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    3497 results match your criteria Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare Infection

    1 OF 70

    The many lives of nontuberculous mycobacteria.
    J Bacteriol 2018 Feb 26. Epub 2018 Feb 26.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) include species that colonize human epithelia, as well as species that are ubiquitous in soil and aquatic environments. NTM that primarily inhabit soil and aquatic environments include the complex (MAC, and ) and the complex (MABSC, subspecies , , and ), and can be free-living, biofilm-associated, or amoeba-associated. Although NTM are rarely pathogenic in immunocompetent individuals, those who are immunocompromised - due to either an inherited or acquired immunodeficiency - are highly susceptible to NTM infection (NTMI). Read More

    Neutrophil predominance in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid is associated with disease severity and progression of HRCT findings in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection.
    PLoS One 2018 5;13(2):e0190189. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    First Department of Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.
    Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is increasing in prevalence worldwide even in immunocompetent individuals. Despite its variable clinical course, the clinical and immunological factors associated with radiographical severity and progression are not largely unknown. We aimed to study the association between the inflammatory cell and cytokine profiles at the local infected site, and the radiological severity and/or progression of pulmonary MAC infection. Read More

    Clinical significance and epidemiologic analyses of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease from post-marketing surveillance.
    Respir Investig 2018 Jan 6;56(1):87-93. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan. Electronic address:
    Background: In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. Read More

    Pulmonary Complex Infection in an Infant: A Silent and Coincidental Finding.
    Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol 2017 12;30(4):257-259
    University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
    An 11-month-old healthy infant girl was noted to have left lower lobe (LLL) opacities on chest X-ray (CXR) after developing desaturations during an elective cochlear implant surgery. Repeat CXR 10 days later revealed hyperexpansion of the left lung and persistent LLL opacity. Chest computerized tomography revealed enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, left mainstem bronchial obstruction, and nodular opacities. Read More

    Higher-than-expected prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in HIV setting in Botswana: Implications for diagnostic algorithms using Xpert MTB/RIF assay.
    PLoS One 2017 22;12(12):e0189981. Epub 2017 Dec 22.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Gaborone, Botswana.
    Background: Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause pulmonary infection and disease especially among people living with HIV (PLHIV). PLHIV with NTM disease may clinically present with one of the four symptoms consistent with tuberculosis (TB). We describe the prevalence of NTM and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolated among PLHIV who presented for HIV care and treatment. Read More

    Disseminated infection with multiple abscesses on extremities in a woman with chronic corticosteroid therapy.
    J Gen Fam Med 2017 Dec 15;18(6):425-427. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Infection Control and PreventionKurume University School of MedicineFukuokaJapan.
    A 78-year-old Japanese woman with rheumatoid arthritis was admitted to our hospital due to fever. She had been prescribed prednisolone and bucillamine. Computed tomography revealed abscesses on extremities. Read More

    A fast-growing cold skin abscess revealing disseminated Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in an HIV-infected patient.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 Jan 1:956462417748240. Epub 2017 Jan 1.
    1 Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal.
    A 66-year-old woman with HIV-1 infection recently commenced on antiretroviral therapy (CD4+ 25 cells/mm was referred to the Dermatology Clinic the following month due to a well-demarcated nodule in the extensor surface of the left arm with evident fluctuation but only slight pain on palpation, with no increase in temperature. Surgical drainage was performed with aspiration of yellowish-green exudate, with no characteristic smell. In culture of cutaneous exudate, Mycobacterium intracellulare was isolated. Read More

    [Infection by the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex in patients with HIV/AIDS in a Peruvian hospital: A series of cases].
    Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2017 Apr-Jun;34(2):323-327
    Servicio de Medicina en Enfermedades Infecciosas y Tropicales, Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo. Lima, Perú.
    There is little information on the presence of the Mycobacterium avium-Intracellulare (MAC) complex in Peru. Five cases of MAC infection are described in patients with HIV/AIDS at the National Hospital Dos de Mayo, Lima - Peru. The patients presented, mainly, persistent fever, chronic diarrhea, consumptive syndrome, pancytopenia and citofagocitosis. Read More

    Epidemiology and Predictors of NTM Pulmonary Infection in Taiwan - a Retrospective, Five-Year Multicenter Study.
    Sci Rep 2017 Nov 24;7(1):16300. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan.
    Multicenter, longitudinal studies on nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) pulmonary infection (PI) are lacking. This study provides a 5-year epidemiological overview of NTM-PI in Taiwan and investigated its predictors. The clinical relevance of each respiratory NTM isolate in six hospitals between 2008 and 2014 was determined according to current guidelines. Read More

    Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of pleural effusions in patients with nontuberculous mycobacterial disease.
    Respir Med 2017 Dec 6;133:36-41. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, 388-1 Pungnap-Dong, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea. Electronic address:
    Background: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has increased over the last 10 years. However, the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with NTM pleuritis have not been well defined.

    Methods: Patients with pleural effusion and NTM lung disease diagnosed between 1997 and 2013 were enrolled and their medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Read More

    Do infections with disseminated complex precede sweet's syndrome? A case report and literature review.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2017 Oct-Dec;6(4):336-343
    Department of Infectious, Respiratory, and Digestive Medicine, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyu, Okinawa, Japan.
    Sweet's syndrome is reportedly associated with preceding nontuberculous mycobacterial infections (NTMIs). Here, we report on a systemic Mycobacterium intracellulare infection in a patient on corticoid therapy for Sweet's syndrome. Literature searches show that 69. Read More

    Disseminated -Intracellulare Complex Infection Presenting With Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in an AIDS Patient.
    J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2017 Oct-Dec;5(4):2324709617740904. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USA.
    Disseminated -intracellulare complex (MAC) infection is one of the relatively common opportunistic infections seen in severely immunocompromised AIDS patients. A constellation of clinical, laboratory, and pathological features involving multiple organ systems are often present in disseminated MAC infection but disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has not been previously described in association with this condition. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of DIC complicating disseminated MAC infection in an AIDS patient. Read More

    [Hot tub lung: A case report].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 20;24(12):1271-1274. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Pédiatrie générale, CHU Ambroise-Paré, AP-HP, 9, avenue Charles-de-Gaulle, 92100 Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Electronic address:
    Hot tub lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalational exposure to the Mycobacterium avium complex. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy presenting dyspnea with hypoxemia, whose medical history and clinical course helped make the diagnosis. Infectious causes were considered first, and antibiotics were initiated without success. Read More

    Usefulness of Chinese Herbal Medicines as Host-Directed Therapeutics against Mycobacterial Infections: A Review.
    Am J Chin Med 2017 9;45(8):1597-1611. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    1 Department of Basic Medical Science for Nursing, Department of Primary Education, Yasuda Women's University, Hiroshima, Japan.
    The high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in developing countries, the resurgence of TB in industrialized countries, and the worldwide increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections have prompted the quest for new antimycobacterial drugs. However, the development of such chemotherapeutics is currently making very slow progress. It therefore appears that devising improved administration protocols for clinical treatment against intractable mycobacteriosis using existing chemotherapeutics is more practical than awaiting the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs. Read More

    Natural course of the nodular bronchiectatic form of Mycobacterium Avium complex lung disease: Long-term radiologic change without treatment.
    PLoS One 2017 2;12(10):e0185774. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
    Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background/purpose: Although the incidence of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease is increasing, the long-term natural course of the nodular bronchiectatic form of MAC lung disease is not well described. The objective of our study is to evaluate long-term radiologic changes in untreated MAC lung disease by analyzing serial chest computed tomography (CT) scan findings.

    Methods: Of 104 patients with MAC lung disease, we selected 40 untreated nodular bronchiectatic MAC patients who underwent serial chest CTs without treatment for at least four years (mean = 6. Read More

    Meta-analyses and the evidence base for microbial outcomes in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i3-i19
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the level of funding support and the sputum culture conversion rates in pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (P-MAC) disease in adult patients without cystic fibrosis or HIV infection, treated with recommended antibiotic regimens.

    Methods: We performed a literature search to identify clinical trials, prospective studies and registries that reported outcomes in P-MAC patients. Studies that reported P-MAC diagnosis and treatments based on established guidelines met the inclusion criteria and were examined for bias and quality. Read More

    A programme to create short-course chemotherapy for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and mathematical forecasting.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i54-i60
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prevalence is on the rise worldwide. The average therapy duration is 1.5 years, which is associated with poor cure rates. Read More

    A 'shock and awe' thioridazine and moxifloxacin combination-based regimen for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex disease.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i43-i47
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: To develop a thioridazine/moxifloxacin-based combination regimen for treatment of pulmonary infection due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) that kills bacteria faster than the standard treatment regimen.

    Methods: Monocytes were infected with MAC and inoculated into the hollow-fibre system model for pulmonary MAC disease (HFS-MAC). We co-administered ethambutol plus azithromycin daily for 28 days, to achieve the same human concentration-time profiles that result from standard doses, in three HFS-MAC systems. Read More

    A novel ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM) regimen for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i48-i53
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of ceftazidime/avibactam plus tedizolid-based combination regimens with the standard therapy of azithromycin, ethambutol and rifabutin for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease.

    Methods: We mimicked the human pulmonary concentration-time profiles of ceftazidime/avibactam and tedizolid in combination, ceftazidime/avibactam, rifabutin, tedizolid and moxifloxacin (CARTM), and the standard regimen and examined microbial kill in triplicate hollow-fibre system model of intracellular pulmonary MAC (HFS-MAC) units. The tedizolid and moxifloxacin doses used were non-optimized; the tedizolid dose was that associated with bacteriostasis. Read More

    Tedizolid is highly bactericidal in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex disease.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i30-i35
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: To determine if tedizolid is effective for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease, and to use pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics to design optimal doses.

    Methods: We performed an exposure-response experiment in the hollow-fibre system model of intracellular MAC (HFS-MAC). We mimicked the tedizolid concentration-time profiles achieved in the lungs of patients treated once daily for 28 days. Read More

    Linezolid as treatment for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium disease.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i24-i29
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: To identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and exposures of linezolid in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease.

    Methods: Human-derived monocytes infected with MAC were inoculated into hollow-fibre systems for dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies. We mimicked linezolid concentration-time profiles achieved in adult human lungs treated for 28 days. Read More

    Failure of the azithromycin and ethambutol combination regimen in the hollow-fibre system model of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium infection is due to acquired resistance.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Sep;72(suppl_2):i20-i23
    Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Experimental Therapeutics, Baylor Research Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.
    Objectives: To investigate the performance of the two backbone drugs in the standard combination therapy regimen in the hollow-fibre system (HFS) model of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection.

    Methods: Six HFS were inoculated with human-derived monocytes infected with MAC, and treated with 15 mg/kg of ethambutol and 500 mg of azithromycin daily for 28 days to recapitulate the concentration-time profiles seen in the lungs of humans treated with these drugs and doses. The concentration-time profiles achieved were validated by sampling the central compartment at seven timepoints over 24 h. Read More

    Distribution of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria strains from suspected tuberculosis patients by heat shock protein 65 PCR-RFLP.
    Saudi J Biol Sci 2017 Sep 6;24(6):1380-1386. Epub 2016 Feb 6.
    Departments of Mycobacteriology & Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
    The genus contains more than 150 species. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) often cause extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease. Mycobacteria detection at species level is necessary and provides useful information on epidemiology and facilitates successful treatment of patients. Read More

    Persimmon-derived tannin has bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory activity in a murine model of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(8):e0183489. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    Department of Immunology, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, Japan.
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cause opportunistic chronic pulmonary infections. Notably, MAC susceptibility is regulated by various factors, including the host immune system. Persimmon (Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Thunb. Read More

    Short Communication: Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Remain a Challenge in the Era of Effective Antiretroviral Therapy.
    AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2017 12 6;33(12):1202-1204. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Alfred Hospital and Monash University , Melbourne, Victoria, Australia .
    A 10-year review of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection and MAC-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-positive patients (2004-2014) at a state-wide tertiary referral HIV service demonstrates that despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, MAC infection remains a therapeutic challenge, particularly intra-abdominal disease. Read More

    Rituximab Restores IFN-γ-STAT1 Function and Ameliorates Disseminated Mycobacterium avium Infection in a Patient with Anti-Interferon-γ Autoantibody.
    J Clin Immunol 2017 Oct 5;37(7):644-649. Epub 2017 Aug 5.
    Department of Clinical Infectious Diseases, Aichi Medical University Hospital, 1-1 Yazakokarimata, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1195, Japan.
    A 67-year-old Japanese female with back pain and severe cachexia visited our hospital. The diagnosis was disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection (dMAC) with multiple bone involvement. Anti-mycobacterial chemotherapy was started, but fever persisted and dislocation of cervical vertebrae has made her bedridden. Read More

    Comparing the Genotype and Drug Susceptibilities between Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare in China.
    Biomed Environ Sci 2017 Jul;30(7):517-525
    National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.
    Objective: Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (M. intracellulare) are the major causative agents of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-related pulmonary infections. Read More

    J Zoo Wildl Med 2017 Jun;48(2):544-548
    A 19-yr-old castrated male binturong ( Arctictis binturong ) with a history of recurrent pyogranulomatous panniculitis, lymphangitis, and dermatitis was presented for evaluation of hyporexia and tenesmus. A large caudal abdominal mass was palpated on physical examination. On ultrasound, the mass encircled and obstructed the left ureter, resulting in hydroureter and hydronephrosis. Read More

    A case of hypercalcaemia in an immunocompetent patient with intracellulare.
    JRSM Open 2017 Jul 6;8(7):2054270417716614. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.
    Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection or colonization should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia, especially in immunocompromised individuals, in the appropriate clinical context. Read More

    Association of Interferon- Receptor-1 Gene Polymorphism with Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Infection among Iranian Patients with Pulmonary Disease.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jul;97(1):57-61
    Mycobacteriology Research Centre (MRC), National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant pulmonary infections in humans. Researchers have reported an association between interferon-gamma receptor-1 (IFN-R1 or IFNGR1) deficiency and susceptibility to NTM, but the relevance of polymorphism within these genes is not yet clear. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), T to C, at position-56 in NTM patients with pulmonary disease was investigated. Read More

    Splenic Involvement in Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings.
    J Comput Assist Tomogr 2018 Jan/Feb;42(1):151-154
    We report the imaging findings of a patient with disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex presenting with multiple splenic lesions incompletely characterized on computed tomography in whom magnetic resonance imaging helped narrow the differential diagnosis. We discuss the magnetic resonance imaging findings suggesting the diagnosis, including the presence of focal susceptibility artifact within the lesions (ie, signal drop on T1 in-phase imaging), marked hypointensity on diffusion-weighted imaging, and faint progressive peripheral enhancement after contrast administration. We provide pathologic correlation to explain these imaging characteristics and a review of the literature of imaging characteristics in splenic involvement of M. Read More

    Development of a One-Step Multiplex PCR Assay for Differential Detection of Major Mycobacterium Species.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Sep 28;55(9):2736-2751. Epub 2017 Jun 28.
    Department of Microbiology, Institute for Immunology and Immunological Diseases, Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea
    The prevalence of tuberculosis continues to be high, and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection has also emerged worldwide. Moreover, differential and accurate identification of mycobacteria to the species or subspecies level is an unmet clinical need. Here, we developed a one-step multiplex PCR assay using whole-genome analysis and bioinformatics to identify novel molecular targets. Read More

    Development and validation of a prognostic scoring model for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease: an observational cohort study.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 06 19;17(1):436. Epub 2017 Jun 19.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kurashiki Central Hospital, 1-1-1 Miwa, Kurashiki, Okayama, 710-0052, Japan.
    Background: Patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease (LD) have a heterogeneous prognosis. This study aimed to develop and validate a prognostic scoring model for these patients using independent risk factors for survival.

    Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of patients with MAC-LD from two hospitals (cohort 1, n = 368; cohort 2, n = 118). Read More

    Nontuberculosis mycobacterial infections at a specialized tuberculosis treatment centre in the Republic of Korea.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 06 15;17(1):432. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    Department of Cancer Control and Population Health, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, 10408, South Korea.
    Background: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, however formal evaluations of the epidemiology of NTM infections are limited. Understanding the trends and true prevalence of NTM is a major priority for optimizing infection control programmes and resources. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and radiologic findings in NTM-infected patients at specialized Tuberculosis (Tb) treatment centre in South Korea, which is endemic to Tb, and find solutions to control NTM infections. Read More

    The critical role of EBUS-TBNA cytology in the staging of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer patients: A correlation study with positron emission tomography findings.
    Cancer Cytopathol 2017 Sep 13;125(9):717-725. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.
    Background: The sensitivity and specificity of positron emission tomography (PET) have been significantly improved for the identification of malignancies in recent years; however, it is still necessary to confirm PET findings in a lymph node (LN) by direct tissue sampling. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is the most commonly used approach for diagnosing and staging mediastinal LNs, particularly in lung cancer patients with locally advanced disease. Despite this fact, evidence-based studies of EBUS-TBNA cytology and PET findings are still suboptimal. Read More

    Incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium-complex infection in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy with use of Mycobacterium avium-complex prophylaxis.
    Int J STD AIDS 2017 12 7;28(14):1426-1432. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    1 Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    The incidence of disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in HIV patients has fallen markedly since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, current guidelines still recommend primary prophylaxis. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a university-affiliated hospital from January 1998 to January 2014. Read More

    Disseminated complex in an immunocompetent host.
    Int J Mycobacteriol 2017 Apr-Jun;6(2):202-206
    Department of Infectious Disease, San Antonio Military Medical Center, TX 78234, USA.
    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) has historically been described in the immunocompromised. The current epidemiologic research suggests that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is increasing. We present a case of DMAC infection manifesting as hepatic granulomas in a 35-year-old immunocompetent female. Read More

    Microbiological Persistence in Patients With Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease: The Predictors and the Impact on Radiographic Progression.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 Sep;65(6):927-934
    Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
    Background: Persistent growth of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in the lungs indicates continuous infection in MAC lung disease (MAC-LD), but its clinical significance has not been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the predictors of persistent culture-positivity for MAC (MAC-PP) and its impact on radiographic deterioration in MAC-LD.

    Methods: Patients with MAC-LD at multiple medical centers from 2011 to 2016 were enrolled retrospectively. Read More

    A Case of Cavitary Pulmonary Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare Infection in the Setting of Leflunomide Treatment.
    J Clin Rheumatol 2017 Jun;23(4):231-232
    University Correctional Health Care, Rutgers University Trenton, NJ Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Division of Rheumatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

    Leishmania Infection of a Knee Megaprosthesis.
    J Bone Jt Infect 2016 1;1:50-53. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
    The Department of Orthopaedics, Ag. Anargyroi Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    This article presents a 19-year old patient with a distal femoral osteosarcoma treated with limb salvage and distal femoral megaprosthetic reconstruction complicated postoperatively by bone leishmaniasis. Bone biopsy was done; bone tissue was sent for cultures and histology. Cultures were negative. Read More

    An association between pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex infections and biomarkers of Th2-type inflammation.
    Respir Res 2017 May 15;18(1):93. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Background: The rising incidence of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAI) infection is unexplained but parallels the growing world-wide epidemic of allergic disease. We hypothesized an association between pulmonary MAI infection and Th2-type immune responses as seen in allergy.

    Methods: Biomarkers of patient Th2-type immune responses (peripheral blood eosinophil counts and serum IgE levels) were compared between patients with positive pulmonary samples for tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection. Read More

    Human health risks for Legionella and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) from potable and non-potable uses of roof-harvested rainwater.
    Water Res 2017 08 5;119:288-303. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of opportunistic pathogens Legionella pneumophila (LP) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was undertaken for various uses of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) reported in Queensland, Australia to identify appropriate usages and guide risk management practices. Risks from inhalation of aerosols due to showering, swimming in pools topped up with RHRW, use of a garden hose, car washing, and toilet flushing with RHRW were considered for LP while both ingestion (drinking, produce consumption, and accidental ingestion from various activities) and inhalation risks were considered for MAC. The drinking water route of exposure presented the greatest risks due to cervical lymphadenitis and disseminated infection health endpoints for children and immune-compromised populations, respectively. Read More

    Clinical features of patients with bacteraemia caused by Mycobacterium avium complex species and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates at a medical centre in Taiwan, 2008-2014.
    Int J Antimicrob Agents 2017 Jul 3;50(1):35-40. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:
    Advanced molecular typing methods have greatly expanded the taxonomy of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) species; however, little is known about the epidemiology and clinical features of bacteraemia caused by different MAC species. In this study, the clinical characteristics of patients treated for MAC bacteraemia in a tertiary-care centre in northern Taiwan during 2008-2014 were investigated. Isolates were identified to species level by rpoB gene and 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region sequencing. Read More

    Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 04;5(2)
    Division of Mycobacterial and Respiratory Infections, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206.
    Despite the ubiqitous nature of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) organisms in the environment, relatively few of those who are infected develop disease. Thus, some degree of susceptibility due to either underlying lung disease or immunosuppression is required. The frequency of pulmonary MAC disease is increasing in many areas, and the exact reasons are unknown. Read More

    Target-Specific Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Mycobacterium chimaera DNA.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Jun 5;55(6):1847-1856. Epub 2017 Apr 5.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    is an opportunistic environmental mycobacterium belonging to the - complex. Although most commonly associated with pulmonary disease, there has been growing awareness of invasive infections following cardiac surgery. Investigations suggest worldwide spread of a specific clone, associated with contaminated hospital heater-cooler units used during the surgery. Read More

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