17,589 results match your criteria Myasthenia Gravis and Pregnancy


A Simple, Rapid and Non-Radiolabeled Immune Assay to Detect Anti-AChR Antibodies in Myasthenia Gravis.

Lab Med 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, India.

Objective: To assess the practicality of dot-blot testing for rapid and sensitive detection of the antiacetylcholine receptor (anti-AChR) antibodies in myasthenia gravis (MG).

Methods: In this case-control study, we tested serum specimens of 85 patients with MG, 85 healthy control individuals, and 85 patients without MG who have other autoimmune and neurological illnesses. All the serum specimens were tested for anti-AChR antibodies using 3 assays: in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the dot-blot assay, and commercial ELISA. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Mimicking Myocardial Infarction in a Man with Myasthenic Crisis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Med Case Rep 2018 11;6(9):184-188. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y, U.S.A-11203.

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy is a syndrome characterized by transient and reversible regional myocardial dysfunction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease classically resulting in ventricular apical ballooning. It has a strong female predominance with onset generally in seventh decade of life, with hypothesized pathophysiology related to excess of catecholaminergic stimulation, particularly during episodes of physical or emotional stress. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has been previously reported during myasthenic crisis, the acute deterioration of myasthenia gravis typically involving respiratory failure that is also associated with physical or emotional stress. Read More

View Article
October 2018

Resolution of primary ovarian insufficiency after corticosteroid administration in a myasthenia gravis patient: Report and minireview of the literature.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1807-1810

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

View Article
December 2018

Neurotoxicity of the antibiotics: A comprehensive study.

Neurol India 2018 Nov-Dec;66(6):1732-1740

Department of Neurosurgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Antibiotics are among the most widely used medications in clinical settings. Seizures, encephalopathy, optic neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and exacerbation of myasthenia gravis are important examples of neurotoxic adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics. This article aims to review the most common and important neurotoxic adverse effects associated with various antibiotics routinely used in a clinical setting. Read More

View Article
December 2018

Ice Pack Test - An Useful Bedside Test to Diagnose Myasthenia Gravis.

QJM 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Neurology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Queen Elizabeth, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

Myasthenia gravis is a common autoimmune neurological disorder that is frequently encountered in our daily practice. Its presentation can vary from ocular myasthenia, generalized myasthenia to myasthenia crisis. Diagnosing a myasthenia crisis is especially challenging in an intubated patient. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Critical Care of Neuromuscular Disorders.

Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2018 Dec;24(6):1753-1775

Purpose Of Review: Weakness is a common reason patients are seen in neurologic consultation. This article reviews the differential diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders in the intensive care unit (ICU), discusses the intensive care needs and evaluation of respiratory failure in patients with neuromuscular disorders, and provides a practical guide for management.

Recent Findings: Although primary neuromuscular disorders used to be the most common cause for weakness from peripheral nervous system disease in the ICU, a shift toward ICU-acquired weakness is observed in today's clinical practice. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Clinical features of laryngeal myasthenia gravis: A case series.

Am J Otolaryngol 2018 Nov 5. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Neurology, Tianjin Union Medical Center, Tianjin 300121, China.

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease. Dysarthria, dysphagia, and difficulty swallowing as exclusive initial and primary complaints in MG (laryngeal MG) are rare and seldom reported.

Methods: Here we review and analyze the largest series of laryngeal MG patients. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Repetitive Nerve Stimulation Test in Myasthenic Crisis.

Muscle Nerve 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Introduction: We are reporting our experience with the repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) test in myasthenia gravis (MG) crisis.

Methods: The various parameters of the RNS tests in 26 patients with MG crisis were analyzed.

Results: In 18 (69%) patients, MG crisis is the first manifestation of MG. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

[The 466th case:myasthenia,fever,blurred vision and pancytopenia].

Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2018 Dec;57(12):942-944

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China.

A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, due to weakness of the upper limbs, fever, and blurred vision. She was clinically diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus overlapped primary biliary cirrhosis, with renal, retinal, hematological and musculoskeletal involvement, combined with severe pulmonary infection and respiratory failure. Treated with glucocorticoids, ursodeoxycholic acid, antibiotics and respiratory support, the patient got better. Read More

View Article
December 2018
2 Reads

Altered Gut Microbiota in Myasthenia Gravis.

Front Microbiol 2018 9;9:2627. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune-mediated disorder, the etiology of which involves both environmental factors and genetics. While the exact factors responsible for predisposition to MG remain elusive, it is hypothesized that gut microbiota play a critical role in the pathogenesis of MG. This study investigated whether gut microbiota are altered in MG patients by comparing the fecal microbiota profiles of MG patients to those of age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis and Management of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor-Associated Neurologic Toxicity: Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature.

Oncologist 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Division of Neuromuscular Medicine, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) initiate antitumor immunity by blocking the action of immune inhibitor-signaled cytotoxic proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, programmed cell death protein 1, and programmed cell death ligand 1. However, in rare cases (∼1%-12% of patients), ICI treatment causes neurologic immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These include, but are not limited to, headache, encephalitis, neuropathies, myasthenia gravis, and myositis. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Immune checkpoint inhibitors in the onset of myasthenia gravis with hyperCKemia.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2018 Nov 23;5(11):1421-1427. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Neurology Graduate School of Medical Sciences Faculty of Life Sciences Kumamoto University Kumamoto Japan.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors sometimes cause neuromuscular adverse events. Although a few cases of myasthenia gravis with hyperCKemia triggered by immune checkpoint inhibitors have been described, conclusive evidence remains limited. We conducted a systematic review of published cases of myasthenia gravis with hyperCKemia related to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Regulatory B cells in myasthenia gravis are differentially affected by therapies.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2018 Nov 22;5(11):1408-1414. Epub 2018 Sep 22.

Center of Research in Myology Sorbonne University INSERM AIM UMRS974 Paris France.

We analyzed the number and functionality of regulatory B (Breg) cells in well-defined myasthenia gravis patients. We first showed a decreased number of circulating CD19 CD24 CD38 Breg cells and an altered functionality of Breg cells in untreated myasthenia gravis patients. Next, we demonstrated that the proportion of circulating Breg cells was restored in myasthenia gravis patients after thymectomy, probably as Breg cells could be sequestered in the myasthenia gravis thymus. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Autoimmune diseases associated with Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders: A literature review.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Nov 16;27:350-363. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

MS Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which predominantly involves optic nerves and spinal cord. Since the introduction of Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorders (NMOSD) as a separate entity, there have been many reports on its association with other disorders including systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Here, we reviewed other immune-mediated diseases associated with NMOSD and tried to categorize them. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Tacrolimus inhibits Th1 and Th17 responses in MuSK-antibody positive myasthenia gravis patients.

Exp Neurol 2018 Nov 22;312:43-50. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Muscle specific tyrosine kinase antibody positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK- MG) is characterized by autoantibodies against the MuSK protein of the neuromuscular junction resulting in weakness of bulbar and proximal muscles. We previously demonstrated that patients with MuSK-MG have increased pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 responses. Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant used in AChR-MG and transplantation patients, inhibits T cell responses through interference with IL-2 transcription. Read More

View Article
November 2018
1 Read

Neuro-Ophthalmic Disorders in Pregnancy.

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):85-102

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 60 Fenwood Road, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, 243 Charles Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

The physiologic changes that accompany pregnancy can have important implications for neuro-ophthalmic disease. This article discusses pregnancy-related considerations for meningioma, pituitary disorders, demyelinating disease, myasthenia gravis, thyroid eye disease, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, stroke, migraine, and cranial neuropathies. The article also details the potential neuro-ophthalmic complications of preeclampsia and eclampsia and reviews the use of common diagnostic studies during pregnancy. Read More

View Article
February 2019
3 Reads

Management of Myasthenia Gravis in Pregnancy.

Authors:
Janet Waters

Neurol Clin 2019 Feb;37(1):113-120

Women's Neurology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 3471 Fifth Avenue Suite 810, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder characterized by fluctuating weakness of extraocular and proximal limb muscles. It occurs in 1 in 5000 in the overall population and is 2 times more common in women than men. The onset in women is most common in the third decade, and risk of severe exacerbation occurs most frequently in the year after presentation. Read More

View Article
February 2019
3 Reads

Coexistence of anti-HMGCR and anti-MDA5 identified by an unlabeled immunoprecipitation assay in a chinese patient cohort with myositis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Nov;97(47):e13236

Department of Pathophysiology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha City, Hunan, PR China.

Myositis-specific autoantibodies are important diagnostic and prognostic markers. The aim of our study is to detect anti-3-hydroxy 3-methylutaryl coenzyme A reductase (anti-HMGCR) antibody using novel unlabeled immunoprecipitation (IP) assay and immunoblotting in Chinese patients with myositis and to clarify the features of anti-HMGCR-positive patients. In the present study, we established novel unlabeled IP assay and immunoblotting of HMGCR C-terminus for anti-HMGCR detection. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads
5.720 Impact Factor

Long-term follow-up of patients with myasthenia gravis treated with low-dose rituximab.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Nov 19. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Neurology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Wooloongabba, Queensland, Australia

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Myositis and neuromuscular side-effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

Eur J Cancer 2018 Nov 16;106:12-23. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Germany. Electronic address:

Aim: To characterise clinical presentation, laboratory and histopathologic characteristics and assess the treatment and outcome of neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint therapy.

Methods: The side-effect registry and the institutional database from ten skin cancer centres were queried for reports on myositis and neuromuscular side-effects induced by checkpoint inhibitors. In total, 38 patients treated with ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab for metastatic skin cancer were evaluated and characterised. Read More

View Article
November 2018
7 Reads

Pattern of Habitual Physical Exercise in Myasthenia Gravis Patients.

J Neuromuscul Dis 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Background: Notwithstanding the amount of deliberate exercise, the daily patterns of active versus sedentary behavior have a major influence on health outcomes [1]. Patterns of habitual active and sedentary behavior in Myasthenia Gravis (MG) patients, as well as their possible relations to disease activity, are not known.

Objective: To evaluate baseline patterns of physical and sedentary behavior in MG patients. Read More

View Article
November 2018
2 Reads

Recent advances in understanding and managing myasthenia gravis.

F1000Res 2018 31;7. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Neurology, The Ohio State Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Autoimmune myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular junction disorder marked clinically by fatigable muscle weakness and serologically by the presence of autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), or lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LPR4). Over the past few decades, the mortality of patients with MG has seen a dramatic decline secondary to evolving interventions in critical care and medical management. In the past 2 to 3 years, there have been several changes in standard of care for the treatment of MG. Read More

View Article
October 2018
4 Reads

What is in the Neuromuscular Junction Literature?

J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2018 Dec;20(2):76-84

Pathology (Neuropathology), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA.

This update begins with myasthenia gravis and the roles of anti-agrin and cortactin antibodies. Regarding diagnosis, a report on repeated ice pack testing is highlighted as are several reports on the close correlation of electrodiagnostic testing with clinical features and the response to treatment. The incidence of head drop and associated clinical and ventilatory features are gleaned from a retrospective study. Read More

View Article
December 2018
1 Read

Satisfactory Response With Achieving Maintenance Low-Dose Prednisone in Generalized Myasthenia Gravis.

J Clin Neuromuscul Dis 2018 Dec;20(2):49-59

Neurology Department, The University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Objectives: To estimate the satisfactory response rate (SR%) with achieving maintenance, low-dose prednisone in acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we estimate the SR% as defined by (remission/minimal manifestations status for at least 6 months using 7.5 mg or less of prednisone daily, for maintenance treatment at 2, 4, and 6 years after symptoms onset) for patients who were not taking steroid-sparing immunosuppressant (SSI) as a primary outcome and for patients taking an SSI as a secondary outcome. Read More

View Article
December 2018
9 Reads

Sensitivity of MG-ADL for generalized weakness in myasthenia gravis.

Eur J Neurol 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, Netherlands.

Introduction: MG-ADL (Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living) is a commonly used questionnaire in MG trials. To investigate whether MG-ADL is equally sensitive to oculobulbar and generalized weakness, we analyzed its correlation with the oculobulbar and generalized domain of the quantitative myasthenia gravis (QMG) score (QMGob and QMGgen, respectively). To test whether the sensitivity of MG-ADL for generalized weakness could be improved, we investigated whether adding questions on generalized weakness would increase its correlation with QMGgen. Read More

View Article
November 2018
7 Reads

Characterization of the thymus in Lrp4 myasthenia gravis: Four cases.

Autoimmun Rev 2018 Nov 8. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229 ER Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction. Most patients have pathogenic autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR). In the last years a novel subpopulation of MG patients has been described that harbors antibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), another postsynaptic neuromuscular antigen. Read More

View Article
November 2018
14 Reads
7.930 Impact Factor

A Natural Variant of the Signaling Molecule Vav1 Enhances Susceptibility to Myasthenia Gravis and Influences the T Cell Receptor Repertoire.

Front Immunol 2018 25;9:2399. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan, Université de Toulouse, UPS, Inserm, CNRS, Toulouse, France.

The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav1 is essential for transducing T cell receptor (TCR) signals and plays an important role in T cell development and activation. Previous genetic studies identified a natural variant of Vav1 characterized by the substitution of an arginine (R) residue by a tryptophane (W) at position 63 (Vav1). This variant impacts Vav1 adaptor functions and controls susceptibility to T cell-mediated neuroinflammation. Read More

View Article
October 2018
8 Reads

Factors associated with quality of life of people with Myasthenia Gravis.

PLoS One 2018 8;13(11):e0206754. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Kangnam-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Purpose: As most of patients with Myasthenia Gravis have limitations in their physical functioning, many experience changes in psychological states and often have depression. The objective of the current study was to examine the roles of communication with medical professionals, patients' loneliness, and patients' depression, in relation to their effects on the patients' quality of life.

Methods: For 120 patients with MG of 18 years and older, demographic variables, along with communication with medical professionals, loneliness, depression, and quality of life were measured. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

MicroRNA-143 inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of thymocyte by targeting CXCL13 in myasthenia gravis mice models.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 7. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Key Laboratory for Biotechnology on Medicinal Plants of Jiangsu Province, School of Life Science, Jiangsu Normal University.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder, affecting the quality of life of millions of people worldwide. The current study aims to determine the relationship between microRNA-143 (miR-143) and CXCL13, and whether it influences the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG). Thymus specimens were resected from patients with thymic hyperplasia combined MG, and then infused into normal mouse cavities to establish MG mice models. Read More

View Article
November 2018
7 Reads

Ocular myasthenia gravis patients following the administration of tacrolimus and steroids.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Oct 30;396:30-32. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan.

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Unexpected dislocation following accurate total hip arthroplasty caused by excessive hip joint laxity during myasthenic crisis: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2018 Nov 6;12(1):331. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Shogoin, Kawahara-cho 54, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8507, Japan.

Background: Dislocation following total hip arthroplasty is mainly caused by malposition. However, the coexistence of neuromuscular disorders is also considered a risk for dislocation due to excessive hip joint laxity. To minimize risk of dislocation, preoperative planning using combined anteversion has been widely used. Read More

View Article
November 2018
4 Reads

Assessment of oropharyngeal swallowing dysfunction in myasthenia gravis patients presenting with difficulty in swallowing.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2018 Nov 1. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Kumamoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kumamoto, Japan.

Objective: To examine the correlation between the results of a clinical neurological evaluation and swallowing dysfunction in myasthenia gravis (MG) patients who presented with difficulty in swallowing and underwent videofluorographic (VF) and fiber-optic endoscopic (FE) evaluation.

Methods: The swallowing studies of 13MG patients with difficulty in swallowing seen at the Department of Neurology from June 2016 to April 2018 were reviewed. The assessment parameters on VF and FE examination were as follows: swallowing initiation, bolus stasis at the pyriform sinus (PS) and vallecula (VC), and the degree of aspiration. Read More

View Article
November 2018
3 Reads

Predictive score for oral corticosteroid-induced initial worsening of seropositive generalized myasthenia gravis.

J Neurol Sci 2018 Oct 19;396:8-11. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Japan.

Background: Initial worsening of symptoms after the start of corticosteroid administration is a major concern in the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG). However, the risk factors or specific patient backgrounds related to this issue have not been fully understood. We aimed to determine the risk factors and developed a scoring system for predicting initial worsening in generalized MG. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Tolerising cellular therapies: what is their promise for autoimmune disease?

Ann Rheum Dis 2018 Nov 2. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Institute of Cellular Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK

The current management of autoimmunity involves the administration of immunosuppressive drugs coupled to symptomatic and functional interventions such as anti-inflammatory therapies and hormone replacement. Given the chronic nature of autoimmunity, however, the ideal therapeutic strategy would be to reinduce self-tolerance before significant tissue damage has accrued. Defects in, or defective regulation of, key immune cells such as regulatory T cells have been documented in several types of human autoimmunity. Read More

View Article
November 2018
9 Reads

Concentric or monopolar electrode for jitter determination in orbicularis oculi.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 26;129(12):2552-2556. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Institute of Physiology Unit, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Portugal. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate if monopolar (MN) and concentric (CN) electrodes are equivalent for volitional contraction jitter estimation in orbicularis oculi (OO), and to study the effect of selecting a specific high-pass filter.

Methods: We studied neuromuscular jitter in OO on both sides in 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (MG). We used either MN (50 patients) or CN (50 patients) electrodes in individual patients, according to a randomised protocol, with a 1kH high pass filter on one side and a 3kH filter on the other. Read More

View Article
December 2018
10 Reads

Whether Thymoma Patients in Myasthenia Crisis Could Benefit from Immediate Resection of Tumor Compared with Selective Surgery after Stabilization of MC.

Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

View Article
October 2018
1 Read
0.687 Impact Factor

Tetanic Facilitation of Neuromuscular Transmission by Adenosine A2A and Muscarinic M1 Receptors is Dependent on the Uptake of Choline via High-Affinity Transporters.

Pharmacology 2018 Oct 31;103(1-2):38-49. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutic, State University of Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.

Background/aims: In this study, we evaluated the functional impact of facilitatory presynaptic adenosine A2A and muscarinic M1 receptors in the recovery of neuromuscular tetanic depression caused by the blockage of high-affinity choline transporter (HChT) by hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), a condition that mimics a myasthenia-like condition.

Methods: Rat diaphragm preparations were indirectly stimulated via the phrenic nerve trunk with 50-Hz frequency trains, each consisting of 500-750 supramaximal intensity pulses. The tension at the beginning (A) and at the end (B) of the tetanus was recorded and the ratio (R) B/A calculated. Read More

View Article
October 2018
3 Reads

Mycophenolic acid in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: From humans to dogs.

J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2018 Oct 29. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Okava Pharmaceuticals, San Francisco, California.

Mycophenolic acid (MPA), a noncompetitive, selective and reversible inhibitor of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), is an immunosuppressive agent that has a long history in medicine. Mechanistically, the inhibition of IMPDH leads to the selective and eventual arrest of T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), the first MPA-based product to receive marketing approval over two decades ago, was originally indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in human transplant patients. Read More

View Article
October 2018
1 Read

Glioneuronal brainstem tumor - It's all in the eyes.

J Clin Neurosci 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Alfred Hospital, Department of Neurology, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

A previously well man presented with several months' history of neurological symptoms including diplopia and balance difficulties. Examination revealed fluctuating neurological deficits, fatigable weakness and slowed saccades. Extensive testing revealed mildly elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, strongly positive single fiber electromyography and a dorsal pontine lesion at the floor of the 4th ventricle. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads

Effects of long-term respiratory muscle endurance training on respiratory and functional outcomes in patients with Myasthenia gravis.

Respir Med 2018 Nov 4;144:7-15. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

University of Leipzig, Carl-Ludwig-Institute for Physiology, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by reduced muscle endurance and often leads to respiratory complications.

Objective: A long-term respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) based on normocapnic hyperpnea was introduced for the first time in MG patients. We investigated RMET effects on respiratory endurance (RE), MG symptoms, lung function and physical fitness and compared the results with a control group (CG). Read More

View Article
November 2018
8 Reads

Pembrolizumab-induced agranulocytosis in a pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma patient who developed interstitial lung disease and ocular myasthenia gravis.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2018 Nov 22;2018(11):omy094. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine and Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

An 82-year-old man with a recurrence of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma was treated with pembrolizumab. He achieved partial response after three cycles of pembrolizumab. However, he developed febrile neutropenia. Read More

View Article
November 2018
5 Reads

bloodstream infection preceding the diagnosis of rectal carcinoma.

Oxf Med Case Reports 2018 Nov 17;2018(11):omy084. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Cancer is one of the major comorbidities in patients with sepsis, and conversely, bloodstream infections (BSI) may precede the diagnosis of colorectal malignancy, in particular when is isolated. We present the rare case of an BSI preceding the diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma.

Case Presentation: A 56-year-old man with a history of ocular myasthenia gravis presented with fever and shaking chills, and was diagnosed with BSI of unknown origin. Read More

View Article
November 2018
6 Reads

The long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 functions as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate MSL2 expression by sponging miR-338-3p in myasthenia gravis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Oct 26. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a cell-dependent autoimmune disease commonly associated with thymic pathology. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT-1) has been associated with gene regulation and alternative splicing. It has shown relationship with proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Read More

View Article
October 2018
6 Reads

Imbalance of the two main circulating dendritic cell subsets in patients with myasthenia gravis.

Clin Immunol 2018 Oct 22. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department of Neurology, National Key Clinical Department and Key Discipline of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China. Electronic address:

Although it is well documented that circulating dendritic cells (DCs) have specialized features during many kinds of physiological and pathological conditions, there are few reports about the features of DCs in the peripheral blood of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. We investigated the quantitative and component features of DCs and their implications in MG. Peripheral blood samples from different kinds of MG patients were collected and their clinical characteristics were recorded. Read More

View Article
October 2018
2 Reads

Pyridostigmine induced heart block requiring ICU admission.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2018 15;8(5):283-284. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

OSF HealthCare-Illinois Neurological Institute, University of Illinois College of Medicine-Peoria.

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder that effects an estimated 20 people per 100,000 in the USA per year. Pyridostigmine is a common drug used in the symptomatic treatment of myasthenia gravis. While generally safe and effective, a rare set of patients treated with pyridostigmine encounter cardiac conduction disorders. Read More

View Article
October 2018
7 Reads

Gender differences in prednisone adverse effects: Survey result from the MG registry.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2018 Nov 15;5(6):e507. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Department of Neurology (I.L.), University of Alabama, Birmingham; Department of Neurology (H.J.K.), the George Washington University; and Department of Biostatistics (T.M., M.F., G.C.), University of Alabama, Birmingham.

Objective: Prednisone is a first-line immunosuppressive treatment for myasthenia gravis (MG), whereas short-term and long-term adverse effects (AEs) are a limiting factor in its usage.

Method: The MG patient registry is a patient-driven, nation-wide database with patients of age ≥18 years, who were diagnosed with MG and live in the United States. Custom-designed "prednisone-steroid use and MG" survey was sent out to MG registry participants as part of semi-annual follow-up. Read More

View Article
November 2018

Recurrent Opportunistic Infections in a Thymectomised Patient with Myasthenia Gravis and Good's Syndrome.

Cureus 2018 Aug 10;10(8):e3130. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Neurology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA.

We report the case of a 65-year-old man with myasthenia gravis, who developed recurrent opportunistic infections following thymectomy and immunosuppressive therapy. Subsequent evaluation including immunological studies, flow cytometry, and bone marrow studies confirmed the diagnosis of Good's syndrome. The patient was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and has remained stable with a monthly IVIG regimen. Read More

View Article
August 2018
1 Read