50 results match your criteria Motor Vehicle Accidents and Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Accidents

Unveiling the relevance of traffic enforcement cameras on the severity of vehicle-pedestrian collisions in an urban environment with machine learning models.

J Safety Res 2022 06 5;81:225-238. Epub 2022 Mar 5.

Department of Civil Engineering and Construction Management, Florida Institute of Technology, USA.

Purpose: One of the leading causes of violent fatalities around the world is road traffic collisions, and pedestrians are among the most vulnerable road users with respect to such incidents. Since walking is highly promoted in urban areas to alleviate motor-vehicle externalities, it is paramount to understand the causes associated with vehicle-pedestrian collisions and their severity to provide safe environments. Although traffic enforcement cameras can address vehicle-vehicle collisions, little is known about their effectiveness with respect to vehicle-pedestrian incidents. Read More

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Motor vehicle - pedestrian occupational accident: A case report study.

Soud Lek 2022 ;67(1):3-6

A rare case of serious non-fatal pedestrian-motor vehicle accident in the constructions sector is described, leading to severe orthopedic trauma and disability. A 49-year-old male worker was admitted to the orthopedic department due to reported occupational injury. The accident occurred at the workplace during the construction of a cycling road, where the victim as pedestrian was referred to be crashed by a motor vehicle at his left lower extremity. Read More

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Do stop-signs improve the safety for all road users? A before-after study of stop-controlled intersections using video-based trajectories and surrogate measures of safety.

Accid Anal Prev 2022 Mar 4;167:106563. Epub 2022 Feb 4.

College of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L3G1, Canada. Electronic address:

Converting minor-approach-only stop (MAS) intersections to all-way-stop (AWS) intersections is a prevailing safety countermeasure in North American urban areas. Although the general population positively perceives the installation of stop-signs in residential areas, little research has investigated the impact of AWS on road safety and road user behaviour. This paper investigated the safety effectiveness of converting MAS to AWS intersections using an observational before and after approach and surrogate measures of safety. Read More

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A comparison of daytime and nighttime pedestrian road-crossing behavior using an immersive virtual environment.

Traffic Inj Prev 2022 31;23(2):97-101. Epub 2022 Jan 31.

Department of Computer Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.

Objective: Reduced visibility for both drivers and pedestrians is a key factor underlying the higher risk of vehicle-pedestrian collisions in dark conditions. This study investigated the extent to which pedestrians adjust for the higher risk of road crossing at night by comparing daytime and nighttime pedestrian road crossing using an immersive virtual environment.

Method: Participants physically crossed a single lane of continuous traffic in an immersive pedestrian simulator. Read More

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Differential benefit of sensor system field-of-view and range in pedestrian automated emergency braking systems.

Traffic Inj Prev 2021 1;22(sup1):S111-S115. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Center for Injury Biomechanics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Objective: Current Pedestrian Automatic Emergency Braking (P-AEB) systems often use a combination of radar and cameras to detect pedestrians and automatically apply braking to prevent or mitigate an impending collision. However, these current sensor systems might have a restricted field-of-view (FOV) which may not detect all pedestrians. Advanced sensors like LiDAR can have a wider FOV that may substantially help improve detection. Read More

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Evaluating safety-influencing factors at stop-controlled intersections using automated video analysis.

J Safety Res 2021 06 24;77:311-323. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Room 268, Macdonald Engineering Building, 817 Sherbrooke Street West, Montréal, Québec H3A 0C3, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although stop signs are popular in North America, they have become controversial in cities like Montreal, Canada where they are often installed to reduce vehicular speeds and improve pedestrian safety despite limited evidence demonstrating their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of stop-control configuration (and other features) on safety using statistical models and surrogate measures of safety (SMoS), namely vehicle speed, time-to-collision (TTC), and post-encroachment time (PET), while controlling for features of traffic, geometry, and built environment.

Methods: This project leverages high-resolution user trajectories extracted from video data collected for 100 intersections, 336 approaches, and 130,000 road users in Montreal to develop linear mixed-effects regression models to account for within-site and within-approach correlations. Read More

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Importance of dashboard camera (Dash Cam) analysis in fatal vehicle-pedestrian crash reconstruction.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 09 19;17(3):379-387. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Unit of Legal Medicine, University of Bologna, Via Irnerio 49, 40126, Bologna, Italy.

The reconstruction of dynamic of traffic injuries remains a challenge in forensic pathology and is often based on circumstantial data. Dash Cams are digital video recorders which can be located inside a vehicle and continuously record the view through the windscreen, thus providing objective evidence. Here we present the case of a traffic crash in which a pedestrian was hit by an articulated lorry. Read More

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September 2021

Safety envelope of pedestrians upon motor vehicle conflicts identified via active avoidance behaviour.

Sci Rep 2021 02 17;11(1):3996. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, School of Vehicle and Mobility, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Human reaction plays a key role in improved protection upon emergent traffic situations with motor vehicles. Understanding the underlying behaviour mechanisms can combine active sensing system on feature caption and passive devices on injury mitigation for automated vehicles. The study aims to identify the distance-based safety boundary ("safety envelope") of vehicle-pedestrian conflicts via pedestrian active avoidance behaviour recorded in well-controlled, immersive virtual reality-based emergent traffic scenarios. Read More

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February 2021

Comparison of Motor Vehicle Crashes, Traffic Violations, and License Suspensions Between Autistic and Non-Autistic Adolescent and Young Adult Drivers.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 07 13;60(7):913-923. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Center for Autism Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the Perelman School of Medicine at University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: One-third of autistic individuals obtain a driver's license by age 21 years; however, prior studies suggest they may be at heightened risk for motor vehicle crashes. We compared objective rates of crashes, traffic violations, and license suspensions for newly licensed autistic and non-autistic adolescents.

Method: This retrospective cohort study included New Jersey residents born from 1987 through 2000 who were patients of the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia health care network. Read More

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The Significance of a Knee Injury in the Investigation of an Unsuspected Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Collision.

Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2020 Mar;41(1):52-55

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre and Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Characteristic injury patterns have been described in pedestrians struck by motor vehicles. The common injury pattern seen in upright pedestrians consists of a triad of head, pelvis, and lower extremity trauma. There are several factors such as vehicular type, design, mass and speed, and impact surfaces that influence the type and distribution of these injuries. Read More

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Estimated benefit of automated emergency braking systems for vehicle-pedestrian crashes in the United States.

Traffic Inj Prev 2019 ;20(sup1):S171-S176

a Virginia Tech, Center for Injury Biomechanics , Blacksburg , Virginia.

The objective of this research study is to estimate the benefit to pedestrians if all U.S. cars, light trucks, and vans were equipped with an automated braking system that had pedestrian detection capabilities. Read More

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February 2020

Situational characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents involving vehicles traveling at low speeds in Japan.

Traffic Inj Prev 2019 ;20(sup1):S1-S6

b Faculty of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University , Hino , Tokyo , Japan.

This study aimed to investigate the situational characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents involving vehicles traveling at low speeds in Japan. We focused on vehicles with 4 or more wheels. Such characteristics included daytime or nighttime conditions, road type, vehicle behaviors preceding the accident, and vehicle impact locations. Read More

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January 2020

Factors related to road system organisation and its association with mortality due to motor vehicle-pedestrian collisions in Guadalajara Metropolitan Area.

Inj Prev 2020 06 3;26(3):270-278. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Publich Health, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Mexico

Introduction: Traffic events are one of the five leading causes of mortality in Mexico. Pedestrians are one of the main road users involved in such incidents and have the highest mortality rate, which is regularly analysed in relation to vehicles and pedestrians, but not the built environment. The purpose of this study was to analyse the elements of the road system organisation that influences the mortality rate of pedestrians hit by motor vehicles in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area. Read More

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Left-turning vehicle-pedestrian conflicts at signalized intersections with traffic lights: Benefit or harm? A two-stage study.

Chin J Traumatol 2019 Apr 11;22(2):63-68. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Vehicle-pedestrian conflicts are common at road intersections when traffic lights change. However, the impact of traffic light on transportation safety and efficiency remains poorly understood.

Methods: A two-stage study was used to survey the proportion of intersections with conflicting traffic lights and the related transportation efficiency and safety were evaluated as well. Read More

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An examination of the increases in pedestrian motor-vehicle crash fatalities during 2009-2016.

J Safety Res 2018 12 27;67:37-44. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, United States.

Introduction: Pedestrian fatalities increased 46% in the United States during 2009-2016. This study identified circumstances under which the largest increases in deaths occurred during this period.

Method: Annual counts of U. Read More

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December 2018

Preventing pediatric cardiothoracic trauma: Role of policy and legislation.

World J Cardiol 2018 Jul;10(7):49-51

Surgery Working Group, Society of Junior Doctors, Athens 15123, Greece.

Data from the last 50 years suggest that pediatric patients typically suffer cardiothoracic injuries following blunt traumatic force (70%) in the setting of either motor vehicle crashes (53.5%) or vehicle-pedestrian accidents (18.2%). Read More

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Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to Characterize Pediatric Pedestrian Motor Vehicle Accidents in the State of Delaware.

Del Med J 2016 Jul;88(7):206-211

Background: Pediatric pedestrian motor vehicle-associated of injuries correlated with a particular census tract's trauma is a significant public health concern for children. demographic composition. GIS mapping software was used We aimed to use geographic information systems (GIS) to examine the relationship between motor vehicle pedestrian injuries in children and the demographics of the region in which they occurred for the state of Delaware. Read More

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Bilateral femoral neck fractures associated with complex pelvic ring injuries in a pediatric patient: a case report.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2017 Jul;26(4):350-357

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama, USA.

Femoral neck and pelvic fractures are rarely encountered in the pediatric population secondary to the resilient nature of the immature skeleton. Both fracture types usually result from high-energy blunt trauma including motor vehicle collisions, motor vehicle-pedestrian accidents, and falls from height. Considerable studies have been published on the natural history, management, and complications of pediatric pelvis and femoral neck fractures. Read More

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The influence of vehicle front-end design on pedestrian ground impact.

Accid Anal Prev 2015 Jun 24;79:56-69. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Parsons Building, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Accident data have shown that in pedestrian accidents with high-fronted vehicles (SUVs and vans) the risk of pedestrian head injuries from the contact with the ground is higher than with low-fronted vehicles (passenger cars). However, the reasons for this remain poorly understood. This paper addresses this question using multibody modelling to investigate the influence of vehicle front height and shape in pedestrian accidents on the mechanism of impact with the ground and on head ground impact speed. Read More

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[Mortality in traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba 2011].

Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 2014 Oct-Dec;31(4):721-4

Hospital San Vicente de Paul, Ibarra, Ecuador.

With the objective of describing mortality from traffic accidents in Bayamo, Cuba, in 2011 a review was performed of injured and deceased patients due to traffic accidents, recorded in the Hospital Carlos M. de Céspedes. Of the 1,365 injured patients treated in the emergency room, the predominant groups were individuals aged 25 to 44 years comprising 372 patients (27. Read More

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January 2017

Pedestrian crossing situations: quantification of comfort boundaries to guide intervention timing.

Accid Anal Prev 2014 Oct 20;71:261-6. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Autoliv Development AB, Autoliv Research, Wallentinsvägen 22, SE-44783 Vårgårda, Sweden.

Introduction: Technical systems that warn or brake for vehicle-pedestrian encounters reduce injuries more effectively the earlier an intervention is initiated. However, premature intervention can irritate drivers, leading to system deactivation and, consequently, no injury reduction whatsoever. It has been proposed that no intervention should be initiated as long as attentive drivers are within their comfort zones. Read More

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October 2014

Motor vehicle-pedestrian collisions and walking to school: the role of the built environment.

Pediatrics 2014 May 7;133(5):776-84. Epub 2014 Apr 7.

Child Health Evaluative Sciences, and Health Policy Management and Evaluation, and Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada; Surgery.

Objectives: Initiatives to increase active school transportation are popular. However, increased walking to school could increase collision risk. The built environment is related to both pedestrian collision risk and walking to school. Read More

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An investigation on the head injuries of adult pedestrians by passenger cars in China.

Traffic Inj Prev 2013 ;14(7):712-7

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Vehicle Crash/Bio-Impact and Traffic Safety, Department 4, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: To investigate the relative likelihood of pedestrian head injuries based on person, vehicular, and environmental factors in China.

Methods: A team was established to collect passenger car-pedestrian accident cases occurring between 2006 and 2011 in Beijing, Shanxi Province, and Chongqing, China. Some key variables for person-, vehicle-, and environment-related factors on head injuries were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine relative risk/likelihood. Read More

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January 2014

Epidemiology and management of trauma patients in a Greek multispecialty hospital in the absence of a dedicated trauma center.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2013 Aug 14;39(4):369-74. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

2nd Surgical Department and Unit of Surgical Oncology, "Korgialenio-Benakio", Red Cross Athens General Hospital, 115 26, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: In the absence of dedicated trauma centers, surgical emergency departments in hospitals assigned as trauma centers accept a huge load of trauma patients. In this audit, we aim to document and assess the epidemiologic data of trauma patients and their injuries in order to give a picture of the impact of trauma in the workload of a surgical department in the Greek healthcare system.

Methods: During a period of 2 years, we managed 6,041 trauma patients in the accident and emergency (A&E) department based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols. Read More

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[Bilateral epidural hematoma in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection: a case report].

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2013 May;19(3):267-70

Department of Neurosurgery, Maltepe University Faculty of Medicine, İstanbul, Turkey.

Intracranial epidural haematomas are almost always secondary to head traumas and usually occur unilaterally. Bilateral intracranial epidural haematomas are rare, but the mortality is very high. In our case, we report a bilateral epidural haematoma in a 32 year old, HIV infected male patient who came to the emergency service with a head trauma because of a motor vehicle-pedestrian accident. Read More

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Pedestrians: the daily underestimated victims on the road.

Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot 2013 30;20(4):374-9. Epub 2012 Nov 30.

a Trauma Surgery Section, , Hamad General Hospital , Doha, Qatar.

Traffic-related pedestrian injuries (TRPI) are vulnerable to road users. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the demographic pattern of injury and outcome of TRPI. Patients with TRPI admitted between November 2007 and March 2010 to the only level 1 trauma centre in Qatar were included. Read More

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September 2014

The link between built environment, pedestrian activity and pedestrian-vehicle collision occurrence at signalized intersections.

Accid Anal Prev 2011 Sep 22;43(5):1624-34. Epub 2011 Apr 22.

Department of Civil Engineering and Applied Mechanics, McGill University, Canada.

This paper studies the influence of built environment (BE) - including land use types, road network connectivity, transit supply and demographic characteristics - on pedestrian activity and pedestrian-vehicle collision occurrence. For this purpose, a two-equation modeling framework is proposed to investigate the effect of built environment on both pedestrian activity and vehicle-pedestrian collision frequency at signalized intersections. Using accident data of ambulance services in the City of Montreal, the applicability of our framework is illustrated. Read More

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September 2011

Blunt chest trauma in childhood.

ANZ J Surg 2007 Aug;77(8):682-5

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey.

Background: Although thoracic injuries are uncommon in children, their rate of morbidity and mortality is high. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of children with blunt chest injury and to investigate the predictive accuracy of their paediatric trauma scores (PTS).

Methods: Between September 1996 and September 2006, children with blunt thoracic trauma were evaluated retrospectively. Read More

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A risk-based method for modeling traffic fatalities.

Risk Anal 2007 Feb;27(1):125-36

Harvard Initiative for Global Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

We describe a risk-based analytical framework for estimating traffic fatalities that combines the probability of a crash and the probability of fatality in the event of a crash. As an illustrative application, we use the methodology to explore the role of vehicle mix and vehicle prevalence on long-run fatality trends for a range of transportation growth scenarios that may be relevant to developing societies. We assume crash rates between different road users are proportional to their roadway use and estimate case fatality ratios (CFRs) for the different vehicle-vehicle and vehicle-pedestrian combinations. Read More

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February 2007

Risk of vehicle-pedestrian and vehicle-bicyclist collisions among children with disabilities.

Accid Anal Prev 2006 Nov 23;38(6):1064-70. Epub 2006 Jun 23.

Center for Injury Research and Policy, Columbus Children's Research Institute and Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Objectives: To examine the potential association between disability and risk of vehicle-pedestrian and vehicle-bicyclist collisions among children.

Methods: Data from the 2002 National Transportation Availability and Use Survey for Persons with Disabilities (NTAUSPD) were analyzed.

Results: Among 5019 persons who completed the survey, there were a total of 687 children between 5-17 years of age, including 299 respondents with and 388 without disabilities. Read More

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November 2006