85,738 results match your criteria Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine [Journal]


The influence of bed-sharing on infant physiology, breastfeeding and behaviour: A systematic review.

Sleep Med Rev 2018 Nov 16;43:106-117. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, New Zealand. Electronic address:

This review aimed to better understand the underlying physiology of the risks and benefits of bed-sharing. Eight databases were searched using terms relating to adult-infant/baby, bed-sharing/co-sleeping combined with outcome terms for physiology, sleep, cardiovascular, respiratory, temperature and behaviour. Of 836 papers identified, 59 papers representing 48 cohorts met inclusion criteria. Read More

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November 2018

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography studies of the schizophrenia spectrum: The legacy of Monte S. Buchsbaum, M.D.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 7;271:535-540. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States; Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (VISN 2), James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 130 West Kingsbridge Road, Room 6A-44, Bronx, NY, United States.

This is a selective review of the work of Buchsbaum and colleagues. It revisits and pays tribute to four decades of publications employing positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to examine the neurobiology of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia). Beginning with a landmark FDG-PET study in 1982 reporting hypofrontality in unmedicated schizophrenia patients, Buchsbaum and colleagues published high-impact work on regional glucose metabolic rate (GMR) abnormalities in the spectrum. Read More

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December 2018

Focal Ablative Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma in Transplant Allograft Kidneys.

Urology 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate outcomes after focal ablative therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in transplant allograft kidneys METHODS: After institutional review board approval, patients with a history of RCC in a transplanted allograft kidney who underwent focal ablative therapy were identified. Complete chart reviews were performed and the relevant data were extracted for cumulative analysis.

Results: Six patients were treated with focal ablative therapy for RCC in a transplanted allograft kidney at our institutional between 2010-2017. Read More

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December 2018

Association of age-related macular degeneration with mortality in patients with AIDS; role of systemic inflammation.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Medicine, the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationships among age-related macular degeneration (AMD), mortality, and biomarkers of systemic inflammation in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Design: Case control study.

Participants: Participants with intermediate-stage AMD at enrollment in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) and 2:1 controls matched for age and gender. Read More

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December 2018

FGFR1 regulates trophectoderm development and facilitates blastocyst implantation.

Dev Biol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cell, Developmental, and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029. Electronic address:

FGF signaling plays important roles in many aspects of mammalian development. Fgfr1 and Fgfr1Fgfr2 mouse embryos on a 129S4 co-isogenic background fail to survive past the peri-implantation stage, whereas Fgfr2 embryos die at midgestation and show defects in limb and placental development. To investigate the basis for the Fgfr1 and Fgfr1Fgfr2 peri-implantation lethality, we examined the role of FGFR1 and FGFR2 in trophectoderm (TE) development. Read More

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December 2018

Prospective instrumental evaluation of swallowing, tongue function, and QOL measures following transoral robotic surgery alone without adjuvant therapy.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

THANC Foundation, New York, New York.

Background: Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been utilized to deintensify treatment. No studies have measured swallow safety and efficiency, nor assessed the functional impact of TORS alone.

Methods: This prospective cohort underwent baseline and 1-month postsurgery assessments including modified barium swallow evaluation, using the Dynamic Imaging Grade of Swallowing Toxicity (DIGEST) rating system, tongue range of motion assessment, the Performance Status Scale (PSS), and quality of life with the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI). Read More

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December 2018

Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel quid chewing, and the risk of head and neck cancer in an East Asian population.

Head Neck 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Division of Public Health, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: The smoking prevalence among men in China is high, but the head and neck cancer incidence rates are low. This study's purpose was to investigate the impact of tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol on head and neck cancer risk in East Asia.

Methods: A multicenter case-control study (921 patients with head and neck cancer and 806 controls) in East Asia was conducted. Read More

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December 2018

An important role of -fucose biosynthesis and protein fucosylation genes in Arabidopsis immunity.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Plants mount coordinated immune responses to defend against pathogens. However, the cellular components required for plant immunity are not fully understood. The jasmonate-mimicking coronatine (COR) toxin produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Read More

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December 2018

Cortical interlaminar astrocytes across the therian mammal radiation.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Interlaminar astrocytes (ILA) in the cerebral cortex possess a soma in layer I and extend an interlaminar process that runs perpendicular to the pia into deeper cortical layers. We examined cerebral cortex from 46 species that encompassed most orders of therian mammalians, including 22 primate species. We described two distinct cell types with interlaminar processes that have been referred to as ILA, that we termed pial ILA and supial ILA. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of Levothyroxine Treatment on Incident Dementia in Adults with Atrial Fibrillation and Hypothyroidism.

Clin Drug Investig 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Center for Primary Health Care Research, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background And Objective: The possible adverse or positive effects of levothyroxine treatment among patients with atrial fibrillation have been debated. Atrial fibrillation, levothyroxine treatment, and dementia are common among older adults, yet little is known about the effects of levothyroxine on the development of dementia.

Methods: The study population included all adults (n = 12,057) aged ≥ 45 years with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation at 75 primary care centers in Sweden during 2001-2007 without an earlier recorded dementia diagnosis. Read More

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December 2018

Use of the myocutaneous serratus anterior free flap for reconstruction after salvage glossectomy.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Head and Neck Diseases, Evangelical Hospital Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To describe the use of a myocutaneous serratus anterior free flap (SAFF) for tongue reconstruction after salvage subtotal (STG) and total glossectomy (TG).

Methods: In this prospective case series, seven patients underwent salvage STG or TG and reconstruction with a myocutaneous SAFF between 10/2015 and 02/2017. Functional and oncologic outcomes were prospectively evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

A novel role for E2F3b in regulating cocaine action in the prefrontal cortex.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neuroscience and Friedman Brain Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Drug abuse is a multifaceted disorder that involves maladaptive decision making. Long-lasting changes in the addicted brain are mediated by a complex circuit of brain reward regions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is one region in which chronic drug exposure changes expression and function of upstream transcriptional regulators to alter drug responses and aspects of the addicted phenotype. Read More

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December 2018

Exploratory genome-wide association analysis of response to ketamine and a polygenic analysis of response to scopolamine in depression.

Transl Psychiatry 2018 Dec 14;8(1):280. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Statistical Genomics and Data Analysis Core, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic modulator ketamine has rapid antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed subjects. The anticholinergic agent scopolamine has also shown promise as a rapid-acting antidepressant. This study applied genome-wide markers to investigate the role of genetic variants in predicting acute antidepressant response to both agents. Read More

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December 2018

Aging of Antiviral CD8 Memory T Cells Fosters Increased Survival, Metabolic Adaptations, and Lymphoid Tissue Homing.

J Immunol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045;

Aging of established antiviral T cell memory can foster a series of progressive adaptations that paradoxically improve rather than compromise protective CD8 T cell immunity. We now provide evidence that this gradual evolution, the pace of which is contingent on the precise context of the primary response, also impinges on the molecular mechanisms that regulate CD8 memory T cell (T) homeostasis. Over time, CD8 T generated in the wake of an acute infection with the natural murine pathogen lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus become more resistant to apoptosis and acquire enhanced cytokine responsiveness without adjusting their homeostatic proliferation rates; concurrent metabolic adaptations promote increased CD8 T quiescence and fitness but also impart the reacquisition of a partial effector-like metabolic profile; and a gradual redistribution of aging CD8 T from blood and nonlymphoid tissues to lymphatic organs results in CD8 T accumulations in bone marrow, splenic white pulp, and, particularly, lymph nodes. Read More

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December 2018

RGS9-2 rescues dopamine D2 receptor levels and signaling in dystonia mouse models.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Neurophysiology and Plasticity, IRCCS Fondazione Santa Lucia, Rome, Italy

Dopamine D2 receptor signaling is central for striatal function and movement, while abnormal activity is associated with neurological disorders including the severe early-onset dystonia. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that regulate D2 receptor signaling in health and disease remain poorly understood. Here, we identify a reduced D2 receptor binding, paralleled by an abrupt reduction in receptor protein level, in the striatum of juvenile mice. Read More

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December 2018

The Rear Tip Extender for Inflatable Penile Prostheses: Introduction of "Rigidity Factor" and Review of the Literature.

Sex Med Rev 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Advanced Urological Care, New York, NY, USA.

Introduction: Rear tip extenders (RTEs) are often used in penile prosthesis surgery, and their value and use have varied with the evolution of penile prostheses.

Aim: To review the literature addressing RTEs and to introduce a new term, rigidity factor, which quantifies the ratio of inflatable to non-inflatable component of the cylinders.

Methods: The urologic literature was reviewed for all mention of RTEs. Read More

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December 2018

Optimization Design Method of a New Stabilized Platform Based on Missile-borne Semi-Strap-down Inertial Navigation System.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 13;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Robots and Systems, Beijing Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100081, China.

At present, existing wide range Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors have relatively lower precision and direct measurement of the missile's high-rotation motion inevitably uses a large-range sensor. To achieve high-precision navigation, this paper proposes a novel Semi-strap-down Stabilized Platform (SSP) based on the Missile-borne Semi-Strap-down Inertial Navigation System, which is used to mount sensors and lowers sensor range requirements through isolating the high-rotational motion of missile. First, the author innovatively puts forward a dynamic model under missile-borne environment, then analyses the influence of SSP quality on the range of gyro according to the dynamic model of the SSP. Read More

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December 2018

Commentary: Vein of Galen Malformations: The Texas Children's Hospital Experience in the Modern Endovascular Era.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

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December 2018

Development of a Health-Related Quality of Life (QoL) instrument for Patients with Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) living in the United States.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

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December 2018

Comparative Flavivirus-Host Protein Interaction Mapping Reveals Mechanisms of Dengue and Zika Virus Pathogenesis.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1931-1945.e18

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute (QBI), University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; The J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), are a growing public health concern. Systems-level analysis of how flaviviruses hijack cellular processes through virus-host protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides information about their replication and pathogenic mechanisms. We used affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to compare flavivirus-host interactions for two viruses (DENV and ZIKV) in two hosts (human and mosquito). Read More

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December 2018

Protein Interaction Mapping Identifies RBBP6 as a Negative Regulator of Ebola Virus Replication.

Cell 2018 Dec;175(7):1917-1930.e13

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Quantitative Biosciences Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; J. David Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

Ebola virus (EBOV) infection often results in fatal illness in humans, yet little is known about how EBOV usurps host pathways during infection. To address this, we used affinity tag-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS) to generate an EBOV-host protein-protein interaction (PPI) map. We uncovered 194 high-confidence EBOV-human PPIs, including one between the viral transcription regulator VP30 and the host ubiquitin ligase RBBP6. Read More

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December 2018

Empowering Physiatrists In-Training to the Peer-Review Process.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Toronto.

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December 2018

Use of Opioid Analgesics in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain and Knee Osteoarthritis.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY.

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December 2018

Fourier Analysis of Corneal Irregular Astigmatism Due to the Anterior Corneal Surface in Dry Eye.

Eye Contact Lens 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departments of Innovative Visual Science (S.K., K.M.), and Ophthalmology (S.K., N.M., M.O., S.A., Y.T., K.M., K.N.), Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; Research and Development Division (Y.T.), Rohto, Kyoto, Japan; and Department of Ophthalmology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (S.D.K.), New York, NY.

Objectives: To evaluate corneal irregular astigmatism due to the anterior corneal surface using Fourier harmonic analysis with a Placido ring-based corneal topographer (Placido-based topographer) and three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) in dry eyes.

Methods: Forty-four eyes of 44 subjects with dry eye and 20 eyes of 20 normal control subjects were enrolled. Corneal topographic data were obtained using a Placido-based topographer and OCT. Read More

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December 2018

Abrupt Symptom Improvements in Antidepressant Clinical Trials: Transient Placebo Effects or Therapeutic Reality?

J Clin Psychiatry 2018 Dec 4;80(1). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, USA.

Background: According to prevailing models and classical reports, abrupt responses to antidepressant medication are not true drug responses but rather transient placebo effects. By contrast, recent reports suggest that early sudden improvements have a lasting effect and appear in most patients receiving medication. Clinical guidelines influenced by these contradictory findings are mixed and confusing. Read More

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December 2018

Early immune biomarkers and intermediate-term outcomes after heart transplant: Results of Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-18.

Am J Transplant 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Cleveland Clinic Cleveland OH, USA.

Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation-18 (CTOT-18) is a follow-up analysis of the 200-subject multicenter heart transplant CTOT-05 cohort. CTOT-18 aimed to identify clinical, epidemiological and biological markers associated with adverse clinical events past 1 year after transplant. We examined various candidate biomarkers including serum antibodies, angiogenic proteins, blood gene expression profiles and T-cell alloreactivity. Read More

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December 2018
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In-utero treatment of a large symptomatic rhabdomyoma with sirolimus.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fetal Medicine Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

A healthy 27-year-old woman was referred to our hospital at 21 weeks gestation. Fetal echocardiography revealed multiple cardiac rhabdomyomas, with the largest lesion in the left ventricle measuring 10x5mm. This article is protected by copyright. Read More

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December 2018

Psychological Effect of Cervical Cancer Screening When Changing Primary Screening Method From Cytology to hrHPV testing.

Int J Cancer 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Cancer Registry of Norway, Institute of Population-based Cancer Research, Oslo, Norway.

From 2015, Norway has implemented high-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) testing in primary screening for cervical cancer. Women 34-69 years, living in four counties, have been pseudo-randomly assigned (1:1 randomization) to either hrHPV testing every 5 years (followed by cytology if hrHPV positive), or cytology testing every 3 years (followed by hrHPV testing if low-grade cytology is detected). We compared anxiety and depression scores among participants by screening arm and results. Read More

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December 2018

The heart of The Anatomical Record: Exploring the world of cardiac development, with special homage to Roger Markwald.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah School of Medicine.

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December 2018

Double-blinded randomized controlled trial to evaluate a multimedia surgical care tour in improving patient satisfaction and knowledge after functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY.

Background: Current delivery of patient education is done during the clinic visit, where physicians or clinic staff have limited time for each patient. One potential solution is to provide a multimedia surgical care tour delivered to patients throughout the perioperative period. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of this surgical care tour in enhancing patient knowledge and satisfaction after functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Read More

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December 2018

Cell-based high-throughput screen for small molecule inhibitors of Bax translocation.

J Cell Mol Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Aberrant regulation of programmed cell death (PCD) has been tied to an array of human pathologies ranging from cancers to autoimmune disorders to diverse forms of neurodegeneration. Pharmacologic modulation of PCD signalling is therefore of central interest to a number of clinical and biomedical applications. A key component of PCD signalling involves the modulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. Read More

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December 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with dynamic obstruction and high left ventricular outflow gradients associated with paradoxical apical ballooning.

Echocardiography 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Mount Sinai West, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York.

Background: Acute left ventricular (LV) apical ballooning with normal coronary angiography occurs rarely in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHCM); it may be associated with severe hemodynamic instability.

Methods, Results: We searched for acute LV ballooning with apical hypokinesia/akinesia in databases of two HCM treatment programs. Diagnosis of OHCM was made by conventional criteria of LV hypertrophy in the absence of a clinical cause for hypertrophy and mitral-septal contact. Read More

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December 2018

Generation of Pancreatic Ductal Organoids and Whole-Mount Immunostaining of Intact Organoids.

Curr Protoc Cell Biol 2018 Dec 12:e82. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Section of Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Traditionally, studies of cells and tissues have been performed on isolated primary cells or immortalized cell lines by culturing them in 2D culture dishes or flasks. However, a caveat regarding 2D culture is that the cells poorly recapitulate their in vivo counterparts, mainly due to a lack of 3D cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. In recent years, the development of in vitro organoids as 3D culture has gained substantial attention as a model to study different tissues. Read More

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December 2018

Early psychosis detection program in Chile: A first step for the South American challenge in psychosis research.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of North Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Aim: Early detection and intervention (EDI) is a main challenge in psychosis research. The Chilean schizophrenia (SZ) national program has universal support and treatment by law for all SZ patients, but this does not yet extend to earlier stages of illness. Therefore, we have piloted an ultra-high risk (UHR) program to demonstrate the utility and feasibility of this public health approach in Chile. Read More

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December 2018

Abnormal fetal cerebral and vascular development in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

Prenat Diagn 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON.

Objective: To assess the cerebral and vascular development in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

Methods: Pregnant women carrying fetuses diagnosed with HLHS who decided to interrupt their pregnancies were included in our study. Aortic size and blood flow were assessed based from fetal echocardiography. Read More

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December 2018

Mass Defect Filtering for Suspect Screening of Halogenated Environmental Chemicals: A Case Study of Chlorinated Organophosphate Flame Retardants.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Exposure Biology, Senator Frank R. Lautenberg Environmental Health Sciences Laboratory, Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Rationale: Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are a class of flame retardants widely found in environmental and biological matrices that have been extensively studied due to their adverse health effects in humans. OPFRs are loosely bound chemicals that can detach from treated products and be released into indoor and outdoor environments, where they have the potential to further undergo transformation and degradation processes, in particular the chlorinated OPFRs (Cl-PFRs). Their detection remains a moving target for analysts, and traditional targeted mass spectrometry methods are suitable only for those compounds with authentic standards. Read More

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December 2018

Skeletons of the Eye: An Evolutionary and Developmental Perspective.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The ocular skeleton, composed of the scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles, is present in many vertebrates. The morphology of the scleral cartilage and ossicles varies within different extant reptiles (including birds) and also varies dramatically from the morphology in extant teleosts. This incredible range of diverse morphologies is the result of millions of years of evolution. Read More

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December 2018
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Transcatheter valve-in-valve for failing bioprosthetic aortic valve: Usually a good idea.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2018 Dec;92(7):1412-1413

Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York City, New York.

Use of bioprosthetic implants for surgical aortic valve replacements (SAVR) has been increasing in the recent years Surgical redo AVRs for failed surgical aortic bioprostheses have been traditionally considered the standard practice; however, in patients with higher surgical risk scores, transcatheter valve-in-valve aortic valve replacements are being commonly performed There is scarcity of data comparing these two approaches in this complex patient cohort Available data suggest that transcatheter ViV aortic valve replacement is generally a safe approach once some caveats are accounted for. Read More

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December 2018

Rare case of asymptomatic spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

J Cardiol Cases 2016 May 26;13(5):149-152. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

We present a case of a 46-year-old woman who presented to the emergency room after a syncopal episode. Most of her initial workup did not lead to any diagnosis. However, the transthoracic echocardiogram showed new onset left ventricular dysfunction. Read More

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Nitroglycerin administration during cardiac arrest caused by coronary vasospasm secondary to misoprostol.

J Cardiol Cases 2015 Nov 7;12(5):166-168. Epub 2015 Aug 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New-Haven, CT, USA.

There have been no reports of successful resuscitation using nitroglycerin (NTG) for cardiac arrest due to definitive coronary vasospasm. A 42-year-old female was brought to the Emergency Department in ventricular fibrillation after being found collapsed with the consumption of misoprostol. NTG, a potent coronary arterial dilator, not typically used in the management of cardiac arrest, was administered after 27 min of resuscitation efforts following advanced cardiac life support. Read More

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November 2015

Introduction of Mercury-free Gold Extraction Methods to Medium-Scale Miners and Education of Health Care Providers to Reduce the use of Mercury in Sorata, Bolivia.

J Health Pollut 2015 Dec 21;5(9):12-17. Epub 2015 Dec 21.

Mount Emerald Workers Cooperative of the Philippines.

Background: Artisanal and small-scale miners in Bolivia release on the order of 120 tons of mercury annually. The mercury finds its way to the Amazon with catastrophic consequences for the biosphere. A project aimed at reducing the release of mercury was carried out in 2013 and 2014. Read More

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December 2015

Preclinical evaluation of a MAGE-A3 vaccination utilizing the oncolytic Maraba virus currently in first-in-human trials.

Oncoimmunology 2019 19;8(1):e1512329. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Toronto General Hospital Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Multiple immunotherapeutics have been approved for cancer patients, however advanced solid tumors are frequently refractory to treatment. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a vaccination approach with multimodal oncolytic potential in non-human primates (NHP) (). Primates received a replication-deficient adenoviral prime, boosted by the oncolytic Maraba MG1 rhabdovirus. Read More

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September 2018

Memory-Like NK Cells: Remembering a Previous Activation by Cytokines and NK Cell Receptors.

Front Immunol 2018 28;9:2796. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department for Immunobiochemistry, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, Medizinische Fakultät Mannheim, Universität Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells serving at the front line against infection and cancer. In inflammatory microenvironments, multiple soluble and contact-dependent signals modulate NK cell responsiveness. Besides their innate cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity, it has been uncovered in recent years that NK cells constitute a heterogeneous and versatile cell subset. Read More

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November 2018

Neurovascular Coupling Remains Intact During Incremental Ascent to High Altitude (4240 m) in Acclimatized Healthy Volunteers.

Front Physiol 2018 28;9:1691. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biology, Mount Royal University, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the temporal link between neuronal metabolic activity and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), supporting adequate delivery of nutrients. Exposure to high altitude (HA) imposes several stressors, including hypoxia and hypocapnia, which modulate cerebrovascular tone in an antagonistic fashion. Whether these contrasting stressors and subsequent adaptations affect NVC during incremental ascent to HA is unclear. Read More

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November 2018
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Deciphering bacterial epigenomes using modern sequencing technologies.

Nat Rev Genet 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences and Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Prokaryotic DNA contains three types of methylation: N6-methyladenine, N4-methylcytosine and 5-methylcytosine. The lack of tools to analyse the frequency and distribution of methylated residues in bacterial genomes has prevented a full understanding of their functions. Now, advances in DNA sequencing technology, including single-molecule, real-time sequencing and nanopore-based sequencing, have provided new opportunities for systematic detection of all three forms of methylated DNA at a genome-wide scale and offer unprecedented opportunities for achieving a more complete understanding of bacterial epigenomes. Read More

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December 2018

Kinesin-2 and IFT-A act as a complex promoting nuclear localization of β-catenin during Wnt signalling.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 13;9(1):5304. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cell, Developmental, and Regenerative Biology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Wnt/Wg-signalling is critical signalling in all metazoans. Recent studies suggest that IFT-A proteins and Kinesin-2 modulate canonical Wnt/Wg-signalling independently of their ciliary role. Whether they function together in Wnt-signalling and their mechanistic role in the pathway remained unresolved. Read More

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December 2018

Space laser to map trees in 3D.

Authors:
Gabriel Popkin

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420):1226

Gabriel Popkin is a journalist in Mount Rainier, Maryland.

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December 2018

Comprehensive functional genomic resource and integrative model for the human brain.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420)

Program in Computational Biology and Bioinformatics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Despite progress in defining genetic risk for psychiatric disorders, their molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Addressing this, the PsychENCODE Consortium has generated a comprehensive online resource for the adult brain across 1866 individuals. The PsychENCODE resource contains ~79,000 brain-active enhancers, sets of Hi-C linkages, and topologically associating domains; single-cell expression profiles for many cell types; expression quantitative-trait loci (QTLs); and further QTLs associated with chromatin, splicing, and cell-type proportions. Read More

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December 2018
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Transcriptome-wide isoform-level dysregulation in ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420)

Department of Psychiatry, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 695 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Most genetic risk for psychiatric disease lies in regulatory regions, implicating pathogenic dysregulation of gene expression and splicing. However, comprehensive assessments of transcriptomic organization in diseased brains are limited. In this work, we integrated genotypes and RNA sequencing in brain samples from 1695 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, as well as controls. Read More

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December 2018
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