3,918 results match your criteria Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Infection


complex pulmonary disease: does the diagnostic method affect severity and progression?

Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2022 05;26(5):412-418

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Showa University Northern Yokohama Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.

Diagnosis of complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) requires positive culture of expectorated sputum or specimens acquired by bronchoscopy. Whether patients diagnosed using bronchoscopy have milder disease and milder progression than those diagnosed using sputum remains uncertain. To clarify whether disease severity and progression differ according to the diagnostic method. Read More

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Disseminated and infection in a patient with AIDS: A case report and review of literature.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2022 May 12;27:100314. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou Branch, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 5 Fuxing St., Guishan Dist., Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan.

Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections are frequently recognized in patients living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and complex (MAIC) is the most common species. is a rapidly growing mycobacterium that accounts for 1-2% of community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections. It mainly causes skin and soft tissue infection. Read More

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Mycobacterium avium complex infected cells promote growth of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Microb Pathog 2022 May 22;166:105549. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Unidad de Investigación, Complejo Asistencial Universitario de León, Gerencia Regional de Salud de Castilla y León (SACYL), Altos de Nava, s/n, 24071, León, Spain; Institute of Biomedical Research of Salamanca (IBSAL), Spain; Institute of Biomedicine, University of León, León, Spain. Electronic address:

Bronchiectasis is considered a consequence of the neutrophilic inflammatory response to infection. Mycobacterial infections, mainly from the Mycobacterium avium complex and M. abscessus, have been inextricably linked to bronchiectasis development. Read More

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Impact of chronic co-infection in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease after treatment initiation.

BMC Pulm Med 2022 Apr 25;22(1):157. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Omori Medical Center, Toho University, 6-11-1 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8541, Japan.

Background: The impact of co-infection with other pathogenic microorganisms after initiation of treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) has not been clearly described. This study sought to clarify the clinical outcomes of co-infection with MAC after antimycobacterial therapy for MAC.

Methods: Co-infection status was defined as the detection of pathogenic microorganisms other than MAC in at least two consecutive sputum cultures 6-24 months after initiation of treatment. Read More

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Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex promote release of pro-inflammatory enzymes matrix metalloproteinases by inducing neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

Sci Rep 2022 04 11;12(1):5181. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan.

The prevalence of and mortality from non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections have been steadily increasing worldwide. Most NTM infections are caused by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC). MAC can escape from killing by neutrophils, which are professional phagocytes. Read More

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Early IL-17A production helps establish Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2022 04 1;18(4):e1010454. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Pulmonary Immunology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas, United States of America.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is common in patients with structural lung damage. To address how NTM infection is established and causes lung damage, we established an NTM mouse model by intranasal inoculation of clinical isolates of M. intracellulare. Read More

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The Mycobacterium avium complex - an underestimated threat to humans and animals.

Ann Agric Environ Med 2022 Mar 25;29(1):22-27. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Food Hygiene and Public Health Protection, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Introduction And Objective: The complex (MAC) is a group of acid-resistant bacteria within the Mycobacteriaceae. Their cell walls have a specific structure impervious to many disinfectants. Mycobacteria are widespread in the environment and can also be found in food. Read More

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Drug susceptibility profiles and factors associated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria species circulating among patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in Tanzania.

PLoS One 2022 24;17(3):e0265358. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.

Background: While most Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are saprophytic, several species have been associated with human diseases, from localized infection to disseminated diseases. Pulmonary NTM infections lead to TB-like disease called NTM pulmonary disease (NTM-PD). Due to variation in treatment options among NTM species, it is necessary to identify the species and determine drug susceptibility profiles to inform the choice of appropriate regimen for the disease. Read More

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Ethambutol-induced bullous skin lesions in lung infection.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2022 Jan-Mar;11(1):120-122

Salem VA Medical Center, Salem, VA; Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke, Virginia; Department of Infectious Disease, Salem VA Medical Center, Salem, VA, USA.

Mycobacterium kansasii is the second most common cause of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease after Mycobacterium avium complex infection in the United States. The first-line therapy for M. kansasii is a three-drug regimen including rifampin, isoniazid, and ethambutol. Read More

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Direct Attachment with Erythrocytes Augments Extracellular Growth of Pathogenic Mycobacteria.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 Apr 16;10(2):e0245421. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Department of Bacteriology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medicine, Niigata, Japan.

Pathogenic intracellular mycobacteria, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium, which cause lung diseases, can grow in macrophages. Extracellular mycobacteria have been reported in the lungs, blood, and sputum of patients, indicating the involvement of these pathogens in disease progression. Erythrocytes are involved in the symptoms associated with pulmonary mycobacterial diseases, such as bloody sputum and hemoptysis; however, little attention has been paid to the role of erythrocytes in mycobacterial diseases. Read More

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Distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with and without HIV/AIDS in Chongqing.

HIV Med 2022 03;23 Suppl 1:54-63

Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: In this study, the distribution of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains in patients with and without HIV/AIDS in Chongqing, China was evaluated.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed in January-December 2020 at Chongqing Public Health Medical Center. NTM strains were assessed by a multi locus phylogenetic analysis. Read More

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Case Report: Disseminated Infection With More Than 1-Year Follow-Up in a Young Boy With Deficiency.

Front Pediatr 2022 28;10:761265. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Pediatrics, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

All members of the genus are collectively labeled as "non-tuberculous mycobacterium" (NTM), with the exception of the complex and . Recently, the incidence of NTM infection and number of cases have been increasing, but their identification remains difficult in some countries. Usually, NTM infections and diseases are associated with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), and their prognoses can be improved with a timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Read More

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February 2022

Time-to-positivity of Mycobacterium avium complex in broth culture associates with culture conversion.

BMC Infect Dis 2022 Mar 12;22(1):246. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

Background: Mycobacterial time to positivity (TTP) in liquid culture media has predictive value for longer term outcomes in pulmonary tuberculosis, but has not been thoroughly studied in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease. This study sought to evaluate for association between TTP and sputum culture conversion to negative in pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC).

Methods: Data from the CONVERT trial (NCT02344004) that evaluated efficacy of guideline-based-therapy with or without amikacin liposome inhalation suspension in adults with refractory MAC-PD (Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease) were analyzed. Read More

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Relationship between Resistance to Ethambutol and Rifampin and Clinical Outcomes in Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2022 04 10;66(4):e0202721. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

We evaluated the associations between the activities of ethambutol and rifampin and clinical outcomes of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease (PD). Among 158 patients with MAC-PD, there was no relationship between high MICs for ethambutol and/or rifampin and treatment failure for MAC-PD. Ethambutol and rifampin resistance was common among MAC isolates (rates of 87% and 59%, respectively), but mutations in , , and were rare, with detection in only 4% of the drug-resistant MAC isolates. Read More

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Nontubercular mycobacterial cough.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 7;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 7.

General Medicine, Kamineni Institute of Medical Sciences, Narketpally, Telangana, India

SummaryHabitual cough suppression leading to non-tuberculous mycobacteria infections and bronchiectasis has been reported. We present a case of a 55-year-old woman with a chronic history of cough with mild expectoration and frequent lower respiratory tract infections, remitting with antibiotic therapy and other supportive measures. She also reported habitual cough suppression for several years. Read More

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Management of complex and pulmonary disease: therapeutic advances and emerging treatments.

Eur Respir Rev 2022 Mar 9;31(163). Epub 2022 Feb 9.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK

Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) remains a challenging condition to diagnose and treat effectively. Treatment of NTM-PD is prolonged, frequently associated with adverse effects and has variable success. In this review, we consider the factors influencing clinicians when treating NTM-PD and discuss outcomes from key studies on the pharmacological management of complex pulmonary disease and pulmonary disease. Read More

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Low-dosage ethambutol, less than 12.5 mg/kg/day, does not worsen the clinical outcomes of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare disease: a retrospective cohort study.

Infection 2022 Feb 1. Epub 2022 Feb 1.

Respiratory Disease Center, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, 3-1-24, Matsuyama, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-8522, Japan.

Objectives: Multidrug chemotherapy is recommended for treating pulmonary Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare disease. Although ethambutol has been demonstrated to inhibit macrolide resistance, the ethambutol dosage is sometimes decreased due to concerns about optic neuropathy. We aimed to assess whether lower ethambutol doses impact treatment outcomes. Read More

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February 2022

Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Complex Infection Presenting as Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in a Young AIDS Patient.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Jan 11;58(1). Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Division of Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei City 11490, Taiwan.

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can restore protective immune responses against opportunistic infections (OIs) and reduce mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some patients treated with ART may develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). complex (MAC)-related IRIS most commonly presents as lymphadenitis, soft-tissue abscesses, and deteriorating lung infiltrates. Read More

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January 2022

Impact of emphysema on the prognosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease.

Respir Med 2022 02 10;192:106738. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Division of Respiratory Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major comorbid disease of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). Emphysema is one of the main pathological findings in COPD, a risk factor for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), and is associated with poor prognosis. We aimed to clarify the effect of emphysema on mortality in MAC-PD. Read More

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February 2022

Identification of anti-lipoarabinomannan antibodies against mannan core and their effects on phagocytosis of mycobacteria by human neutrophils.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2022 01 13;132:102165. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Laboratory of Biochemistry, Juntendo University Faculty of Health Care and Nursing, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; Institute for Environmental and Gender-specific Medicine, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; Infection Control Nursing, Juntendo University Graduate School of Health Care and Nursing, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and M. avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) enter host phagocytes, such as neutrophils through lipoarabinomannan (LAM) binding to pattern-recognition receptors, inducing innate immune responses including phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of mycobacteria by human neutrophils depends on the binding of α(1 → 2)-monomannose branching α(1 → 6)-mannan core of LAM/lipomannan (LM), a common component among mycobacterial species, to lactosylceramide (LacCer)-enriched lipid microdomains. Read More

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January 2022

Importance of asking a social history: atypical pulmonary infections and occupational hazards.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Jan 17;15(1). Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Family and Community Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment, but NTM infection is limited to individuals with risk factors. We present a case of a 62-year-old man who presented with a 1 year history of cough and shortness of breath. History was notable for significant tobacco use and work as a sandblaster without the use of personal protective equipment. Read More

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January 2022

Pharmacokinetic features of dolutegravir with rifampicin and rifabutin among patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis/mycobacterium avium complex.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Mar 6;116:147-150. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Infection and Immunology, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Rifamycins are the cornerstone of anti-tuberculosis therapy while they are potent inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes. For the first time, we evaluated the effect of rifampicin (RIF) and rifabutin (RBT) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of dolutegravir (DTG) in patients with HIV and tuberculosis (TB)/ mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) co-infection.

Methods: Both HIV/TB (or MAC) co-infected patients and HIV infected patients without TB/MAC were enrolled. Read More

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complex lung disease in a patient treated with an immune checkpoint inhibitor: A case report.

Mol Clin Oncol 2022 Feb 17;16(2):37. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya City University West Medical Center, Nagoya, Aichi 462-8508, Japan.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are becoming widely used for the treatment of various types of cancer. However, characteristic side effects, which are referred to as immune-related adverse events, may appear, and they have important clinical implications for the management of patients treated with ICIs. The development of mycobacterial infections has also been reported, but they have mostly been seen in cases with tuberculosis, and only a few cases involved non-tuberculous mycobacteriosis. Read More

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February 2022

The Diagnosis of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Pulmonary Disease by Single Bacterial Isolation Plus Anti-GPL-Core IgA Antibody.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 02 5;10(1):e0140621. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

National Hospital Organization Osaka Toneyama Medical Center, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.

Although serum anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL)-core IgA antibody is a highly specific test for infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), Mycobacterium abscessus, and its subspecies , subsp. , and subsp. (MAB), its use for the definitive diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease (PD) and MAB-PD are unknown. Read More

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February 2022

High genetic heterogeneity of Mycobacterium intracellulare isolated from respiratory specimens.

BMC Microbiol 2022 01 3;22(1). Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale e delle Nuove Tecnologie in Medicina e Chirurgia, Università di Pisa, 35/39, I-56127, Pisa, Italy.

Background: M. intracellulare is a frequent causative pathogen of nontuberculous mycobacteria infection that causes infections in the respiratory tract, whose incidence is increasing in many countries. This study aimed at determining the VNTR-based genetic diversity of a collection of 39 M. Read More

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January 2022

Kimidinomycin, a new antibiotic against Mycobacterium avium complex, produced by Streptomyces sp. KKTA-0263.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2022 02 23;75(2):72-76. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Department of Microbial Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1 Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8641, Japan.

During our screening for antibiotics against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) with a mass spectrometry network-based indexing approach, a new compound named kimidinomycin was isolated from the culture broth of Streptomyces sp. KKTA-0263 by solvent extraction, HP20 column chromatography, and preparative HPLC. From the structural elucidation, the compound possesses a 38-membered macrolide structure with an N-methylguanidyl group at the terminal side chain. Read More

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February 2022

Efficacy of Fluoroquinolones as Substitutes for Ethambutol or Rifampin in the Treatment of Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease According to Radiologic Types.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2022 02 20;66(2):e0152221. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Division of Pulmonology and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Centergrid.413967.e, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

During the treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD), ethambutol or rifampin is often discontinued because of adverse events. This study investigated the treatment outcomes when broader-spectrum fluoroquinolones replace ethambutol or rifampin in MAC-PD treatment based on the radiologic type. From 2006 to 2019, patients who initiated standard treatment and whose treatment duration was ≥1 year were retrospectively identified at a tertiary referral center in South Korea, including 178 patients with cavitary disease (fibrocavitary and cavitary nodular bronchiectatic types) and 256 patients with the noncavitary nodular bronchiectatic (NC-NB) type. Read More

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February 2022

Protein-losing enteropathy caused by disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in a patient receiving antiretroviral therapy: an autopsy case report.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 11 29;18(1):90. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Osaka City General Hospital, 2-13-22 Miyakojimahondori, Miyakojima-ku, Osaka, Osaka, 534-0021, Japan.

Background: Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection is an important indicator of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Effective antiretroviral therapy has dramatically reduced the incidence of and mortality due to HIV infection, although drug resistance and poor medication adherence continue to increase the risk of disseminated M. avium complex infection. Read More

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November 2021

Florid Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection in a Patient With Large Granular Lymphocytic (LGL) Leukemia on Chronic Cyclophosphamide.

Cureus 2021 Nov 19;13(11):e19754. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Internal Medicine/Hematology-Oncology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, USA.

Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a rare form of incurable chronic leukemia frequently complicated by life-threatening cytopenias. The less common NK-cell variant of this disorder poses a diagnostic challenge and its etiologic basis is poorly understood. Here we present the case of an elderly man diagnosed with LGL leukemia after presenting with severe Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia, who had a robust durable response to oral cyclophosphamide. Read More

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November 2021

Exacerbation of autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis that improved with lone treatment of complicating nontuberculous mycobacterial infection: A case report.

Respir Med Case Rep 2021 27;34:101521. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Respirology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Herein, we present the case of a 63-year-old man with autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (APAP) complicated by complex (MAC) infection. APAP was diagnosed based on serum anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibody, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) findings, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Nodular shadows with cavities were visible on chest CT images, and was identified by BALF culture. Read More

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September 2021