285,521 results match your criteria Mucosal Melanomas of the Head and Neck


Mucosal healing and bacterial composition in response to enteral nutrition versus steroid based induction therapy - a randomized prospective clinical trial in children with Crohn's disease.

J Crohns Colitis 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, APHP.

Exclusive Enteral Nutrition (EEN) is as efficacious as corticosteroids (CS) to induce remission in Crohn's disease (CD), without their adverse effects. EEN seems to be more efficient than steroids to induce mucosal healing, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are only sparsely understood. We aimed in the present work to study the anti-inflammatory effects of EEN with Modulen IBD® versus CS in active pediatric CD and to assess its modulatory effects on the intestinal microbiota as compared to steroids. Read More

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December 2018

Accuracy and Pitfalls in the Assessment of Early Gastrointestinal Lesions.

Dig Dis 2018 Dec 12:1-10. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Superficial neoplastic lesions of the digestive tract are usually asymptomatic, and often represent incidental findings on endoscopy. The Paris Classification was developed for the systematic evaluation of superficial lesions of the oesophagus, stomach and colon. The significance of this classification in clinical practice is that it allows the depth of invasion to be estimated. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Assessing the Value of Endoscopy Simulator Modules Designed to Prepare Residents for the Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery Examination.

Dis Colon Rectum 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Background: The Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery examination is required for all general surgery residents. The test modules are not available for practice before the examination; however, similar modules are commercially available.

Objective: This study aims to determine which modules are most valuable for resident training and preparation for the examination by evaluating which correlates best with experience level. Read More

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November 2018

Complete and de novo assembly of the Leishmania braziliensis (M2904) genome.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 10;114:e180438. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Madrid, Spain.

Leishmania braziliensis is the etiological agent of American mucosal leishmaniasis, one of the most severe clinical forms of leishmaniasis. Here, we report the assembly of the L. braziliensis (M2904) genome into 35 continuous chromosomes. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Identification of salivary metabolites for oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia screening from persistent suspicious oral mucosal lesions.

Clin Oral Investig 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata, 990-9585, Japan.

Objective: To identify salivary metabolite biomarkers to differentiate patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia (OSCC/OED) from those with persistent suspicious oral mucosal lesions (PSOML).

Subjects And Methods: Whole unstimulated saliva samples were collected from age-, sex-, and race-matched patients who had a lesion in the oral cavity and for whom open biopsies were performed. The patients included OSCC (n = 6), OED (n = 10), and PSOML (n = 32). Read More

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December 2018

Tissue Adaptations of Memory and Tissue-Resident Gamma Delta T Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 27;9:2636. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States.

Epithelial and mucosal barriers are critical interfaces physically separating the body from the outside environment and are the tissues most exposed to microorganisms and potential inflammatory agents. The integrity of these tissues requires fine tuning of the local immune system to enable the efficient elimination of invasive pathogens while simultaneously preserving a beneficial relationship with commensal organisms and preventing autoimmunity. Although they only represent a small fraction of circulating and lymphoid T cells, γδ T cells form a substantial population at barrier sites and even outnumber conventional αβ T cells in some tissues. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Occurrence and Dynamism of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Distinct Ecological Niches: A Multifaceted Functional Health Perspective.

Front Microbiol 2018 27;9:2899. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, U995 - LIRIC - Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Lille, France.

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are representative members of multiple ecosystems on earth, displaying dynamic interactions within animal and plant kingdoms in respect with other microbes. This highly heterogeneous phylogenetic group has coevolved with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, establishing either mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, or even parasitism-like behavior with their hosts. Depending on their location and environment conditions, LAB can be dominant or sometimes in minority within ecosystems. Read More

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November 2018

Primary Appendicular Malignancy Presenting as Abdominal Wall Abscess with Secondary Tuberculosis Infection: an Interesting Case Report.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 7;9(4):613-617. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Parvarish Nursing Home, Andheri, Mumbai, Maharashtra India.

Cancers of the appendix are rare. Most of them are found accidentally on appendectomies performed for appendicitis. When reviewed, majority of the tumors were carcinoid, adenoma, and lymphoma. Read More

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December 2018

Clinico-haematological alterations and therapeutic management of tick borne fever in cross bred cow.

J Parasit Dis 2018 Dec 15;42(4):643-645. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

2Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS), Hisar, Haryana India.

A 5 years old crossbred cow was brought to the Veterinary Clinical Complex of Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Hisar with history of progressive weakness, pale mucous membrane, anorexia, high fever (105 °F), tachycardia, laboured breathing and coffee coloured urine. Analysis of haematological parameters revealed severe anaemia, leucocytopenia, marked poikilocytosis of erythrocytes. Blood smear examination showed presence of signet ring shaped organisms, piroplasms and condensed dot forms of in the stained erythrocytes. Read More

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December 2018

The Protozoan Targets Bacteria with Laterally Acquired NlpC/P60 Peptidoglycan Hydrolases.

MBio 2018 Dec 11;9(6). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

The human eukaryotic pathogen causes trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. This extracellular protozoan is intimately associated with the human vaginal mucosa and microbiota, but key aspects of the complex interactions between the parasite and the vaginal bacteria remain elusive. We report that has acquired, by lateral gene transfer from bacteria, genes encoding peptidoglycan hydrolases of the NlpC/P60 family. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective phase II clinical trial of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplant for treatment refractory multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Haematology, St. Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) has been explored as a therapeutic intervention in multiple sclerosis (MS) over the last two decades; however, prospective clinical trials of the most common myeloablative conditioning regimen, BEAM, are limited. Furthermore, patient selection, optimal chemotherapeutic regimen and immunological changes associated with disease response require ongoing exploration. We present the outcomes, safety and immune reconstitution (IR) of patients with active, treatment refractory MS. Read More

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December 2018

Promotion of skin wound healing using prevascularized oral mucosal cell sheet.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study examined the potential use of our newly developed prevascularized oral mucosal cell sheet for the treatment of skin wounds.

Methods: Mucosal cell sheets containing cultured keratinocytes and plasma fibrin without (K sheet) or with a mixture of fibroblasts and endothelial progenitor cells (PV sheet) were transplanted into full-thickness skin excisional wounds of nude mice.

Results: This technique was successful for in vitro culture; expanding keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial progenitor cells; and generating prevascularized mucosal cell sheets. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Microneedle-Mediated Vaccine Delivery to the Oral Mucosa.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 10:e1801180. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

The oral mucosa is a minimally invasive and immunologically rich site that is underutilized for vaccination due to physiological and immunological barriers. To develop effective oral mucosal vaccines, key questions regarding vaccine residence time, uptake, adjuvant formulation, dose, and delivery location must be answered. However, currently available dosage forms are insufficient to address all these questions. Read More

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December 2018

Osteitis is associated with dysregulated pro-osteoblastic activity in patients with nasal polyps.

Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

From the Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A.

Objectives/hypothesis: The overlying inflammatory mucosa plays a crucial role in the initiation of osteitis; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. The objective of this study was to explore the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and to correlate the expression of key signaling molecules with the degree of osteitis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP).

Study Design: Prospective experimental analysis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Lipophagy in nonliver tissues and some related diseases: Pathogenic and therapeutic implications.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Basic nursing, Nursing College, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Lipid autophagy (lipophagy) is defined as a selective autophagy process in which some intracellular lipid droplets are selectively degraded by autophagic lysosomes pathway. The occurrence of lipophagy was first discovered in liver tissues. Additionally, abundant evidence indicated that the occurrence of hepatic lipophagy has been implicated in many liver diseases including fatty liver diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases, liver fibrosis, and liver cirrhosis. Read More

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December 2018

Differential Mucosal Gene Expression Patterns in Candida-Associated, Chronic Oral Denture Stomatitis.

J Prosthodont 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Touro College of Pharmacy, New York, NY.

Purpose: Denture stomatitis is a common condition manifested by inflammation of the oral mucous membrane beneath a denture. The objective of this study was to compare the transcriptome of human palatal mucosa with chronic oral stomatitis-associated Candida albicans infection to that of healthy oral mucosa.

Materials And Methods: Oral palatal biopsies were obtained from 17 healthy and 15 C. Read More

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December 2018

Overview of antibody-mediated immunity to S. pneumoniae: pneumococcal infections, pneumococcal immunity assessment, and recommendations for IG product evaluation.

Transfusion 2018 Dec;58 Suppl 3:3106-3113

Regional Immunology Service, The Royal Hospitals, Belfast Health & Social Care Trust and Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) strains colonize the nasopharynx and can cause mucosal infections in the upper airway and middle ear, pneumonias, and invasive infections like bacteremia, sepsis, and meningitis. Over 90 serotypes, defined by the structure of their capsular polysaccharides, are known. Read More

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December 2018
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Colonic hypereosinophilia in ulcerative colitis may help to predict the failure of steroid therapy.

Tech Coloproctol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Digestive Endoscopy Section, Department of Medicine, University of Perugia Medical School, Perugia, Italy.

Background: Although glucocorticosteroids (GS) and mesalazine are effective and widely employed to treat moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC), information regarding the factors responsible for response to such therapy is still scarce. One of these factors is thought to be an increased number of mucosal eosinophils. The aim of our study was to determine whether the presence of hypereosinophilia in colonic mucosa of UC patients might influence the short-term response to l treatment with GS and mesasalazine. Read More

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December 2018

IBDoc Canadian User Performance Evaluation.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a stool biomarker that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The test is limited by the requirement for patients to collect and return stool samples. A home-based FC test may improve test adherence. Read More

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December 2018

DICAM Attenuates Experimental Colitis via Stabilizing Junctional Complex in Mucosal Barrier.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Adhesion molecules maintain the intestinal barrier function that is crucial to prevent intestinal inflammation. Dual immunoglobulin domain-containing adhesion molecule (DICAM) has been recently identified and known for the involvement in cell-cell adhesion through homophilic interaction and heterophilic interaction with integrin αVβ3. We tested whether the change of DICAM expression affects the severity of colonic inflammation. Read More

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December 2018

Non-invasive imaging techniques for early diagnosis of radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma of the lip.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):949-953

"Victor Babeş" National Institute for Research and Development in Pathology and Biomedical Sciences, Bucharest, Romania;

Ionizing radiation was used in the past for treatment of several benign cutaneous conditions, and particularly hemangiomas. Even though radiotherapy was generally effective, it significantly augmented the risk for malignancies, resulting in a consequent heavy decline of its use for benign conditions. However, radiation-induced neoplasia is still encountered in adult patients irradiated during childhood or adolescence. Read More

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January 2018

Anti- IgG Antibodies in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2018 26;9:627. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, and The Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (M.I.N.D.) Institute, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States.

The gut microbiota are known to have a profound influence on both mucosal and systemic immunity and are important for gastrointestinal (GI) function. In addition, new evidence shows that the microbiota significantly influence neurodevelopment and behavior. Immune dysfunction and GI distress are extremely common in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Read More

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November 2018
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Correlation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression with morphometric analysis of mucosal vasculature in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral epithelial dysplasia, and normal oral mucosa.

Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 2018 Nov-Dec;12(6):36-43

Department of Oral Pathology, KLE Vishwanath Katti Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum, Karnataka, India.

Objective: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invades and metastasizes, by degrading the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is associated with poor prognosis. Matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP-9) can initiate ECM degradation and angiogenesis which brings a significant change in tumor microenvironment favoring tumor progression. A major thrust has been laid on understanding this key enzyme as it has significant implications for cancer therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Draft Whole-Genome Sequences of Five Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Nov 21;7(20). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Wildbase, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that can be found in the environment, as well as on mucosal surfaces of humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of five K. pneumoniae isolates from substrate samples and bird feces collected in the Subantarctic Islands of New Zealand. Read More

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November 2018

Insights into the host-pathogen interaction: manipulation of macrophage pyroptosis.

Microb Cell 2018 Nov 12;5(12):566-568. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The innate immune system is the first defense against invasive fungal infections, including those caused by . Although can exist as a commensal, it can also cause systemic or mucosal infections, especially when the innate immune system is impaired. A key aspect of the interaction between and innate immune cells is the ability of to induce macrophage pyroptosis, an inflammatory cell death program. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Evaluation of an outbred mouse model for Francisella tularensis vaccine development and testing.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(12):e0207587. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Immunology & Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY, United States of America.

Francisella tularensis (Ft) is a biothreat agent for which there is no FDA-approved human vaccine. Currently, there are substantial efforts underway to develop both vaccines and the tools to assess these vaccines. Tularemia laboratory research has historically relied primarily upon a small number of inbred mouse strains, but the utility of such findings to outbred animals may be limited. Read More

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December 2018

Regulation Effect of a Chinese Herbal Formula on Flora and Mucosal Immune Secretory Immunoglobulin A in Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 8;2018:4821821. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Yuhua Road, No. 1024, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China.

Flora and mucosal immunity are considered to be the barrier, which is associated with multiple respiratory diseases, including recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRTI). Fei-Xi-Tiao-Zhi-Fang (FTF) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula used in the treatment of RRTI. However, the mechanism is little known. Read More

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November 2018

Myeloid Cells in Intact Human Cervical Explants Capture HIV and Can Transmit It to CD4 T Cells.

Front Immunol 2018 23;9:2719. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States.

The importance of myeloid cells in HIV transmission in the female genital tract is uncertain. Because it is difficult to study the early events in HIV transmission in humans, most of our knowledge is based on animal models of SIV infection in Rhesus macaques and more recently HIV infection in humanized mice. However, these models may not accurately recapitulate transmission in the human genital tract. Read More

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November 2018

An Insight Into the Intestinal Web of Mucosal Immunity, Microbiota, and Diet in Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2018 20;9:2617. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

The rising global incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions can be attributed to changes in the large portion of the immune system that belongs to our gastrointestinal tract (GI). The intestinal immune system serves as a gatekeeper to prevent pathogenic invasions and to preserve a healthier gut microbiota. The gut microbiota has been increasingly studied as a fundamental contributor to the state of health and disease. Read More

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November 2018
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Comparative efficacy of modified-live and inactivated vaccines in boosting responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus following neonatal mucosal priming of beef calves.

Can Vet J 2018 Dec;59(12):1311-1319

Departments of Veterinary Microbiology (Ellis, Lacoste) and Large Animal Clinical Sciences (Gow, Berenik, Erickson), Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4.

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is the leading cause of viral pneumonia in calves, making young passively immune calves candidates for vaccination, and raising issues concerning boosting of neonatally primed responses. To address this, 18, 2-month-old Angus-cross passively immune beef heifer calves that had been primed at birth with a combination viral intranasal vaccine were administered either a parenteral combination vaccine containing modified-live (MLV) BRSV or a similar vaccine containing inactivated BRSV. At 6 months of age, these calves and 2 controls that received only the MLV at 2 months of age were challenged with BRSV aerosol. Read More

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December 2018

Unraveling Key Players of Humoral Immunity: Advanced and Optimized Lymphocyte Isolation Protocol from Murine Peyer's Patches.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 21(141). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School; Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School;

In the gut mucosa, immune cells constitute a unique immunological entity, which promotes immune tolerance while concurrently conferring immune defense against pathogens. It is well established that Peyer's patches (PPs) have an essential role in the mucosal immune network by hosting several effector T and B cell subsets. A certain fraction of these effector cells, follicular T helper (TFH) and germinal center (GC) B cells are professionalized in the regulation of humoral immunity. Read More

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November 2018

Regional differences in somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) immunoreactivity is coupled to level of bowel invasion in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2018 Oct 12;39(4):305-309. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: Somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression constitutes a pivotal cornerstone for accurate radiological detection and medical treatment of small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs), and the development of somatostatin analogues for these purposes have revolutionized the clinical work-up. Previous assessments of SSTR isoform expression in SI-NETs have found correlations to overall prognosis and treatment response, however these analyses usually report overall tumoral immunoreactivity, and little is reported regarding histo-regional differences in expressional patterns.

Methods: Thirty-seven primary SI-NETs (WHO grade I, n=32 and WHO grade II, n=5) were collected and assessed for SSTR2 immunohistochemistry. Read More

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October 2018

Nitrogen handling in the elasmobranch gut: a role for microbial urease.

J Exp Biol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre, 100 Pachena Road, Bamfield, BC, V0R 1B0, Canada.

Ureotelic elasmobranchs require nitrogen for both protein growth and urea-based osmoregulation, and therefore are probably nitrogen-limited in nature. Mechanisms exist for retaining and/or scavenging nitrogen at gills, kidney, rectal gland, and gut, but as yet, the latter are not well characterized. Intestinal sac preparations of the Pacific spiny dogfish shark () incubated strongly reabsorbed urea from the lumen after feeding, but mucosal fluid ammonia concentrations increased with incubation time. Read More

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December 2018

The costs of living together: Immune responses to the microbiota and chronic gut inflammation.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alaska Anchorage, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508.

While the vertebrate microbiota is critical to the normal function of many host traits, hosts may expend a large amount of energy to constrain and interface with their microbiota via their immune system to avoid the high fitness costs associated with gut dysbiosis, pathobionts, and opportunistic pathogens. All jawed vertebrates share mucosal immunity dedicated to isolating the microbiota, and a breakdown of this system can result in chronic gut inflammation. In humans, chronic gut inflammation negatively affects growth and development. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal regulation of innate lymphoid cells.

Curr Opin Immunol 2018 Dec 7;56:94-99. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Jill Roberts Institute for Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

The cardinal signs of inflammation suggest a close connection between the nervous system and the immune system. However, the cellular and molecular basis of these interactions remains incompletely defined. Recent research has demonstrated that tissue-resident innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) obtain neuronal signals, particularly at mucosal barriers, where ILCs regulate tissue homeostasis. Read More

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December 2018

Suppression of miR-21 and miR-155 of macrophage by cinnamaldehyde ameliorates ulcerative colitis.

Int Immunopharmacol 2018 Dec 6;67:22-34. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Experiment Center for Science and Technology, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease which involved mucosal immune dysfunction. Cinnamaldehyde (CA) is major active compound from cinnamon, a useful traditional medicine in Asia which shows superior antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the effects of CA on UC both in vivo and in vitro. Read More

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December 2018

Performance and altitude: Ways that nutrition can help.

Nutrition 2018 Oct 7;60:35-40. Epub 2018 Oct 7.

Department of Bioscience, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

High altitudes are a challenge for human physiology and for sports enthusiasts. Several reasons lead to deterioration in performance at high altitudes. Hypoxia owing to high altitude causes a breakdown of homeostasis with imbalance in several physiological systems, including the immune system. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus infection in naturally affected Indian pigs.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Pathology, ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Izatnagar, 243 122, U.P, India. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in naturally infected Indian pigs of various age groups. Eight samples (16%) out of 49 necropsied animals were positive for PSV on the basis of pathological and molecular investigation. Major lesions of PSV positive cases were thickening and clouding of meninges, congestion in brain, severe to moderate congestion in lungs along with froathy exudates in trachea, thickening of intestinal mucosa, especially mucosal folds of ileum. Read More

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December 2018

Feeding in Eptatretus cirrhatus: effects on metabolism, gut structure and digestive processes, and the influence of post-prandial dissolved oxygen availability.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Hagfishes are characterised by feeding behaviours that may include long intervals between meals, and a hypoxic feeding environment inside decaying carrion. The effects of feeding on metabolism (oxygen consumption rate), gut mass and morphology (gut somatic index, gut epithelium mucosal thickness), and digestive function (maltase and peptidase activity) were examined in the New Zealand hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus. The influence of post-prandial hypoxia on oxygen consumption rate was also investigated to replicate the immersive feeding environment. Read More

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December 2018

Safety and efficacy of hot avulsion as an adjunct to endoscopic mucosal resection (with videos).

Gastrointest Endosc 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Gastroenterology/Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background: Excision of all visible neoplastic tissue is the goal of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs). Flat and fibrotic tissue can resist snaring. Ablation of visible polyps is associated with high recurrence rates. Read More

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December 2018
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Diadzein ameliorates 5-fluorouracil-induced intestinal mucositis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in rodents.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most commonly prescribed anti-cancer agent however, its use is associated with several debilitating adverse effects such as intestinal mucositis (IM) and myelosuppression. Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors in the development of mucositis. Diadzein is known for its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities from decades. Read More

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December 2018

Utility of Diagnostic Studies for Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Orthostatic Intolerance.

J Pediatr 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Objective: To assess the utility of gastrointestinal (GI) diagnostic studies in the evaluation of patients with orthostatic intolerance.

Study Design: Medical records of 103 consecutive children/young adults with orthostatic intolerance and gastrointestinal symptoms were reviewed. All patients had undergone antroduodenal manometry in conjunction with the tilt table test, autonomic testing, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (EGD). Read More

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October 2018

A novel approach for the identification and phylogenetic delineation of human Mycoplasma species and strains using genomic segment sequence analysis.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biological and Chemical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Bridgetown, BB 11000, Barbados.

Human Mycoplasma are opportunistic, facultative pathogens that are site-specific in their colonization of mucosal surfaces. They are responsible for significant annual morbidity in humans by causing acute illnesses and chronic auto-inflammatory diseases via modulation of the host's immune system. Accurate and reliable identification of Mycoplasma species and their strains are thus of upmost importance. Read More

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December 2018

Influence of chewing on expression level of human beta-defensin 2 and secretory immunoglobulin A in the epithelium.

J Prosthodont Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Removable Prosthodontics & Gerodontology, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan.

Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the influence of chewing on human β-defensin 2 (hBD-2) and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) expression levels.

Methods: We included 15 healthy males with no missing teeth (mean age, 25.5±2. Read More

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December 2018

Response assessment after (chemo)radiotherapy for rectal cancer: Why are we missing complete responses with MRI and endoscopy?

Eur J Surg Oncol 2018 Nov 24. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Department of Radiology, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate what features on restaging MRI and endoscopy led to a false clinical diagnosis of residual tumour in patients with a pathological complete response after rectal cancer surgery.

Methods: Patients with an unrecognized complete response after (chemo)radiotherapy were selected in a tertiary referral centre for rectal cancer treatment. An unrecognized complete response was defined as a clinical incomplete response at MRI and/or endoscopy with a pathological complete response of the primary tumour after surgery. Read More

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November 2018

Decorin counteracts disease progression in mice with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

Matrix Biol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding type VII collagen underlie recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a disease characterized by skin and mucosal blistering, impaired wound healing, and diffuse dermal inflammation and fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β signaling plays a crucial role in determining RDEB fibrotic microenvironment that leads to the development of disabling secondary disease manifestations, including hand and foot deformities. Experimental findings indicate that expression levels of decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan and an endogenous TGF-β inhibitor, can modulate RDEB disease phenotype by contrasting dermal fibroblast fibrotic behavior. Read More

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December 2018
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The potential of mucoadhesive polymer in enhancing efficacy of direct immersion vaccination against Flavobacterium columnare infection in tilapia.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), Pathum Thani, 12120, Thailand. Electronic address:

Vaccination is the most effective approach for prevention of infectious diseases in aquaculture. Although immersion vaccination is more applicable compared to in-feed/oral administration and injection, this method suffers from low potency as the efficiency of uptake of antigens through mucosal membranes is limited. In this study, we have successfully developed a mucoadhesive vaccine delivery system to enhance the efficacy of direct immersion vaccination against Flavobacterium columnare, the causative agent of columnaris disease in red tilapia. Read More

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December 2018

pVAX1-A20 alleviates colitis in mice by promoting regulatory T cells.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Longgang ENT Hospital, Institute of ENT and Shenzhen Key Laboratory of ENT, Shenzhen, China. Electronic address:

Aim: To investigate whether the intrarectal administration of the ubiquitin E3 ligase A20 (A20) attenuates intestinal inflammation and influences regulatory T cells in experimental colitis.

Methods: A dextran sulfate sodium induced chronic colitis mouse model was established. The symptoms and manifestations of colitis and the severity of colonic mucosal inflammation were evaluated. Read More

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November 2018

Transcutaneous immunization using SLA or rLACK skews the immune response towards a Th1 profile but fails to protect BALB/c mice against a Leishmania major challenge.

Vaccine 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Leishmaniasis is an expanding health threat worldwide complicated by the absence of an effective vaccine. We investigated transcutaneous immunization (TCI) as a needle-free immunization route which exploits the abundance of antigen presenting cells in the skin to induce both mucosal and systemic immunity. Leishmania (L. Read More

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December 2018

Emergency Medicine Evaluation and Management of Small Bowel Obstruction: Evidence-Based Recommendations.

J Emerg Med 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Background: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a commonly diagnosed disease in the emergency department (ED). Recent literature has evaluated the ED investigation and management of SBO.

Objective: This review evaluates the ED investigation and management of adult SBO based on the current literature. Read More

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December 2018