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    Biodiversity and human-pathogenicity of Phialophora verrucosa and relatives in Chaetothyriales.
    Persoonia 2017 Jun 2;38:1-19. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Peking University First Hospital, Research Center for Medical Mycology, Peking University; Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis of Dermatoses, Beijing, P.R. China.
    Phialophora as defined by its type species P. verrucosa is a genus of Chaetothyriales, and a member of the group known as 'black yeasts and relatives'. Phialophora verrucosa has been reported from mutilating human infections such as chromoblastomycosis, disseminated phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma, while morphologically similar fungi are rather commonly isolated from the environment. Read More

    Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases Causing the Air Crescent Sign: A State-of-the-Art Review.
    Lung 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua Thomaz Cameron, 438, Valparaiso, Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, CEP, 25685-120, Brazil.
    Aspergilloma, also known as mycetoma or fungus ball, is characterized by a round or oval mass with soft-tissue attenuation within a preexisting lung cavity. The typical computed tomography (CT) aspect of an aspergilloma is a mass separated from the wall of the cavity by an airspace of variable size and shape, resulting in the air crescent sign, also known as the meniscus sign. This CT feature is non-specific and can be simulated by several other entities that result in intracavitary masses. Read More

    Challenges in culture-negative cases of Madurella mycetomatis: A case report re-accentuating PCR as an essential diagnostic tool.
    J Mycol Med 2017 Dec 6;27(4):577-581. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Microbiology, University College of Medical Sciences (University of Delhi) and Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Delhi 110095, India; Research and Scientific Studies Unit, College of Nursing and Allied Health Sciences, Jazan University, Jazan 45142, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:
    Identification of dematiaceous fungi responsible for black-grain mycetoma has remained cumbersome and time consuming for years leading to delayed diagnosis and thereby increased agony to patients. Moreover, difficult morphology of some of these fungi demanding enough expertise for species identification in addition to culture-negativity has often led to misdiagnosis and hence inapt treatment to the patients. We report the identification of Madurella mycetomatis from culture-negative black granules discharged from foot nodular lesions of a 27 years old male using PCR followed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region. Read More

    Amphotericin B and terbinafine but not the azoles prolong survival in Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis.
    Med Mycol 2017 Sep 14. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    ErasmusMC Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Wytemaweg 80 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mycetoma is a tropical neglected disease characterized by large subcutaneous lesions in which the causative organisms reside in the form of grains. The most common causative agent is Madurella mycetomatis. Antifungal therapy often fails due to these grains, but to identify novel treatment options has been difficult since grains do not form in vitro. Read More

    Closing the mycetoma knowledge gap.
    Med Mycol 2017 Sep 9. Epub 2017 Sep 9.
    Rotterdam Centre for Tropical Medicine, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    On 28th May 2016, mycetoma was recognized as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization. This was the result of a 4-year journey starting in February 2013 with a meeting of global mycetoma experts. Knowledge gaps were identified and included the incidence, prevalence, and mapping of mycetoma; the mode of transmission; the development of methods for early diagnosis; and better treatment. Read More

    Actinomycosis of the foot - A South African case.
    S Afr J Surg 2017 Jun;55(2):36
    Department of Surgery, Livingstone Hospital, Walter Sisulu University (WSU).
    Mycetoma is a chronic infection, characterised by severe disability and discomfort to patients. This condition is common throughout tropical regions of the world. The Indian subcontinent and north-east Africa, especially Sudan, bear the majority of the disease burden. Read More

    Non-Coding RNAs are Differentially Expressed by Nocardia brasiliensis in Vitro and in Experimental Actinomycetoma.
    Open Microbiol J 2017 30;11:112-125. Epub 2017 Jun 30.
    Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Ciudad de México, México.
    Introduction: Nocardia spp. are common soil-inhabiting bacteria that frequently infect humans through traumatic injuries or inhalation routes and cause infections, such as actinomycetoma and nocardiosis, respectively. Nocardia brasiliensis is the main aetiological agent of actinomycetoma in various countries. Read More

    Mycetoma laboratory diagnosis: Review article.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 24;11(8):e0005638. Epub 2017 Aug 24.
    The Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Mycetoma is a unique neglected tropical disease caused by a substantial number of microorganisms of fungal or bacterial origins. Identification of the causative organism and the disease extension are the first steps in the management of the affected patients and predicting disease treatment outcome and prognosis. Different laboratory-based diagnostic tools and techniques were developed over the years to determine and identify the causative agents. Read More

    Mycetoma: An Update.
    Indian J Dermatol 2017 Jul-Aug;62(4):332-340
    Department of Dermatology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
    Mycetoma is a localized chronic, suppurative, and deforming granulomatous infection seen in tropical and subtropical areas. It is a disorder of subcutaneous tissue, skin and bones, mainly of feet, characterized by a triad of localized swelling, underlying sinus tracts, and production of grains or granules. Etiological classification divides it into eumycetoma caused by fungus, and actinomycetoma caused by bacteria. Read More

    Two simultaneous mycetomas caused by Fusarium verticillioides and Madurella mycetomatis.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 3;59:e55. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Hospital General de México "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", Servicio de Dermatología, Ciudad de México, México.
    Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease, classified into eumycetoma caused by fungi and actinomycetoma due to aerobic filamentous actinomycetes. Mycetoma can be found in geographic areas near the Tropic of Cancer. Mexico is one of the countries in which actinomycetoma is endemic. Read More

    A Primary Cutaneous Nocardiosis of the Hand.
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci 2017 Jul 20;5(4):470-472. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Friedrichstrasse 41, 01067, Dresden, Germany.
    Background: Nocardiosis is caused by an aerobic actinomycete, most commonly introduced through the respiratory tract. The Nocardiae are gram-positive, partially acid-fast bacteria. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis infections are rare and caused by the traumatic introduction of organisms percutaneously. Read More

    Neglected endemic mycoses.
    Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Nov 31;17(11):e367-e377. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
    Fungi often infect mammalian hosts via the respiratory route, but traumatic transcutaneous implantation is also an important source of infections. Environmental exposure to spores of pathogenic fungi can result in subclinical and unrecognised syndromes, allergic manifestations, and even overt disease. After traumatic cutaneous inoculation, several fungi can cause neglected mycoses such as sporotrichosis, chromoblastomycosis, mycetoma, entomophthoramycosis, and lacaziosis. Read More

    Successful medical treatment of an Aspergillus terreus mycetoma of the nostril/lip in a 16-year-old Fjord pony gelding with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.
    Vet Dermatol 2017 Dec 23;28(6):629-e155. Epub 2017 Jul 23.
    VetAgro Sup, Veterinary Campus of Lyon, University of Lyon, 69280, Marcy l'Etoile, France.
    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic, proliferative lesion of cutaneous/subcutaneous tissue characterized by draining tracts and granules in the discharge caused by actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) or filamentous fungi (eumycotic mycetoma).

    Objectives: This case report describes the unusual finding of a cutaneous mycetoma of the lateral wing of the right nostril in a gelding.

    Animal: A 16-year-old Fjord gelding with suspected pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) was presented for evaluation of a nonpainful, firm and raised mass involving the lateral wing of the right nostril and the lip. Read More

    Mycetoma (Madura Foot) in Israel: Recent Cases and a Systematic Review of the Literature.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jun;96(6):1355-1361
    Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    AbstractMycetoma is a chronic soft tissue infection caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens, and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Cases in developed countries outside the mycetoma belt are rare and usually imported by immigrants. Sporadic cases have been reported in Israel. Read More

    Transtubular excisional biopsy as a rescue for a non-diagnostic stereotactic needle biopsy-case report and literature review.
    Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Presbyterian Hospital, 1305 York Avenue, 9th Floor, Box #99, New York, NY, 10021, USA.
    Stereotactic needle biopsy, a standard of care for acquiring deep-seated pathology, has limitations and risks in some situations. We present an uncommon case with basal ganglia dematiaceous mycetoma. Due to the firm consistency of the lesion, the initial stereotactic needle biopsy failed to provide a diagnosis. Read More

    [The modern possibilities for the application of multispiral computed tomography in diagnostics of paranasal sinuses mycetomas].
    Vestn Otorinolaringol 2017;82(3):22-24
    I.K. Akhunbaev ENT Department, Kyrgyz State Medical Academy, Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, 720020.
    The objective of the present study was the analysis of the health status of 20 patients presenting with histologically verified paranasal sinuses mycetomas (fungus balls) with special reference to CT-semiotics characteristic of the fungal ball as early as during the pre-verification period. The surgical strategy for the management of this condition has been substantiated. It is concluded that the final verification of the pathological process in question is possible only based on the results of the histological studies. Read More

    Ultrasonography of a ureteral and bladder fungal granuloma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum in a basset hound.
    Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    BluePearl Veterinary Partners LLC, New York, NY.
    A 5-year-old, spayed female, Basset Hound was referred for evaluation of a urinary bladder mass. Ultrasonographic images revealed a large, inhomogeneous, hypoechoic mass associated with the dorsal wall of the neck of the urinary bladder and left ureter. Partial cystectomy and left ureteral reimplantation were performed. Read More

    Fungi that Infect Humans.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Jun;5(3)
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Read More

    Rapid and Robust Identification of the Agents of Black-Grain Mycetoma by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.
    J Clin Microbiol 2017 Aug 7;55(8):2521-2528. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    PHE Mycology Reference Laboratory, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Eumycetoma, a chronic fungal infection endemic in India, Indonesia, and parts of Africa and South and Central America, follows traumatic implantation of saprophytic fungi and frequently requires radical surgery or amputation in the absence of appropriate treatment. Fungal species that can cause black-grain mycetomas include Madurella spp., Falciformispora spp. Read More

    Post-tuberculosis mycetoma: bronchoscopic removal.
    Respirol Case Rep 2017 Jul 1;5(4):e00243. Epub 2017 Jun 1.
    Department of Respiratory MedicineCork University HospitalCorkIreland.
    A 76-year-old male non-smoker presented to our institution with cough and haemoptysis. He had been treated for cavitatory pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis of the right upper lobe 10 years previously. Chest radiograph and subsequent computed tomography (CT) of the chest demonstrated a right upper cavity containing a mass suspicious for mycetoma. Read More

    [Contribution of histopathology in the diagnosis of mycetoma in a Cameroonian trader and possibility of an urban contamination].
    J Mycol Med 2017 Sep 31;27(3):417-420. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Centre Pasteur, laboratoire d'anatomie et cytologie pathologique, Yaoundé, Cameroun.
    Background: Mycetoma are rare cutaneous affections caused by pathogens such as fungi or bacteria. They settle preferentially on limb extremities. We are going to talk about an original case of mycetoma in a young Cameroonian trader. Read More

    Practical Management of Deep Cutaneous Fungal Infections.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):E71-E77
    Department of Dermatology, Kitasato University Kitasato Institute Hospital.
    Understanding deep cutaneous fungal infection requires not only reading many case reports and checking the typical clinical images of skin lesions, but also managing the patients properly to prevent misdiagnosis. Herein, I review my recent experiences with eight typical cases of deep cutaneous infections (including protothecosis and nocardiosis) in Japan. It is very important to do the four management processes; namely, KOH direct microscopic examination, skin biopsy, fungal culture, and microscopic examination of the histopathological specimen of PAS and Grocott staining. Read More

    Recurrent Scedosporium apiospermum mycetoma successfully treated by surgical excision and terbinafine treatment: a case report and review of the literature.
    Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2017 Apr 14;16(1):31. Epub 2017 Apr 14.
    MTA-SZTE "Lendület" Fungal Pathogenicity Mechanisms Research Group, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Közép fasor 52, Szeged, 6726, Hungary.
    Background: Scedosporium apiospermum is an emerging opportunistic filamentous fungus, which is notorious for its high levels of antifungal-resistance. It is able to cause localized cutaneous or subcutaneous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent persons, pulmonary infections in patients with predisposing pulmonary diseases and invasive mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Subcutaneous infections caused by this fungus frequently show chronic mycetomatous manifestation. Read More


    Combining two antifungal agents does not enhance survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with Madurella mycetomatis.
    Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jun 2;22(6):696-702. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ErasmusMC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Objective: To determine whether combination therapy would improve therapeutic outcome in eumycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis.

    Methods: Survival, colony-forming units (CFU), melanisation and histopathology in M. mycetomatis-infected Galleria mellonella larvae treated with amphotericin B, itraconazole, terbinafine or combinations thereof were determined. Read More

    Actinomycetoma: an update on diagnosis and treatment.
    Cutis 2017 Feb;99(2):E11-E15
    Dawson Medical Group, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.
    Mycetoma is a chronic infection that develops after traumatic inoculation of the skin with either true fungi or aerobic actinomycetes. The resultant infections are known as eumycetoma or actinomycetoma, respectively. Although actinomycetoma is rare in developed countries, migration of patients from endemic areas makes knowledge of this condition crucial for dermatologists worldwide. Read More

    Dot-in-Circle Sign - A Diagnostic MRI Sign for "Madura Foot".
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017 Mar;27(3):S8-S10
    Department of Radiology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad.
    Mycetoma is a slowly progressive localised, granulomatous, subcutaneous tissue infection common among adult males aged 20 - 50 years. The causing agents include both bacteria (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma). This chronic infection was described in literature as Madura foot and eventually mycetoma, due to its etiology. Read More

    Surgical and pathogenetic considerations of frontal sinus fungus ball.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2017 Jun 13;274(6):2493-2497. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Head and Neck Surgery & Forensic Dissection Research Center (HNS&FDRC), Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Insubria-Varese, ASST Sette Laghi, Ospedale di Circolo e Fondazione Macchi, Varese, Italy.
    Fungus ball (FB) is an non-invasive form of mycosis, that generally affects immunocompetent and non-atopic subjects. Involvement of the frontal sinus is extremely rare. We report two cases with frontal sinus fungus ball that underwent endoscopic endonasal frontal Draf type IIb or III sinusotomy with complete removal of the cheesy clay-like material. Read More

    Prompt diagnosis of Scedosporium apiospermum soft tissue infection: Life-saving in a renal transplant recipient.
    J Postgrad Med 2017 Jul-Sep;63(3):200-202
    Department of Microbiology, Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
    Scedosporium apiospermum, an ubiquitous filamentous fungus, a known cause of mycetoma, is emerging as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of painful foot abscess in a renal allograft recipient on immunosuppressive therapy, which was clinically diagnosed as a suppurative bacterial abscess. Pus was aspirated, which showed septate, branching hyphal elements and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar yielded S. Read More

    Mycetoma-like chromoblastomycosis: a diagnostic dilemma.
    Int J Dermatol 2017 May 23;56(5):563-566. Epub 2017 Feb 23.
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
    Objectives: Mycetoma and chromoblastomycosis are subcutaneous fungal infections caused by pigmented fungi, common in the tropics and subtropics. Here we report a pregnant woman who presented with a swelling around the ankle joint which was clinically diagnosed as a case of mycetoma; however, further investigations revealed it to be a case of chromoblastomycosis.

    Methods: 24 year old primigravida presented with an indurated swelling around the ankle joint with multiple nodules and sinuses draining serosanguinous discharge. Read More

    Serious fungal infections in the Philippines.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Jun 21;36(6):937-941. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Education and Research Center, University Hospital of South Manchester, Southmoor Road, Manchester, M23 9LT, UK.
    The Philippines is a low middle-income, tropical country in Southeast Asia. Infectious diseases remain the main causes of morbidity, including tuberculosis. AIDS/HIV prevalence is still low at <1%, but is rapidly increasing. Read More

    1,10-Phenanthroline-5,6-Dione-Based Compounds Are Effective in Disturbing Crucial Physiological Events of Phialophora verrucosa.
    Front Microbiol 2017 30;8:76. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    Laboratório de Taxonomia, Bioquímica e Bioprospecção de Fungos, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Phialophora verrucosa is a dematiaceous fungus able to cause chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and mycetoma. All these fungal diseases are extremely difficult to treat and often refractory to the current therapeutic approaches. Therefore, there is an urgent necessity to develop new antifungal agents to combat these mycoses. Read More

    Review of 21 cases of mycetoma from 1991 to 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Feb 13;11(2):e0005301. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - Rio de Janeiro - Brazil.
    Mycetoma is caused by the subcutaneous inoculation of filamentous fungi or aerobic filamentous bacteria that form grains in the tissue. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with mycetoma at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1991 and 2014. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were included in the study. Read More

    Mycetoma in a non-endemic area: a diagnostic challenge.
    BMC Clin Pathol 2017 2;17. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
    Departement of Pathology, Hassan II Teaching Hospital, Fès, Morocco.
    Background: Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous infectious disease caused by filamentous bacteria or by fungi. The disease is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical areas of the world but can be found elsewhere posing sometimes a diagnostic challenge for clinicians.

    Case Presentation: A 65-year- old man presented with a right foot swelling evolving for 25 years. Read More


    Tenosynovitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum infection misdiagnosed as an Alternaria species: a case report.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 Jan 14;17(1):72. Epub 2017 Jan 14.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.
    Background: Scedosporium apiospermum, which can usually be isolated from soil, polluted stream water and decaying vegetation, is increasingly recognized as an opportunistic dematiaceous fungus. The mortality rate of infection in immunocompromised hosts is over 50%. S. Read More

    [Cutaneous granular bacteriosis occurring in Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia].
    Ann Dermatol Venereol 2017 Apr 26;144(4):275-278. Epub 2016 Dec 26.
    Service de dermatologie, hôpital Saint-André, CHU de Bordeaux, 1, rue Jean-Burguet, 33075 Bordeaux cedex, France; Inserm U1053, équipe 3 oncogenèse des lymphomes cutanés, université de Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:
    Background: Herein we report a case of cutaneous granular bacteriosis, with discussion of the nosological setting of this entity based upon the clinical and histological findings.

    Patients And Methods: A 62-year-old woman receiving methotrexate for Sezary syndrome was admitted for fever of 38.5̊C and overall impairment of her health. Read More

    Fusarium species causing eumycetoma: Report of two cases and comprehensive review of the literature.
    Mycoses 2017 Mar 7;60(3):204-212. Epub 2016 Dec 7.
    Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
    Recently, mycetoma was added to the World Health Organization's list of neglected tropical disease priorities. Fusarium as a genus has been reported to cause eumycetoma, but little is known about the species involved in this infection and their identification. In this study, molecular tools were applied to identify Fusarium agents from human eumycetoma cases. Read More

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