2,520 results match your criteria Mutagenesis[Journal]
Mutagenesis 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Radiation Signaling Group, Radiation Biology & Health Sciences Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India.
There remain significant uncertainties in estimation of risks with low doses of radiation. The small coastal belt in the southwestern state of Kerala, India, extending from Neendakara in the south to Purakkad in the north is one of the most extensively studied high-level natural background radiation areas (HLNRAs) of the world to address these concerns. The natural radioactivity here is due to occurrence of monazite sand bearing placer deposits along the coastline. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medical Sciences and Faculty of Science, University of Kragujevac, Svetozara Markovica, Kragujevac, Serbia.
As apoptosis and genome instability in children with autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are insufficiently investigated, we aimed to analyse them in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of children and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), Graves' disease (GD) and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), including possible factors that could affect their occurrence. The study population included 24 patients and 19 healthy controls. Apoptotic cells were detected using an Annexin V-FITC/7-AAD kit. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Nov 16. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry (LMC), University "Prof. D-R Assen Zlatarov"-Burgas, Burgas, Bulgaria.
This study validates the performance of the TIssue MEtabolism Simulator (TIMES) genotoxicity models with data on pesticide chemicals included in a recently released European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) genotoxicity database. The EFSA database is biased towards negative chemicals. A comparison of substances included in the EFSA database and TIMES genotoxicity databases showed that the majority of the EFSA pesticides is not included in the TIMES genotoxicity databases and, thus, out of the applicability domains of the current TIMES models. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Oct 23. Epub 2018 Oct 23.
Molecular Networks GmbH and Altamira LLC, Neumeyerstrasse Nürnberg, Germany and Candlewood Drive, Columbus, OH, USA.
The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) M7 guideline allows the use of in silico approaches for predicting Ames mutagenicity for the initial assessment of impurities in pharmaceuticals. This is the first international guideline that addresses the use of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models in lieu of actual toxicological studies for human health assessment. Therefore, QSAR models for Ames mutagenicity now require higher predictive power for identifying mutagenic chemicals. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.
Lhasa Limited, Granary Wharf House, Leeds, UK.
While high-level performance metrics generated from the validation of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) systems can provide valuable information on how well these models perform and where they need to be improved, they require appropriate interpretation. There is no universal performance metric which will answer all of the questions a user might ask relating to a model, and therefore, a combination of metrics should usually be considered. Furthermore, results may vary according to the chemical space being used to validate a model, and, in some cases, it may be the validation data which is lacking or ambiguous rather than the prediction being made. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Oct 20. Epub 2018 Oct 20.
MultiCASE Inc., Chagrin Blvd, Suite, Beachwood, OH, USA.
This article describes a method to generate molecular fingerprints from structural environments of mutagenicity alerts and calculate similarity between them. This approach was used to improve classification accuracy of alerts and for searching structurally similar analogues of an alerting chemical. It builds fingerprints using molecular fragments from the vicinity of the alerts and automatically accounts for the activating and deactivating/mitigating features of alerts needed for accurate predictions. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Oct 3. Epub 2018 Oct 3.
Lhasa Limited, Granary Wharf House, Leeds, UK.
As part of the hazard and risk assessment of chemicals in man, it is important to assess the ability of a chemical to induce mutations in vivo. Because of the commonalities in the molecular initiating event, mutagenicity in vitro can correlate well to the in vivo endpoint for certain compound classes; however, the difficulty lies in identifying when this correlation holds true. In silico alerts for in vitro mutagenicity may therefore be used as the basis for alerts for mutagenicity in vivo where an expert assessment is carried out to establish the relevance of the correlation. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.
Department of Health and Environment, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, Rome, Italy.
With the aim of providing faster, more economical, animal-free tools to predict toxicity, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) approaches are increasingly applied to the chemical risk assessment-in particular genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The more recent period of time has witnessed refinements of the predictive systems, with the collection of larger training sets and continued fine-tuning, together with an increased interest for the use of QSAR by regulatory authorities. This literature review provides an updated snapshot of the present state of the art in the evaluation of QSAR methods as applied to genotoxicity. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Sep 21:341. Epub 2018 Sep 21.
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):333-340
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, PR China.
Autosomal-dominant hypocalcification amelogenesis imperfecta (ADHCAI) is characterized by soft enamel that easily disintegrates and exposed dark dentin. ADHCAI is caused by mutations in a gene called family with sequence similarity 83 member H (FAM83H). To investigate the molecular genetics of ADHCAI, a Chinese family in which three generations exhibited ADHCAI was recruited. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Sep 15. Epub 2018 Sep 15.
Preclinical Safety, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.
5-(2-Chloroethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine (CEDU) was developed as an antiviral drug. It has been studied in a number of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays and is considered an unusual nucleoside analogue owing to its potent mutagenic potential, with little to no measurable clastogenic activity. Given this atypical profile, CEDU represented an interesting compound for evaluating the in vivo Pig-a gene mutation assay, a test that is undergoing extensive validation for regulatory safety applications. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):241-251
Centre for Research in Biosciences, University of the West of England, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, UK.
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) within the bone marrow (BM) are vitally important in forming the micro-environment supporting haematopoiesis after myeloablative chemotherapy. MSCs are known to be damaged phenotypically and functionally by chemotherapy; however, to the best our knowledge, the persistence of genotoxic effects of chemotherapy on the BM micro-environment has not been studied. We therefore aimed to evaluate genotoxic effects of chemotherapy on the BM both in vitro and in vivo, using the comet and micronucleus assays, focussing on the persistence of DNA lesions that may contribute to complications in the patient. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):231-239
Cytogenetics Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Centre of Advanced Study, India.
Accurate quantification of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in testicular germ cells is difficult because of cellular heterogeneity and the presence of endogenous γH2AX. Here, we used confocal microscopy to quantify DNA damage and repair kinetics following γ-irradiation (0.5-4 Gy) in three major mouse male germ cell stages, early and late pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (RSs), following a defined post irradiation time course. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):311-321
Department of Analytical, Environmental and Forensic Sciences, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, King's College London, London, UK.
The tumour suppressor p53, encoded by TP53, is a key player in a wide network of signalling pathways. We investigated its role in the bioactivation of the environmental carcinogen 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA)found in diesel exhaust and its metabolites 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) and N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-3-ABA) in a panel of isogenic human colorectal HCT116 cells differing only with respect to their TP53 status [i.e. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):283-289
Institute of Life Science, Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Swansea.
Use of imaging flow cytometry to assess induced DNA damage via the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) assay has thus far been limited to radiation dosimetry in human lymphocytes using high end, 'ImageStream X' series imaging cytometers. Its potential to enumerate chemically induced DNA damage using in vitro cell lines remains unexplored. In the present manuscript, we investigate the more affordable FlowSight® imaging cytometry platform to assess in vitro micronucleus (MN) induction in the human lymphoblastoid TK6 and metabolically competent MCL-5 cells treated with Methyl Methane Sulfonate (MMS) (0-5 µg/ml), Carbendazim (0-1. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):323-332
Laboratory of Biosafety and Risk Assessment, ENEA CR Casaccia, Rome, Italy.
Rad54 protein is a key player of the homologous recombination pathway, required for deposition and stabilisation of Rad51 foci at double strand breaks. Its role at the meiotic prophase, when double strand breaks are physiologically introduced to allow recombination, is well described. However, the hypothesis that Rad54 deficiency affect chromosome integrity of germ cells in unirradiated and irradiated animals has not been tested yet. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Sep 5. Epub 2018 Sep 5.
Leadscope, Inc., Columbus, OH, USA.
(Quantitative) structure-activity relationship or (Q)SAR predictions of DNA-reactive mutagenicity are important to support both the design of new chemicals and the assessment of impurities, degradants, metabolites, extractables and leachables, as well as existing chemicals. Aromatic N-oxides represent a class of compounds that are often considered alerting for mutagenicity yet the scientific rationale of this structural alert is not clear and has been questioned. Because aromatic N-oxide-containing compounds may be encountered as impurities, degradants and metabolites, it is important to accurately predict mutagenicity of this chemical class. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):291-299
College of Animal Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, P.R. China.
Ammonia, produced mainly from the deamination of amino acids and glutamine, is one of the major toxic components in blood and tissues that may affect bovine health. However, the physiological and pathological roles of ammonia in the mammary glands are not understood clearly. In the present study, the bovine mammary epithelial cell line (MAC-T) was utilised as an in vitro model to determine the effects of ammonia on bovine mammary gland. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):301-310
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, Matsuyama, Japan.
Reactive oxygen species generate 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (GO, 8-hydroxyguanine), which induces G:C→T:A transversion mutations. The knockdowns of the protein responsible for Werner syndrome (WRN), a cancer-associated DNA helicase, and DNA polymerase (pol) λ, a WRN-interacting DNA pol, cause untargeted base-substitution mutations (action-at-a-distance mutations). To examine the consequences of the dual reductions of WRN and pol λ for the mutations caused by GO, siRNAs against both proteins were introduced into human U2OS cells. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):269
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):253-261
Department of Public Health, Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Particles from burning candles contribute to the overall indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM). However, little is known about the effects of indoor sources of particles on cardiovascular disease endpoints. This study investigated the effect of pulmonary exposure to particles from combustion of candles and progression of atherosclerosis. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):267-268
Mutagenesis 2018 10;33(4):271-281
School of Life Sciences, The Engineering Research Center of Sustainable Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, China.
Homeostasis of chromosomal instability (CIN) facilitates the origin and evolution of abnormal karyotypes that are critical for the survival and proliferation of cancer cells, but excessive CIN can result in cellular toxicity. Geraniin is a multifunctional ellagitannin found in some species of Geranium and Phyllanthus. We employed the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay to evaluate the CIN, nuclear division index (NDI) and apoptosis induced by geraniin in human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Colo205 and Colo320) and human colon mucosal epithelial cells (NCM460). Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Jul 28. Epub 2018 Jul 28.
Division of Genetics and Mutagenesis, National Institute of Health Sciences, Tonomachi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan.
Two major endpoints for genotoxicity tests are gene mutation and chromosome damage (CD), which includes clastogenicity and aneugenicity detected by chromosomal aberration (CA) test or micronucleus (MN) test. Many in silico prediction systems for bacterial mutagenicity (i.e. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Jul 30. Epub 2018 Jul 30.
Alpha-Pretox, Via Giovanni Pascoli 1, 00184, Rome, Italy.
Computational toxicology, also called 'in silico toxicology', is based on scientific knowledge gained from different scientific fields and on the premise that the toxicity of a chemical, depending on its intrinsic nature, can be predicted from its molecular structure and inferred from the properties of similar compounds whose activities are known. With the aim of providing faster, more economical, animal-free tools for predicting toxicity, the 'old' and well established science of Structure-Activity Relationships plays a crucial role, with increasing applications to the assessment of chemical genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. The development of the Structure-Activity Relationships algorithms is a continuous process, and new models, as well as newer versions of applications, are continuously becoming available. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):195-202
Central Laboratory, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, PR China.
Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCLP) is the most common congenital craniofacial malformation, and its harmful influence on affected individuals is apparent. Despite many studies, the causative genes and their mechanisms are not completely clear. We recruited a Han Chinese NSCLP family and explored the causative variant in this pedigree. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):263-266
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):215-224
Department of Zoology, Davanagere University, Shivagangothri, Davanagere, Karnataka, India.
To understand the role of hyperthermia (HT) in adaptive response, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) adapted meiotic cells of Poecilocerus pictus were used. Poecilocerus pictus were treated with conditioning (L) or challenging (H) dose of MMS and 2-h time lag (TL) between these doses (L-2h-H) (combined) was employed. Different treatment schedules were used to analyse the influence of HT on MMS-induced adaptive response namely pre; inter; post-treatment and cross-adaptation. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):203-214
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Haidian District, Beijing, PR China.
Disturbed permanent tooth eruption is common in cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD), a skeletal disorder caused by heterozygous mutation of RUNX2, but the mechanism underlying is still unclear. As it is well known that dental follicle cells (DFCs) play a critical role in tooth eruption, the changed biological characteristics of DFCs might give rise to disturbance of permanent tooth eruption in CCD patients. Thus, primary DFCs from one CCD patient and normal controls were collected to investigate the effect of RUNX2 mutation on the bone remodeling activity of DFCs and explore the mechanism of impaired permanent tooth eruption in this disease. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 09;33(3):225-230
Government Medical College and Associated Hospitals, Karanagar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Molecular studies have implicated mutant B-type Raf kinase (BRAFMut) of MAP-kinase signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of several cancers including colorectal cancer. Recently, the prognostic and therapeutic relevance of the most frequent BRAFV600E mutation also has been highlighted in colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of BRAFV600E mutation and to determine the correlation between this mutation and indicators of poor prognosis and outcome in patients with CRCs from Kashmir, North India. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):179-193
Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), Kurt-Georg-Kiesinger-Allee, Bonn, Germany.
Genotoxicity testing is an important part of standard safety testing strategies. Animal studies have always been a key component, either as a mandatory part of the regulatory test battery, or to follow-up questionable in vitro findings. The strengths and weaknesses of in vivo assays is a continuous matter of debate, including their capacity to predict (human) carcinogenicity. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):147-152
UNESP - São Paulo State University, Medical School, Professor Mário Rubens G. Montenegro Av., Botucatu - SP, Brazil.
Despite the widespread use of the anaesthetics propofol (PROP) and isoflurane (ISO), data about their toxicogenomic potential and interference in epigenetic events are unknown. This study evaluated the expression and methylation profile of two important DNA-repair genes (XRCC1 and hOGG1) in 40 patients undergoing elective and minimally invasive surgery (tympanoplasty and septoplasty) under ISO or PROP anaesthesia. The endpoints were examined at three sampling times: before anaesthesia (T0), 2 h after the beginning of anaesthesia (T2) and 24 h after the beginning of surgery (T24). Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):119-128
Laboratory of Toxicological Genetics, Post-Graduate Program in Cellular and Molecular Biology Applied to Health (PPGBioSaúde), Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Av. Farroupilha, São José, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Tobacco farming is an important economic income in Brazil, although it has been challenged as regard the occupational exposure to both pesticides and nicotine endured by farmers. Chronic occupational exposure to complex mixtures can lead to health hazardous. We examined genomic instability and epigenetic changes in tobacco farmers occupationally exposed to pesticide mixtures and nicotine at tobacco fields. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):77-85
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Nobels väg, Stockholm, Sweden.
Metallic nanoparticles (NPs) are promising nanomaterials used in different technological solutions as well as in consumer products. Silver (Ag), gold (Au) and platinum (Pt) represent three metallic NPs with current or suggested use in different applications. Pt is also used as vehicle exhaust catalyst leading to a possible exposure via inhalation. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):161-177
Plant Molecular Cytogenetics Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study, Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
The effect of cerium oxide nanoparticle (CeNP) in plants has elicited substantial controversy. While some investigators have reported that CeNP possesses antioxidant properties, others observed CeNP to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). In spite of considerable research carried out on the effects of CeNP in metazoans, fundamental studies that can unveil its intracellular consequences linking ROS production, autophagy and DNA damage are lacking in plants. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):137-145
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology and UC Brain Tumor Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Approximately 90% of all cancer deaths arise from the metastatic spread of primary tumours. Of all the processes involved in carcinogenesis, local invasion and the formation of metastases are clinically the most relevant, but they are the least well understood at the molecular level. As a barrier to metastasis, cells normally undergo an apoptotic process known as 'anoikis', in circulation. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):153-160
Hongqiao International Institute of Medicine, Shanghai Tong Ren Hospital and Faculty of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P. R. China.
Flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a representative PBDE congener with widespread distribution and relatively high toxicity potential. Although it has been reported that BDE-47 can cause DNA damage in various in vitro systems, few studies have provided in vivo genotoxicity information. Read More
Mutagenesis 2017 12;32(6):543-544
King's College London.
Mutagenesis 2018 04;33(2):129-135
Department of Bionanotechnology, Kemerovo State University, Russian Federation.
Anthracosilicosis (AS), a prevalent form of pneumoconiosis among coal miners, results from the accumulation of carbon and silica in the lungs from inhaled coal dust. This study investigated genotoxic effects and certain cytokine genes polymorphic variants in Russian coal miners with АS. Peripheral leukocytes were sampled from 129 patients with AS confirmed by X-ray and tissue biopsy and from 164 asymptomatic coal miners. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, UK.
Mutagenesis 2017 12;32(6):599-606
Department of Dermatology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.
Autosomal recessive woolly hair/hypotrichosis (ARWH/HT: OMIM #278150/604379) is a rare hereditary hair disease characterized by tightly curled hair at birth which can lead to sparse hair later in life. The mutations in both LIPH and LPAR6/P2RY5 are responsible for autosomal recessive woolly hair with or without hypotrichosis (ARWH/HT). To conduct clinical and genetic investigations in four patients from three unrelated Chinese Han families with ARWH/HT, we performed mutation screening of LIPH and LPAR6/P2RY5 gene and identified four mutations in LIPH: c. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):25-30
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, and IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, Pamplona, Spain.
The alkaline comet assay, in vivo and in vitro, is currently used in several areas of research and in regulatory genotoxicity testing. Several efforts have been made in order to decrease the inter-experimental and inter-laboratory variability and increase the reliability of the assay. In this regard, lysis conditions are considered as one of the critical variables and need to be further studied. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):1-7
Department of Public Health, Section of Environmental Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K, Denmark.
During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. Read More
Mutagenesis 2017 12;32(6):581-597
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé, DK Copenhagen, Denmark.
Intratracheal instillation serves as a model for inhalation exposure. However, for this, materials are dispersed in appropriate media that may influence toxicity. We tested whether different intratracheal instillation dispersion media influence the pulmonary toxicity of different nanomaterials. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):61-67
Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.
Obesity is associated with several detrimental health consequences, among them an increased risk for development of cancer, and an overall elevated mortality. Multiple factors like hyperinsulinemia, chronic microinflammation and oxidative stress may be involved. The comet assay has been proven to be very sensitive for detection of DNA damage and has been used to explore the relationship between overweight/obesity and DNA damage, but results are controversial. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):87-95
Department of Genetic Toxicology and Chromosome Pathology, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay.
Exposure to pesticides can trigger genotoxic and mutagenic processes through different pathways. However, epidemiological studies are scarce, and further work is needed to find biomarkers sensitive to the health of exposed populations. Considering that there are few evaluations of soybean farmers, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of human exposure to complex mixtures of pesticides. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):31-39
Department of Molecular Biology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
The alkaline comet assay and a cell-free system were used to characterise DNA lesions induced by treatment with glycidamide (GA), a metabolite of the food contaminant acrylamide. DNA lesions induced by GA were sensitively detected when the formamidopyrimidine-DNA-glycosylase (Fpg) enzyme was included in the comet assay. We used LC-MS to characterise modified bases from GA-treated naked DNA with and without subsequent Fpg treatment. Read More
Mutagenesis 2017 12;32(6):571-579
Division of Genetic and Molecular Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, USA.
Procarbazine is a primary component of antineoplastic combination chemotherapy often used for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is believed that cytostatic and cytotoxic properties of procarbazine are mediated via its interaction with genomic DNA. Procarbazine is a carcinogen in animal models; it is classified as Group 2A compound by IARC. Read More
Mutagenesis 2018 02;33(1):41-47
Health Unit, Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Belgium.
The comet assay is often applied in human biomonitoring. Most of the time the assay is performed with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, using whole blood instead of isolated cells reduces processing time, and only 20 µl is sufficient for analysis. Read More
Mutagenesis 2017 12;32(6):561-570
Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
The tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is metabolically converted to 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in a reaction which is both stereoselective and reversible. NNAL is also a lung carcinogen, with both (R)-NNAL and (S)-NNAL inducing a high incidence of lung tumours in rats. Both NNAL and NNK undergo metabolic activation to intermediates which react with DNA to form pyridylhydroxybutyl and pyridyloxobutyl DNA adducts, respectively. Read More