7,232 results match your criteria Mycobacterium Avium-Intracellulare

Immunoadjunctive Therapy against Bacterial Infections Using Herbal Medicines Based on Th17 Cell-mediated Protective Immunity.

Curr Pharm Des 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Community Medicine Management, Shimane University School of Medicine, Izumo, Japan.

One of the major health concerns in the world is the global increase in intractable bacterial infectious diseases due to the emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant bacterial pathogens as well as an increase in compromised hosts around the world. Particularly, in the case of mycobacteriosis, the high incidence of tuberculosis in developing countries, resurgence of tuberculosis in industrialized countries, and increase in the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infections are important worldwide health concerns. However, the development of novel antimycobacterial drugs is currently making slow progress. Read More

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R-CHOP Chemotherapy for Disseminated Complex Disease due to Anti-Interferon-Gamma Autoantibodies: A Case Report.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 10;8(6):ofab181. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

A 77-year-old Japanese man with disseminated complex (MAC) disease due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) chemotherapy because of non-Hodgkin lymphoma complication. The hepatobiliary nodules due to MAC resolved with R-CHOP and multidrug antimycobacterial treatment. R-CHOP could serve as an alternative adjunctive therapy for patients with anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies. Read More

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Mycobacterium Avium Complex Genitourinary Infections: Case Report and Literature Review.

Infect Dis Rep 2021 May 24;13(2):454-464. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Medicine, Creighton University, Omaha, NE 68124, USA.

Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) genitourinary (GU) infections are relatively rare, and there is frequently a delay in diagnosis. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) cases seem to be less frequent than other NTM as a cause of these infections. In addition, there are no set treatment guidelines for these organisms in the GU tract. Read More

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Successful Cord Blood Transplantation for Idiopathic CD4+ Lymphocytopenia.

Acta Haematol 2021 Jun 1:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Hematology Division, Tokyo Metropolitan Cancer and Infectious Diseases Center, Komagome Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is the depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes to <300 cells/mm3 without human immunodeficiency virus infection or other causes of lymphocytopenia. ICL causes fatal infections; its etiology remains unclear and it lacks consensus regarding therapeutic options. We report the first patient with ICL who had a successful clinical course following a cord blood transplant (CBT). Read More

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[Effective Treatment of Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax due to Pulmonary Mycobacterium Avium Complex by Thoracoscopic Intra-fistula Filling with Suture Closure].

Kyobu Geka 2021 Jun;74(6):434-437

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Society Himeji Hospital, Himeji, Japan.

Secondary spontaneous pneumothorax associated with pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection is often difficult to treat. Pneumothorax associated with pulmonary MAC is characterized by a large fistula with a cavity or bronchodilation, and pleural thickening due to pleurisy. Herein, we report two cases of pneumothorax with pulmonary MAC successfully treated by minimally invasive thoracoscopic intra-fistula filling with a suture closure method. Read More

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Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteriosis and fungemia after second delivery in a patient with MonoMAC syndrome/GATA2 mutation: a case report.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 29;21(1):502. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, 3-1-3 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8431, Japan.

Background: Heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor GATA2 result in a wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes, including monocytopenia and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection (MonoMAC) syndrome. Patients with MonoMAC syndrome typically are infected by disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria, fungi, and human papillomavirus, exhibit pulmonary alveolar proteinosis during late adolescence or early adulthood, and manifest with decreased content of dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and B and natural killer (NK) cells.

Case Presentation: A 39-year-old woman was diagnosed with MonoMAC syndrome postmortem. Read More

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Bronchial Brushing and Diagnosis of Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Infection.

Respiration 2021 May 27:1-9. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The optimal bronchoscopy procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is unclear.

Objective: This study investigated the usefulness of bronchial brushing in bronchoscopy for diagnosis of pulmonary NTM infection in patients with suspected NTM lung disease and nodular bronchiectasis on chest computed tomography (CT) images.

Methods: Bronchoscopy was prospectively performed for 69 patients with clinically suspected pulmonary NTM infection on chest CT from December 2017 through December 2019. Read More

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[Association between early peripheral lung cancer and nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease].

Arkh Patol 2021 ;83(3):52-55

Novosibirsk Tuberculosis Research Institute, Novosibirsk, Russia.

Mycobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria, with granulomatous inflammation in the affected organs and tissues. The association of mycobacteriosis and lung cancer in one patient is quite rarely observed and is of interest to the medical community. A 63-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of infiltrative tuberculosis in SI-SII of both lungs in the lung cavitation phase on the right, peripheral mass in SIII on the right in order to make a decision about a surgical intervention. Read More

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Extracellular DNA of slow growers of mycobacteria and its contribution to biofilm formation and drug tolerance.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):10953. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Bacteriology, Niigata University School of Medicine, 1-757, Asahimachi-Dori, Chuo-ku, Niigata, Niigata, 951-9510, Japan.

DNA is basically an intracellular molecule that stores genetic information and carries instructions for growth and reproduction in all cellular organisms. However, in some bacteria, DNA has additional roles outside the cells as extracellular DNA (eDNA), which is an essential component of biofilm formation and hence antibiotic tolerance. Mycobacteria include life-threating human pathogens, most of which are slow growers. Read More

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Association of serum antibodies against the Mycobacterium avium complex and hemoptysis: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 26;21(1):480. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, National Hospital Organization Fukuoka National Hospital, 4-39-1 Yakatabaru, Minami-ku, Fukuoka, 811-1394, Japan.

Background: Hemoptysis is very common and can be life threatening in clinical practice for nontuberculous mycobacteria. The serum antibody against the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC-Ab), the majority of nontuberculous mycobacteria species, is well known to reflect the activity of MAC lung disease; however, there is no study investigating the association between the MAC-Ab and hemoptysis in MAC patients. Therefore, we assessed whether the MAC-Ab is a good biomarker for hemoptysis among subjects with MAC lung disease. Read More

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Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension as a treatment for patients with refractory mycobacterium avium complex lung infection.

Expert Rev Respir Med 2021 Jun 26;15(6):737-744. Epub 2021 May 26.

Centre for Inflammation Research, Centre for Inflammation Research at the University of Edinburgh, Queen's Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh BioQuarter, Edinburgh, Scotland.

: Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS) contains amikacin sulfate, an aminoglycoside antibacterial drug. It has been approved in the US as a combined antibiotic treatment for refractory MAC lung disease patients. ALIS, as an inhaled antibiotic, can deliver amikacin to the infected site effectively and reduce systemic toxicity. Read More

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Approach to the diagnosis and treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2021 Aug 8;24:100244. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, MN, USA.

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is a collective name given to a group of more than 190 species of . The clinical presentation for most NTM infections is non-specific, often resulting in delayed diagnosis. Further complicating matters is that NTM organisms can be difficult to isolate. Read More

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Anti-interferon-gamma autoantibody related disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteriosis with pathological features of immunoglobulin G4-related disease.

Immunol Med 2021 May 25:1-6. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of General Medicine, Shimane Prefectural Central Hospital, Izumo, Japan.

A 72-year-old man who was diagnosed as pulmonary mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease had suffered from antibiotics resistant fever with left renal enlargement surrounded by inflammatory change and multiple osteolytic lesions on computed tomography (CT). The renal biopsied samples pathologically showed immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) positive plasma cell infiltration and many acid-fast bacilli without granuloma formation. Nucleic acid identification test for MAC from the samples of vertebral osteolytic lesion was positive. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of oral antimycobacterials and dosing guidance for Mycobacterium avium complex treatment in cystic fibrosis.

J Cyst Fibros 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 13123 E. 16th Ave. B-395 Aurora, CO 80045, United States.

Background: Treatment failure of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease occurs in about 30% of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may be a result of abnormal drug concentrations.

Methods: Prospective, cross-over, single-dose PK study of 20 pancreatic insufficient individuals with CF and 10 healthy controls (HC). CF subjects received simultaneous doses of oral azithromycin, ethambutol, and rifampin in the fasting state and with food and pancreatic enzymes, separated by two weeks. Read More

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Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Tuberculosis.

Haluk Eraksoy

Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):341-360

Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, TR-34093 Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant problem worldwide, and may involve the luminal GI tract from oral cavity to perianal area in addition to associated viscera and peritoneum. Although GI TB more commonly affects immunocompromised hosts, it can also occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis is difficult because it usually mimics a malignancy or inflammatory bowel disease. Read More

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Laryngeal Injury Due to Amikacin Inhalation for Refractory Mycobacterium avium Complex Infection.

Chest 2021 Apr 6;159(4):e185-e187. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Center for Voice and Swallowing, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Inhaled antibiotics have long been used for chronic lung infections, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis and increasingly for non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS) has emerged as a promising treatment for Mycobacterium avium complex infection refractory to oral antibiotics. However, despite its efficacy, nearly one-half of patients in phase II and III trials experienced dysphonia as a treatment-associated adverse effect. Read More

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Combining comparative genomic analysis with machine learning reveals some promising diagnostic markers to identify five common pathogenic non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 07 21;14(4):1539-1549. Epub 2021 May 21.

CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences & Information, China National Center for Bioinformation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Beijing, 100101, China.

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can cause various respiratory diseases and even death in severe cases, and its incidence has increased rapidly worldwide. To date, it's difficult to use routine diagnostic methods and strain identification to precisely diagnose various types of NTM infections. We combined systematic comparative genomics with machine learning to select new diagnostic markers for precisely identifying five common pathogenic NTMs (Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellular, Mycobacterium chelonae, Mycobacterium abscessus). Read More

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Effect of coexisting advanced extrapulmonary solid cancer on progression of Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease.

J Bras Pneumol 2021;47(2):e20200520. Epub 2021 May 17.

. Department of Pulmonology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.

Objective: Although Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease has been shown to be associated with lung cancer and hematologic malignancies, there have been few studies of its relationships with other types of cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect that coexisting advanced extrapulmonary solid tumors have on the progression of MAC lung disease.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with MAC lung disease, on the basis of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria, between October of 2005 and March of 2019. Read More

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ESX-1-Independent Horizontal Gene Transfer by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains.

mBio 2021 05 18;12(3). Epub 2021 May 18.

Institut Pasteur, Unit for Integrated Mycobacterial Pathogenomics, CNRS UMR 3525, Paris, France

Current models of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in mycobacteria are based on "distributive conjugal transfer" (DCT), an HGT type described in the fast-growing, saprophytic model organism , which creates genome mosaicism in resulting strains and depends on an ESX-1 type VII secretion system. In contrast, only few data on interstrain DNA transfer are available for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria, for which chromosomal DNA transfer between two strains was reported, a process which, however, was not observed for strains. Here, we have studied a wide range of human- and animal-adapted members of the complex (MTBC) using an optimized filter-based mating assay together with three selected strains of that acted as DNA recipients. Read More

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Difference in drug susceptibility distribution and clinical characteristics between and lung diseases in Shanghai, China.

J Med Microbiol 2021 May;70(5)

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200082, PR China.

complex (MAC) has been reported as the most common aetiology of lung disease involving nontuberculous mycobacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical characteristics may differ between and . We aimed to evaluate the differences in antimicrobial susceptibility profiles between two major MAC species ( and ) from patients with pulmonary infections and to provide epidemiologic data with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions. Read More

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Cavitary Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease Developed After Immunotherapy.

Arch Bronconeumol (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; School of Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

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Interferon-Gamma Release Assays Differentiate between Mycobacterium avium Complex and Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in Children.

J Pediatr 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Diseases and Systemic Inflammatory Response in Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Institut de Recerca Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona, Spain; Translational Research Network of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (RITIP), Madrid, Spain; Center for Biomedical Network Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Department of Pediatrics, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: To assess the performance of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the differential diagnosis between Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and tuberculosis (TB) in children affected with subacute/chronic submandibular/cervical lymphadenitis.

Study Design: Multicenter observational study comparing children with microbiologically confirmed MAC lymphadenitis from the European NontuberculouS MycoBacterial Lymphadenitis in childrEn study with children with TB lymphadenitis from the Spanish Network for the Study of Pediatric TB database.

Results: Overall, 78 patients with MAC and 34 with TB lymphadenitis were included. Read More

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Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations in the Drug Treatment of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria in Cystic Fibrosis.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging group of pulmonary infectious pathogens of increasing importance to the management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). NTM include slow-growing mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium abscessus. The incidence of NTM in the CF population is increasing and infection contributes to significant morbidity to the patient and costs to the health system. Read More

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An Perspective on What Individual Antimicrobials Add to Mycobacterium avium Complex Therapies.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jul 16;65(8):e0273020. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Radboudumc Center for Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Microbiology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

For Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD), current treatment regimens yield low cure rates. To obtain an evidence-based combination therapy, we assessed the activity of six drugs, namely, clarithromycin (CLR), rifampin (RIF), ethambutol (EMB), amikacin (AMK), clofazimine (CLO), and minocycline (MIN), alone and in combination, against Mycobacterium avium and studied the contributions of individual antibiotics to efficacy. The MICs of all antibiotics against M. Read More

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Role of Clofazimine in Treatment of Complex.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 15;8:638306. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States.

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), specifically complex (MAC), is an increasingly prevalent cause of pulmonary dysfunction. Clofazimine has been shown to be effective for the treatment of complex, but there were no published large-scale analyses comparing clofazimine to non-clofazimine regimens in MAC treatment. The objective of this large-scale meta-analysis was to evaluate patient characteristics and treatment outcomes of individuals diagnosed with MAC and treated with a clofazimine-based regimen. Read More

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A Novel Approach to Extensive Clarithromycin-Resistant Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease.

Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Section of Chest Surgery, Fukujuji Hospital, Kiyose, Tokyo, Japan.

A 48-year-old woman with extensive clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) was successfully treated by left lower lobectomy and lingulectomy following combination treatment of intravenous/inhaled amikacin plus bronchial occlusion by Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots (EWSs). A left pneumonectomy was initially indicated for removing all the lesions, but the procedure would have been barely tolerated by the patient. However, her preoperative combination treatment sufficiently reduced the lesions requiring resection to allow surgical preservation of the left upper division. Read More

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Imaging characteristics of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary nodules.

Rom J Intern Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Division of Respiratory Medicine, Mito Medical Center, University of Tsukuba-Mito Kyodo General Hospital, Miya-macho 3-2-7, Mito-city, Ibaraki, 310-0015, Japan.

: Nontuberculous mycobacteriosis (NTM) of the lungs can develop nodules. In order to clarify some of the characteristics of lung NTM nodules, we examined volume doubling time (VDT) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in positron emission tomography (PET) of pathologically diagnosed NTM nodules.: From November 2012 to August 2018, clinical and radiological information were retrospectively investigated in 8 patients who were surgically resected and diagnosed as NTM. Read More

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Donor-defined mesenchymal stem cell antimicrobial potency against nontuberculous mycobacterium.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2021 Aug 4;10(8):1202-1216. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biology, Skeletal Research Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Chronic nontuberculous mycobacterial infections with Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare complicate bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive airway disease, and the health of aging individuals. These insidious intracellular pathogens cause considerable morbidity and eventual mortality in individuals colonized with these bacteria. Current treatment regimens with antibiotic macrolides are both toxic and often inefficient at providing infection resolution. Read More

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Comparison of Rifamycins for Efficacy Against Complex and Resistance Emergence in the Hollow Fiber Model System.

Front Pharmacol 2021 15;12:645264. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Pulmonary Immunology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX, United States.

Rifamycins are integral part of the combination regimen for treatment of pulmonary [MAC] infection, but different practitioners prefer different rifamycins. The objective of the study was to compare microbial kill and resistance emergence of rifamycins using principles of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. First, we identified rifamycin MICs in 20 MAC isolates from patients followed by concentration-response studies in test-tubes. Read More

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Nontuberculous mycobacteria in China: incidence and antimicrobial resistance spectrum from a nationwide survey.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Apr 29;10(1):59. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

National Center for Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping, Beijing102206, China.

Background: Information on the prevalence and resistance spectrum of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in China is mainly based on regional or local data. To estimate the proportion of NTM cases in China, a national survey of NTM pulmonary disease was carried out based on acid-fast positive sputum samples collected in 2013.

Methods: Sputum samples collected from enrolled presumptive cases in 72 nationwide tuberculosis surveillance sites from the 31 provinces in the mainland of China were cultured using L-J medium at the National tuberculosis reference laboratory (NTRL). Read More

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