ontario.
Methods: We conducted a multiple case study of 8 small rural communities in northern Ontario that were considered medically underserviced by the provincial ministry of health and had successfully recruited NOSM-trained physicians. Read More
Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Background: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a relatively frequent and severe malformation. Population-based data on clinical presentation and associated mortality are scarce. We examined a state-wide cohort of infants with a clinically validated diagnosis of CDH to assess their clinical profile, sociodemographic patterns, and infant mortality. Read More
Socioeconomic factors associated with twins/multiples have been sparsely studied. Analyzing data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority, regarding twin out of total births from 1996 to 2015, we showed that twinning rate in Greece has increased from 1996 and onwards, in parallel with advanced maternal age and decline in total births. Higher twin rates are associated with higher maternal education, better paid parental occupations, and thus wealthier families, married maternal status, while immigrants present a lower twinning rate than Greeks. Read More
Etablissement Français du Sang, Créteil, 94000, France.
Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is a life-threatening complication of transfusion in sickle cell disease (SCD). The frequency of DHTR is underestimated because its symptoms mimic those of vaso-occlusive crisis and antibodies (Abs) are often not detectable. No predictive factors for identifying patients likely to develop DHTR have yet been defined. Read More
DAX1 (NR0B1) is an orphan nuclear receptor, which plays an important role in development and function of the adrenal glands and gonads. Mutations in DAX1 cause X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC), which is characterized by adrenal insufficiency (AI) and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG). Affected boys present with adrenal failure usually in childhood and, later in life, with delayed puberty. Read More
Health Region of Crete, Greece; School of Medicine, University of Crete, Greece.
Individuals who perform rescue and recovery duties, as part of their daily work activities, confront diverse stressors that can affect their mental state and overall well-being. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and the factors associated with self-assessed PTSD, perceived well-being and burnout among rescue workers operating at Lesvos during the European refugees crisis. 217 rescuers participated in the study, while the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Well-being Index (WHO-5) were utilized. Read More
a Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Health Care Sciences , Sefako Makgatho Health Sciences University , South Africa .
Background: The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global concern and a growing health crisis. Additionally, evidence has shown that non-compliance to treatment guidelines, especially in the management of communicable diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), has the potential of further enhancing AMR rates. Data on the extent of these challenges in Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities in correctional centres in South Africa (SA) is limited. Read More
This article argues that, by the 1970s, people in Britain were increasingly insistent about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. Using individual narratives and testimonies, we show that many were expressing desires for greater personal autonomy and self-determination. We suggest that this was an important trend across the post-war decades, and of particular importance to understanding the 1970s. Read More
Recent interpretations of religious change in modern Britain have stressed the importance of a sudden and abrupt 'sexual revolution' during the 1960s. The role the Churches played in bringing about their own demise remains a point of debate, particularly in the case of the Catholic Church. This article attempts to move beyond existing historical disputes over a 'religious crisis' and whether it was rooted in 'internal' causes (problems within the Church) or 'external', secular developments. Read More
Trust is indispensable not only for interpersonal relationships and social life, but for good quality healthcare. As manifested in the increasing violence and tension in patient-physician relationships, China has been experiencing a widespread and profound crisis of patient-physician trust. And globally, the crisis of trust is an issue that every society, either developing or developed, has to face in one way or another. Read More
To investigate the phenomenon of patient-physician mistrust in China, a qualitative study involving 107 physicians, nurses and health officials in Guangdong Province, southern China, was conducted through semi-structured interviews and focus groups. In this paper we report the key findings of the empirical study and argue for the essential role of medical professionalism in rebuilding patient-physician trust. Health professionals are trapped in a vicious circle of mistrust. Read More
Key Laboratory of Bio-Inspired Smart Interfacial Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Biomedical Engineering, School of Chemistry, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China.
To alleviate the current energy crisis and environmental pollution, sustainable and ecofriendly energy conversion and storage systems are urgently needed. Due to their high conductivity, promising catalytic activity, and excellent electrochemical properties, conducting polymers have been attracting intense attention for use in electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Here, the latest advances regarding the utilization of conducting polymers for fuel cells and supercapacitors are introduced. Read More
Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 2017 Sep 15. Epub 2017 Sep 15.
aBotucatu Medical School, Paulista State University (UNESP), Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil bNursing School, Federal University of Alfenas (UNIFAL-MG), Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Purpose Of Review: The experience of a life crisis, such as the experience of end-of-life terminality whenever facing cancer can make the spiritual needs of patients clear. The goal of this revision was to synthesize the existing evidence regarding the spiritual needs of patients with cancer in palliative care.
Recent Findings: An integrated revision of the literature was conducted regarding the database sources from PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, LILACS and Scopus, without publishing year restrictions. Read More
Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2017 Sep 18:1-18. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
1 Research Group of Paediatric Psychopharmacology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
Objective: Research has implicated glutamatergic projections between the various frontal subregions in the pathogenesis of compulsivity and impulsivity. Reducing striatal glutamate release, or antagonising the action of glutamate at its receptors, may therefore represent viable treatment strategies. Several glutamatergic agents with regulatory approval for other indications are available and may be of potential benefit in the treatment of compulsivity/impulsivity in psychiatric disorders in paediatric patients. Read More
Dr Shireen Afroz, Professor, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Bangladesh Institute of Child Health & Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Sher-e-bangla Nagar Dhaka, Bangladesh; E-mail:
Adrenal insufficiency is a rare disease, but is life threatening when overlooked. Addison's disease may be an acquired form of adrenal insufficiency due to the destruction or dysfunction of the adrenal cortex. It affects both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid function. Read More
The convergence of medical treatment that can extend life with written medical orders that make it possible to refuse such treatment brings the differential dynamics of contemporary end-of-life decision-making into sharp focus. Communication between families and clinicians can be confusing, uncertain and pressured when death is imminent. These situations create distress that ultimately influences the end-of-life experience for people who are dying and those who care for them. Read More
Haemoglobinopathy Service, Department of Haematology, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
Two main sub-phenotypes have been described in sickle cell disease: one with higher baseline haemoglobin and a higher rate of painful crises and one with lower baseline haemoglobin, increased markers of haemolysis and a higher incidence of pulmonary hypertension, priapism and leg ulcers. We compared the patterns of response to regular automated red cell exchange transfusion over a five-year period of 21 patients with recurrent painful crises from the first group and 3 patients with pulmonary hypertension and 5 with recurrent severe stuttering priapism form the second and found them to be distinctly different. Response for pain is slow and increases gradually over years. Read More