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    3410 results match your criteria Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Infection

    1 OF 69

    Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Continuous Infusion Doripenem in a Pediatric Patient on Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.
    J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2017 Jan-Feb;22(1):69-73
    An 11-year-old African American male with severe combined immunodeficiency variant, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, pancreatic insufficiency, chronic mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection, chronic sinusitis, and malnutrition presented with a 1-week history of fevers. He subsequently developed respiratory decompensation and cefepime was discontinued and doripenem was initiated. Doripenem was the carbapenem used due to a national shortage of meropenem. Read More

    Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.
    Case Rep Infect Dis 2017 9;2017:8682354. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    Department of Infectious Disease, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of prosthetic joint infections (PJI). However, the prevalence of NTM infections may be increasing with the rise of newer immunosuppressive medications such as biologics. In this case report, we describe a rare complication of immunosuppressive therapies and highlight the complexity of diagnosing and treating PJI due to NTM. Read More

    Variable-number tandem repeat markers for Mycobacterium intracellulare genotyping: comparison to the 16S rRNA gene sequencing.
    J Infect Dev Ctries 2017 Feb 28;11(2):158-165. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.
    Introduction: Characterizing Mycobacterium intracellulare responsible for nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections may aid in controlling outbreaks. This study aimed to compare 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing and variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) genotyping of M. intracellulare strains isolated from clinical samples, and to characterize VNTR clusters associated with NTM infections or cavity formation. Read More

    Infectious Causes of Right Middle Lobe Syndrome.
    Cancer Control 2017 Jan;24(1):60-65
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL.
    Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Read More

    Minimum inhibitory concentration distributions for Mycobacterium avium complex-towards evidence-based susceptibility breakpoints.
    Int J Infect Dis 2017 Feb 6;55:122-124. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Background: Patients with clinical infections caused by the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are treated for at least 1 year following sputum conversion with a regimen that suffers from a suboptimal cure rate. The correlation between clinical outcome and drug susceptibility testing breakpoints other than for the macrolides is regarded to be poor. A systematic evaluation of clinical breakpoints for MAC has not been performed so far; thus, the aim of this study was to initiate the process by establishing minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions. Read More

    Seasonal Assessment of Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens in Roof-Harvested Rainwater Tanks.
    Environ Sci Technol 2017 Feb 26;51(3):1742-1753. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Drexel University , 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.
    A seasonal study on the occurrence of six opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) in 24 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tanks repeatedly sampled over six monthly sampling events (n = 144) from August 2015 to March 2016 was conducted using quantitative qPCR. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus spp. Read More

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Children: A Focus on Bloodstream Infections.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2017 Apr;36(4):374-378
    From the *Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, Australia; and †Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms with variable disease-causing potential. Bloodstream infections caused by NTM in children are poorly described.

    Methods: We describe a retrospective case series of children with culture-confirmed mycobacterial disease managed at the Children's Hospital at Westmead between July 2005 and June 2015. Read More

    Dose response models and a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework for the Mycobacterium avium complex that account for recent developments in molecular biology, taxonomy, and epidemiology.
    Water Res 2017 Feb 24;109:310-326. Epub 2016 Nov 24.
    Department of Civil, Architectural, and Environmental Engineering, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of environmentally-transmitted pathogens of great public health importance. This group is known to be harbored, amplified, and selected for more human-virulent characteristics by amoeba species in aquatic biofilms. However, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has not been performed due to the lack of dose response models resulting from significant heterogeneity within even a single species or subspecies of MAC, as well as the range of human susceptibilities to mycobacterial disease. Read More

    Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing and Sequencing Combined with Acid-Fast Staining in Needle Biopsy Lung Tissues for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
    PLoS One 2016 2;11(12):e0167342. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Medical School and West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.
    Background: Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is common and difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of nucleic acid amplification testing and sequencing combined with acid-fast bacteria (AFB) staining of needle biopsy lung tissues for patients with suspected smear-negative PTB.

    Methods: Patients with suspected smear-negative PTB who underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy between May 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Read More

    Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare Complex (MAC) Producing a Periportal Pseudotumor in a Patient With HIV and a Normal CD4 Count.
    ACG Case Rep J 2016 Aug 27;3(4):e92. Epub 2016 Jul 27.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT.
    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) is an opportunistic infection typically associated with profound immunosuppression, such as AIDS. The presentation of disseminated MAC can be subtle and mimic systemic symptoms associated with lymphoma; abdominal pseudotumor is an exceptionally rare presentation. In the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), opportunistic infections are increasingly rare, and secondary prophylaxis for MAC may be discontinued after adequate therapy and immune reconstitution. Read More

    A Laboratory-based Analysis of Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease in Japan from 2012 to 2013.
    Ann Am Thorac Soc 2017 Jan;14(1):49-56
    12 Department of Mycobacterium Reference and Research, The Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Tokyo, Japan.
    Rationale: Since 2010, mycobacterial examination results have been used widely to survey nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease.

    Objectives: To reveal the clinical and epidemiological status of NTM lung disease in Japan.

    Methods: All data on the isolation and identification of mycobacteria in 2012 and 2013 were obtained from three dominant commercial laboratories in Japan. Read More

    Mycobacterium avium Infection of Nasal Septum in a Diabetic Adult: A Case Report.
    Head Neck Pathol 2016 Dec 20;10(4):552-555. Epub 2016 Jun 20.
    Department of Pathology, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.
    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is primarily a pulmonary pathogen that affects individuals who are immune deficient or immunocompromised. In this report, we describe a very rare case of MAC infection clinically presenting as a nasal polyp in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This case illustrates an atypical anatomic location for MAC, the anterior nasal septum in nasal cavity, as well as often overlooked cause of immune compromise, diabetes mellitus. Read More

    Atherosclerosis of aberrant arteries from the left gastric artery into the right intralobar pulmonary sequestration complicated by mycobacterial epithelioid cell granuloma.
    Cardiovasc Pathol 2017 Jan - Feb;26:4-6. Epub 2016 Oct 5.
    Department of Diagnostic Pathology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration (PS) have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, atherosclerosis in the pulmonary artery, which is one of the characteristic arterial changes of PH, has scarcely been reported in PS. Here, we report this unique manifestation in a 66-year-old man, in whom an intralobar PS fed by an aberrant artery branching from the left gastric artery had been identified 10 years earlier, and who was diagnosed with pneumonia after having symptoms of fever and cough. Read More

    Severe Disseminated Mycobacterium avium Infection in a Patient with a Positive Serum Autoantibody to Interferon-γ.
    Intern Med 2016;55(20):3053-3058. Epub 2016 Oct 15.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Ohta-Nishinouchi Hospital, Japan.
    We herein report a case of disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection that involved both optic nerves, the conjunctiva, the right lower lung, and multiple skin lesions, including a thoracic nodule. The patient was a 65-year-old man without any significant medical history. The pathogen was detected in the patient's eye discharge, sputum, bronchial lavage fluid, and thoracic nodule. Read More

    Very recent HIV infection accompanied by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia and Mycobacterium avium complex immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a case report.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat 2016 Sep;25(3):57-58
    Department of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    A small proportion of HIV-infected patients rapidly progress to AIDS; indeed, some individuals have been known to progress to AIDS within a year after primary infection. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (PCP) is the most frequent AIDS-defining illness. However, PCP can also rarely occur during primary HIV infection as a result of the severe immunosuppression that may accompany the early stage of HIV infection. Read More

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and the unpredictable course of hypercalcemia in an AIDS patient.
    Braz J Infect Dis 2017 Jan - Feb;21(1):116-118. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    University of New Mexico Health Sciences Centre, Albuquerque, NM, USA.
    A 37-year-old man with AIDS presented with altered mental status four weeks after stopping his medications for Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). He had low CD4 cell count and severe hypercalcemia. Bone marrow biopsy revealed bone marrow infiltration by granulomas positive for acid-fast bacilli and cultures grew MAI. Read More

    Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis Superimposed on Infection-related Glomerulonephritis Secondary to Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection.
    Intern Med 2016 1;55(17):2439-45. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
    A 73-year-old woman was diagnosed with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and received no treatment. Disease progression was evident one year later with the development of myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) titers and systemic symptoms of a fever, polyarthritis, purpura, and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Her symptoms did not improve with antibiotic treatment. Read More

    Avian Mycobacteriosis: Still Existing Threat to Humans.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 31;2016:4387461. Epub 2016 Jul 31.
    Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
    The nontuberculous mycobacteria are typically environmental organisms residing in soil and water. These microorganisms can cause a wide range of clinical diseases; pulmonary disease is most frequent, followed by lymphadenitis in children, skin and soft tissue disease, and rare extra pulmonary or disseminated infections. Mycobacterium avium complex is the second most common cause of pulmonary mycobacterioses after M. Read More

    Mycobacterium avium Auricular Infection in an Apparent Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report.
    Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2016 Apr-Jun;58(2):131-5
    Introduction: Soft tissue infections with Mycobacterium avium complex are more likely to appear in immunocompromised patients. However, they may rarely arise in non-immunosuppressed individuals.

    Aim: To present the case of an ear infection with Mycobacterium avium in the absence of demonstrable immunosuppression. Read More

    Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare.
    Korean J Fam Med 2016 Jul 21;37(4):248-52. Epub 2016 Jul 21.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. Read More

    Mixed Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare and Serratia Marcescens Cellulitis of the Breast in an HIV-Negative Patient with Breast Cancer: A Case Report.
    Cureus 2016 Jun 9;8(6):e634. Epub 2016 Jun 9.
    Infectious Diseases, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) causes pulmonary infection in patients with chronic lung diseases or severe T-cell deficiency. Cutaneous manifestations caused by MAI are rare and the few cases reported describe mostly patients with hematologic malignancies who were treated with highly immunosuppressive agents. Herein, we report a case of a breast cancer survivor who developed chronic breast cellulitis due to MAI, following localized breast cancer treatment. Read More

    Pericardial effusion with Mycobacterium avium complex in HIV-infected patients.
    BMJ Case Rep 2016 Jul 7;2016. Epub 2016 Jul 7.
    Department of General Medicine, East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust, Blackburn, UK.
    Disseminated atypical Mycobacterium infection is a well-known opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients with advanced immune deficiency before the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy. Although the disseminated infection is now rare, few cases of localised infections are reported. A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with HIV infection during asymptomatic sexual health screening. Read More

    A case of a solitary Mycobacterium avium complex lesion of the liver.
    Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2016 Jul;113(7):1230-5
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mie University Hospital.
    A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital on suspicion of liver tumor on regular abdominal ultrasonography. The abdominal ultrasonography identified a solitary, low-echoic lesion measuring 17mm in diameter in S7. This lesion was not enhanced in any phase of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), and thus we performed a liver biopsy. Read More

    Abdominal manifestations of histiocytic disorders in adults: imaging perspective.
    Br J Radiol 2016 Sep 22;89(1065):20160221. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    4 Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Histiocytic disorders (HDs) are a diverse group of diseases characterized by pathologic infiltration of normal tissues by cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system. The spectrum of these diseases ranges from treatable infectious diseases to rapidly progressive, life-threatening conditions. Although they are rare and difficult diagnoses, HDs can be diagnosed with the help of clinical and laboratory analyses, imaging features and tissue biopsy. Read More

    Kekkaku 2016 Feb;91(2):75-82
    In the advanced stages of mycobacterial infections, host immune systems tend to change from a Th1-type to Th2-type immune response, resulting in the abrogation of Th1 cell- and macrophage-mediated antimicrobial host protective immunity. Notably, this type of immune conversion is occasionally associated with the generation of. certain types of suppressor macrophage populations. Read More

    Kekkaku 2016 Feb;91(2):41-4
    Background: Patients receiving surgical treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), lung disease should be followed up with careful attention paid to relapse/recurrence, but there is some debate regarding the findings based on which relapse/recurrence should be diagnosed.

    Purpose And Methods: We hypothesized that we might be able to use anti-GPL core IgA antibodies (MAC antibodies), which have been attracting attention as a factor that may support diagnosis of MAC lung disease, to diagnose postoperative relapse/recurrence. Therefore, we compared the levels of these antibodies before and at the time of relapse/recurrence, and also compared antibody titers before and after surgery. Read More

    Kekkaku 2016 Feb;91(2):27-32
    Purpose: The diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) can be challenging. A serodiagnosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit, which detects the serum anti-glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core IgA antibody, has been commercialized recently; however, its clinical usefulness in the diagnosis of MAC-PD is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the availability of this kit and identify factors affecting testing accuracy. Read More

    Thioridazine as Chemotherapy for Mycobacterium avium Complex Diseases.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 Aug 22;60(8):4652-8. Epub 2016 Jul 22.
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) causes an intractable intracellular infection that presents as chronic pulmonary disease. Currently, therapy consists of ethambutol and macrolides and takes several years to complete. The neuroleptic phenothiazine thioridazine kills mycobacteria by inhibiting the electron transport chain. Read More

    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare is the main driver of the rise in non-tuberculous mycobacteria incidence in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 2007-2012.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 May 6;16:195. Epub 2016 May 6.
    TB Section, Centre for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Control, Public Health England, London, UK.
    Background: The incidence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolation from humans is increasing worldwide. In England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EW&NI) the reported rate of NTM more than doubled between 1996 and 2006. Although NTM infection has traditionally been associated with immunosuppressed individuals or those with severe underlying lung damage, pulmonary NTM infection and disease may occur in people with no overt immune deficiency. Read More

    Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.
    FP Essent 2016 Apr;443:16-22
    University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 N Lake Ave, Worcester, MA 01655.
    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Read More

    Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Mycobacterium abscessus in a General Hospital, China.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2016 Feb;29(2):85-90
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Chinese-Japanese Friendship Hospital, Beijing 100029, China.
    Objective: To gain greater insight into the prevalence drug resistant profiles of M. abscessus from a general hospital in Beijing, China.

    Methods: Partial gene sequencing of 16S, hsp65, and rpoB were used to distinguish the species of NTM isolates. Read More

    High Mortality of Disseminated Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era.
    PLoS One 2016 17;11(3):e0151682. Epub 2016 Mar 17.
    AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    Background: Little information is available on the mortality and risk factors associated with death in disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (dNTM) in HIV-infected patients in the ART-era.

    Methods: In a single-center study, HIV-infected dNTM with positive NTM culture from sterile sites between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. The clinical characteristics at commencement of anti-mycobacterial treatment (baseline) were compared between those who survived and died. Read More

    [Identification of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex by PCR of AIDS and disseminated mycobacteriosis].
    Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2016 Mar-Apr;54(2):170-5
    Unidad de Investigación Médica en Inmunología e Infectología, Hospital de Infectología, Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, México.
    Objective: The aim of this study is to differentially identify MAC by PCR in patients with AIDS and disseminated mycobacteriosis.

    Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Mexico to identify MAC by Molecular Biology. Two sets of primers were synthesized: MAV and MIN, for M. Read More

    Broncho-Pleural Fistula with Hydropneumothorax at CT: Diagnostic Implications in Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease with Pleural Involvement.
    Korean J Radiol 2016 Mar-Apr;17(2):295-301. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.
    Objective: To determine the patho-mechanism of pleural effusion or hydropneumothorax in Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease through the computed tomographic (CT) findings.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively collected data from 5 patients who had pleural fluid samples that were culture-positive for MAC between January 2001 and December 2013. The clinical findings were investigated and the radiological findings on chest CT were reviewed by 2 radiologists. Read More

    Isolated Cerebellar Spindle Cell Pseudotumor Caused by Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Complex in a Patient without AIDS.
    World Neurosurg 2016 Jun 27;90:703.e1-3. Epub 2016 Feb 27.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Cork University Hospital, Cork, Ireland.
    Background: Spindle cell pseudotumors are formed by histiocytes in response to infection by Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) and are rare in patients without AIDS.

    Case Description: A 66-year-old man presented with neck pain, ataxia, and a history of sarcoidosis. A cerebellar lesion was identified on magnetic resonance imaging and surgically excised. Read More

    Low levels of short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines in HIV-infected patients.
    Eur J Clin Invest 2016 May 7;46(5):408-17. Epub 2016 Mar 7.
    Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Centre of Molecular Inflammation Research, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Background: Carnitine plays an essential role in fatty acid metabolism, exerts substantial antioxidant action and regulates immune functions. We hypothesized that a disturbed carnitine metabolism could be involved in progression of HIV infection.

    Materials And Methods: Plasma levels of L-carnitine, its precursors, and short-, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines were analysed with HPLC/mass spectrometry in HIV-infected patients with various disease severities including patients who acquired Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. Read More

    Increased isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria among TB suspects in Northeastern, Tanzania: public health and diagnostic implications for control programmes.
    BMC Res Notes 2016 Feb 17;9:109. Epub 2016 Feb 17.
    Institute of Medical Microbiology and Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, University of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 21, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.
    Background: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are increasingly reported worldwide associated with human disease. Defining the significance of NTM in settings with endemic tuberculosis (TB) requires the discrimination of NTM from TB in suspect patients. Correct and timely identification of NTM will impact both therapy and epidemiology of TB and TB-like diseases. Read More

    Bronchial occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots for massive hemoptysis in a patient with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex infection.
    Respir Investig 2016 Mar 20;54(2):121-4. Epub 2015 Nov 20.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization, Higashinagoya National Hospital, 5-101 Umemorizaka, Meito-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 468-8620, Japan. Electronic address:
    The safety of occlusion with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWS) for the management of hemoptysis associated with chronic respiratory tract infection has not yet been established. A 57-year-old woman diagnosed as having pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection presented to our hospital with hemoptysis. She underwent bronchoscopy for bronchial occlusion with EWS, which resulted in the resolution of hemoptysis. Read More

    High recurrence rate supports need for secondary prophylaxis in non-HIV patients with disseminated mycobacterium avium complex infection: a multi-center observational study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Feb 10;16:74. Epub 2016 Feb 10.
    State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
    Background: Long-term outcomes in non-HIV immunocompromised patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (dMAC) infections are unknown and the need for post-treatment secondary prophylaxis against MAC is uncertain in this setting. The objective of this study was to determine the need of continuing secondary anti-MAC prophylaxis in non-HIV patients after completing treatment of the primary dMAC episode.

    Methods: We conducted a ten-year multi-center analysis of non-HIV immunosuppressed patients with dMAC infections in Hong Kong. Read More

    A 5-year-old Girl with Chest Wall Mass.
    Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 May;35(5):592, 598-9
    From the *Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead; †Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, The University of Sydney Sydney; ‡Immunology, The Children's Hospital at Westmead; §Paediatrics and Child Health, The University of Sydney; and ¶Department of Surgery, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

    Association of ISMav6 with the Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance in Korean Mycobacterium avium Clinical Isolates but No Relevance between Their Genotypes and Clinical Features.
    PLoS One 2016 9;11(2):e0148917. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The aim of this study was to genetically characterize clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with Mycobacterium avium lung disease and to investigate the clinical significance. Multi-locus sequencing analysis (MLSA) and pattern of insertion sequence analysis of M. avium isolates from 92 Korean patients revealed that all isolates were M. Read More

    Analysis of drug treatment outcome in clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Jan 27;16:31. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
    Center for Pulmonary Diseases, National Hospital Organization Tokyo National Hospital, 3-1-1, Takeoka, Kiyose-shi, Tokyo, 204-8585, Japan.
    Background: Although the isolation of clarithromycin (CAM)-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) indicates a poor treatment outcome and increased mortality, there have been only a few reports on drug treatment for CAM-resistant MAC lung disease. We aimed to reveal the effectiveness of the continuation of a macrolide and the use of a multidrug regimen in the treatment of CAM-resistant MAC lung disease.

    Methods: Among patients with MAC pulmonary disease as defined by the 2007 criteria of the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America statement, those with CAM-resistant MAC (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥32 μg/ml) isolated, newly diagnosed and treated from January 2009 to June 2013 were analysed in this study. Read More

    Azithromycin Dose To Maximize Efficacy and Suppress Acquired Drug Resistance in Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium Disease.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 Apr 25;60(4):2157-63. Epub 2016 Mar 25.
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Observatory, South Africa
    Mycobacterium aviumcomplex is now the leading mycobacterial cause of chronic pneumonia in the United States. Macrolides and ethambutol form the backbone of the regimen used in the treatment of pulmonary disease. However, therapy outcomes remain poor, with microbial cure rates of 4% in cavitary disease. Read More

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