405,158 results match your criteria Motor Unit Recruitment in EMG
Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Neuroscience Department, Laboratory for Behavioral Neurology and Imaging of Cognition, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Neurology Department, University Hospital of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.
Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Graduate School of Core Ethics and Frontier Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, Japan. Electronic address:
Transcranial static magnetic stimulation (tSMS) is a recently introduced noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can modulate brain excitability. Here, we investigated a hypothesis that motor learning would be altered by tSMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1). For motor task, we chose a serial reaction time task consisting of sequential trials and random trials in which the visual cue doesn't play out a repeating pattern of positions to evaluate an implicit motor learning, where the M1 is a key structure for skill acquisition and early consolidation. Read More
Physiol Behav 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:
Ethanolic extract of leaves of Morus alba L. (M. alba), known as white mulberry, was orally administered (100 mg/kg b. Read More
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute of Ageing, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK; Newcastle Upon Tyne Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Electronic address:
Gait is complex, described by diverse characteristics underpinned by widespread central nervous system networks including motor and cognitive functions. Despite this, neural substrates of discrete gait characteristics are poorly understood, limiting understanding of gait impairment in ageing and disease. This structured review aims to map gait characteristics, defined from a pre-specified model reflecting independent gait domains, to brain imaging parameters in older adults. Read More
Brain Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Université de Moncton, 18 Antonine-Maillet Avenue, Moncton, New Brunswick, E1A 3E9, Canada. Electronic address:
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive death of motor neurons. Mean survival for a patient diagnosed with ALS is between 2 to 5 years. Early and efficient diagnosis of the various forms of ALS remains a significant challenge, resulting in a need to identify clinically-relevant biomarkers in readily accessible body fluids. Read More
J Magn Reson Imaging 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
GE Global Research Center, Bangalore, India.
Background: The majority of Parkinson's disease patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) use a monopolar configuration, which presents challenges for EEG and MRI studies. The literature reports algorithms to convert monopolar to bipolar settings.
Purpose/hypothesis: To assess brain responses of Parkinson's disease patients implanted with DBS during fMRI studies using their clinical and presumed equivalent settings using a published conversion recipe. Read More
J Physiol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Program in Neurosciences and Mental Health, SickKids Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1×8, Canada.
Genes Brain Behav 2018 Dec 15:e12547. Epub 2018 Dec 15.
Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
Individuals with autism constitute a variable population whose members are spread along the autism spectrum. Sub-populations within that spectrum exhibit other conditions, such as anxiety, intellectual disabilities, hyperactivity and epilepsy, with different severities and co-occurrences. Among the genes associated with the increased risk for autism is the methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T polymorphism, which impairs one-carbon metabolic pathway efficiency. Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Laboratory of Functional Chemistry, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, 27100, Italy.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by aberrant accumulation of insoluble proteins, including alpha-synuclein, and a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The extended neurodegeneration leads to a drop of striatal dopamine levels, responsible for disabling motor and non-motor impairments. Although the causes of the disease remain unclear, it is well accepted among the scientific community that the disorder may also have a genetic component. Read More
Cerebellum 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
The differential diagnosis of vertigo or dizziness as a result of cerebellar disorders can be difficult as many patients with a cerebellar pathology do not present with the full spectrum of cerebellar signs. The main goal of this study was to describe the typical clinical features of these patients with vertigo or dizziness of a cerebellar origin. We reviewed the medical records of 5400 patients with vertigo and dizziness from our tertiary outpatient clinic for vertigo and balance disorders. Read More
Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Ahmanson-Lovelace Brain Mapping Center, Brain Research Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
Sex differences in empathy for pain have been repeatedly observed. However, it is unclear whether this is due to sex differences in "bottom-up" somatomotor representations of others' pain (self-other resonance) or to "top-down" prefrontal control of such responses. Here, we provide data from 70 subjects suggesting that sex differences in empathy for pain lie primarily in pre-reflective, bottom-up resonance mechanisms. Read More
Ann Biomed Eng 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.
Presented in this paper is an exploration into the efficacy of a plastic, four-cylinder piston pneumatic motor designed for driving medical instruments inside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Because of the increasing use of MRI for diagnostic and interventional purposes and the benefits that could be realized by operating with real-time MR image guidance, there exists a significant need for MRI compliant surgical devices. Some type of actuation mechanism is necessary to drive such devices. Read More
Psychol Res 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Co-speech gestures have been proposed to strengthen sensorimotor knowledge related to objects' weight and manipulability. This pre-registered study ( https://www.osf. Read More
Eur Radiol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Symbiosis Center for Medical Image Analysis and Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis International University, Lavale, Mulshi, Pune, Maharashtra, 412115, India.
Objectives: To investigate the structural connectivity of the motor subnetwork in multiple system atrophy with cerebellar features (MSA-C), a distinct subtype of MSA, characterized by predominant cerebellar symptoms.
Methods: Twenty-three patients with MSA-C and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited for the study. Disease severity was quantified using the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS). Read More
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.
Various studies have confirmed that prostaglandins (PG) alter the bladder motor activity and micturition reflex in both human and animals. However, no sufficient data is reported about the effect of cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors neither in normal bladder physiology nor in pathological conditions. This study aims to compare the potential effects of some COX inhibitors with varying COX-1/COX-2 selectivities (indomethacin, ketoprofen, and diclofenac) with that of the selective COX-2 inhibitor (DFU) on bladder function. Read More
BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e023439. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Research Department, Reha Rheinfelden, Rheinfelden, Switzerland.
Introduction: Motor imagery (MI) is a very popular and well-accepted technique in different disciplines. Originating from sport and psychology, MI is now also used in the field of medicine and education. Several studies confirmed the benefits of MI to facilitate motor learning and skill acquisition. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Performance-based incentives tend to increase an individual's motivation, resulting in enhancements in behavioral output. While much work has focused on understanding how the brain's reward circuitry influences incentive motivated performance, fewer studies have investigated how such reward representations act on the motor system. Here we measured motor cortical excitability with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while female and male human participants performed a motoric incentive motivation task for prospective monetary gains and losses. Read More
J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
MRC Brain Network Dynamics Unit, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3TH, United Kingdom
Synchronized oscillations within and between brain areas facilitate normal processing, but are often amplified in disease. A prominent example is the abnormally sustained beta-frequency (∼20Hz) oscillations recorded from the cortex and subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Computational modelling suggests that the amplitude of such oscillations could be modulated by applying stimulation at a specific phase. Read More
EMBO Mol Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
MRC-Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Loss-of-function mutations in , a gene exclusively found in higher eukaryotes, cause a characteristic type of cavitating leukoencephalopathy associated with mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) deficiency. Although the genetic association of APOPT1 pathogenic variants with isolated COX defects is now clear, the biochemical link between APOPT1 function and COX has remained elusive. We investigated the molecular role of APOPT1 using different approaches. Read More
Neuroimage Clin 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia.
Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with 'crossing fibres'. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the 'crossing fibre' problem (i.e. Read More
Brain Stimul 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London (UCL), London, WC1N 3BG, UK; Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 9DU, UK; Oxford Centre for Human Brain Mapping (OHBA), Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK. Electronic address:
Background: The primary motor cortex (M1) has a vital role to play in the learning of novel motor skills. However, the physiological changes underpinning this learning, particularly in terms of dynamic changes during movement preparation, are incompletely understood. In particular, a substantial decrease in resting gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) activity, i. Read More
J Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
MedStar Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Washington, D.C, United States. Electronic address:
Background: Complications associated with the lateral lumbar transpsoas approach largely comprise various nerve-related syndromes particularly at L4-5. Quadriceps weakness can occur from stretch injury to the femoral nerve during retraction.
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of retraction time in the development of postoperative neuropathic motor weakness at the L4-5 level. Read More
J Biomech 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
Shirley Ryan AbilityLab, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Physiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
Stroke survivors routinely experience long-term motor and sensory impairments. In parallel with neurological changes, material properties of muscles in the impaired limbs, such as muscle stiffness, may also change progressively. However, these stiffness measures are routinely derived from individual joint stiffness, representing whole muscle groups. Read More
Pathophysiology 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.
State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
Environmental discharge of vanadium causes cognitive and behavioral impairments in humans and animals via production of reactive oxygen species leading to lipid peroxidation and alteration in antioxidant defence system. The current study was carried out to investigate the cognitive-enhancing ability of β-sitosterol in vanadium-induced neurotoxicity. Forty eight mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups (A-D) with the following treatments: group A; distilled water, B; α-tocopherol + sodium metavanadate (NaOV), C; β-sitosterol + NaOV and D; only NaOV. Read More
Am J Cardiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.
Division of Cardiovascular Disease, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
Data on Motor Vehicle Accidents (MVA) associated acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) are scares. We aimed to examine the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of AMI among patients admitted with MVA. Patients hospitalized with Motor Vehicle Traffic Accidents (ICD-9-CM codes e810-e819) in 2003 to 2014 were identified in the national inpatient sample. Read More
J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Jan;28(1):e10-e17
Musculoskeletal Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:
Background: Counterforce orthoses are used to manage lateral elbow tendinopathy, and their effectiveness in improving motor function has been documented. Little is known about the impact of bracing on sensory function. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate effectiveness of 2 counterforce orthoses in improving the sensorimotor abilities of the hand in patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy. Read More
Soins 2018 Dec;63(831):52-55
Haute école spécialisée de Suisse occidentale (HES-SO), Haute école de travail social et de la santé (EESP), chemin des Abeilles 14, 1010 Lausanne, Suisse. Electronic address:
The issue of the respect of intimacy is raised particularly for people with a motor disability who are dependent on others to perform everyday tasks and are forced to live in a medical-social care facility. Their description of their experiences, difficulties and aspirations offers a better understanding of their needs with a view to providing them with a suitable response. Read More
Sleep 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Münster, Germany.
Study Objectives: Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are frequent motor phenomena; however, population-based data are scarce. We assessed the prevalence of PLMS and factors associated with PLMS within two German population-based cohorts, the SHIP-TREND and BiDirect.
Methods: Single-night polysomnography was performed on 1107 subjects recruited from the general population (mean age: 52. Read More
Gait Posture 2018 Dec 6;68:258-263. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
Background: The proprioceptive system plays a role in the maintenance of postural control more than the visual and vestibular systems in ataxic patients with postural control disorders, but the relationship between trunk proprioception and postural control has not been sufficiently investigated yet. This relationship can provide a different perspective to the ataxia rehabilitation.
Research Question: This study aimed to examine the relationship between trunk position sense and postural control in ataxic individuals by comparing them to healthy individuals. Read More
Cortex 2018 Nov 19;111:274-285. Epub 2018 Nov 19.
Burke Medical Research Institute, Edith Cowan University and Weill Cornell Medicine, White Plains, NY, USA; Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
There exists debate regarding the extent to which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can affect or enhance human behavior. Here, we examined a previously unexplored domain: speech motor learning. We investigated whether speech motor learning in unimpaired participants can be enhanced using a single-session tDCS experiment, and investigated whether the timing of tDCS relative to a behavioral task affected performance. Read More
Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmacological and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; Department of Pharmacological and Physiological Science, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, USA. Electronic address:
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, disabling neurodegenerative disorder. It has been shown Toll like receptor (TLR) 4-deficient mice protect against MPTP toxicity, suggesting that dopaminergic cell death is TLR4-dependent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate, in an in vivo model of PD, how TLR4 plays its important role in the pathogenesis of PD by using MPTP neurotoxin model (4 × 20 mg/kg, 2 hr apart, i. Read More
Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Institut de Neurociències, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia, 08193, Spain. Electronic address:
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions by signaling through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA-LPA). In the central nervous system (CNS), LPA mediates a wide range of effects, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and contributions to pain, schizophrenia and hydrocephalus. We recently reported that LPA-LPA signaling mediates functional deficits and myelin loss after spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More
J Pediatr (Rio J) 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Desporto, Porto, Portugal.
Objective: Children's differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity levels are not at random. This study investigates the relevance of individual- and school-level characteristics in explaining these differences.
Methods: In total, 307 children (154 girls) aged 5-10 years, from 19 Portuguese schools, were sampled. Read More
J Mol Cell Cardiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address:
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder, best known for its clinical triad of progressive motor impairment, cognitive deficits and psychiatric disturbances, is caused by CAG-repeat expansion in exon 1 of Huntingtin (HTT). However, in addition to the neurological disease, mutant HTT (mHTT), which is ubiquitously expressed in all tissues, impairs other organ systems. Not surprisingly, cardiovascular dysautonomia as well as the deterioration of circadian rhythms are among the earliest detectable pathophysiological changes in individuals with HD. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209382. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Neurorehabilitation Research Center, Kio University, Nara, Japan.
Mechanical and electrical noise stimulation to the body is known to improve the sensorimotor system. This improvement is related to stochastic resonance (SR), a phenomenon described as a "noise benefit" to various sensory and motor systems. The current study investigated the influence of SR on visuomotor temporal integration and hand motor function under delayed visual feedback in healthy young adults. Read More
PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209233. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
Intrauterine crowding (IUC) considerably influences postnatal traits in a polytocous species such as the pig. Previously, our group described how IUC affects locomotion during the piglet's first days of life (until 96 h after birth). We noted a reduced motor performance in piglets with a low birth weight and low vitality (L piglets), compared to piglets with a normal birth weight and normal vitality (N piglets), indicating L piglets are unable to produce enough force. Read More
Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Kennedy Krieger Institute.
Objective: To characterize subtle motor signs in children with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the chronic phase of injury.
Design: Fourteen children with moderate (n=6) or severe (n=8) TBI, ages 11-18 years, who had sustained their injury at least 1-year prior to study participation (Range 1-14 years since injury), and 14 matched typically-developing controls were examined using the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS). To examine the neural correlates of subtle motor signs, measures of total cerebral volume and motor/premotor volume were derived from MRI. Read More
J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Psychology.
People prefer words with consonant articulation locations moving inward, from the front to the back of the mouth (e.g., ), over words with consonant articulation locations moving outward, from the back to the front of the mouth (e. Read More
Salud Publica Mex 2018 Sep-Oct;60(5):539-548
Departamento de Educación Física y Deportiva, Universitat de València. España.
Objective: To validate a short Spanish version of the instrument Barriers to Physical Activity Questionnaire for People with Mobility Impairments (BPAQ-MI), applicable to different types of disability.
Materials And Methods: The questionnaire was administered to 791 university students with disabilities. The factorial structure was validated by confirmatory factor analysis and Spearman correlations were carried out to assess criterion validity. Read More
Isr Med Assoc J 2018 Dec;20(12):754-760
Borenstein Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, 2013, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disease of the peripheral nervous system with a typical presentation of acute paralysis and hyporeflexia. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and plasma exchange (PLEX) are treatments that have proven to expedite recuperation and recovery of motor function.
Objectives: To describe our experience at one tertiary medical center treating GBS with IVIG and to compare the efficacy of IVIG as the sole treatment versus combined therapy of IVIG and plasma exchange. Read More
Eur J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
"Mario Serio" Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences, University of Florence, Italy.
The ability to flexibly regulate our behavior is a fundamental feature of human cognition and requires efficient functioning of cognitive control. During movement preparation, proactive inhibitory control plays a crucial role in regulating the excitatory activity carried out by alertness. The balance between alertness and proactive inhibition could be altered in people with motor impulsivity trait, determining the typical failure in the inhibition of prepotent motor responses. Read More
J Ultrasound Med 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
Infectious Diseases, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil.
Objectives: To evaluate whether abdominal ultrasound (US) with a gallbladder (GB) contractility study or motor function test can be used as a diagnostic tool in patients with dengue and warning signs in acute and recovery phases.
Methods: Fifty-one individuals in the acute phase of dengue presenting with warning signs (dengue group) and 49 healthy individuals without a history of dengue or hepatobiliary disease (control group) were studied with abdominal US and a GB contractility study.
Results: Statistical differences in US measurements of the liver (right lobe, P = . Read More
J Sleep Res 2018 Dec 13:e12806. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly comorbid with sleep dysfunction. In contrast to motor symptoms, few therapeutic interventions exist to address sleep symptoms in PD. Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) treats advanced PD motor symptoms and may improve sleep architecture. Read More
Compr Physiol 2018 Dec 13;9(1):127-148. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute (NMHI), School of Molecular & Systems Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
Neuroprostheses (NPs) are electrical stimulators that activate nerves, either to provide sensory input to the central nervous system (sensory NPs), or to activate muscles (motor NPs: MNPs). The first MNPs were belts with inbuilt batteries and electrodes developed in the 1850s to exercise the abdominal muscles. They became enormously popular among the general public, but as a result of exaggerated therapeutic claims they were soon discredited by the medical community. Read More
J Neurosci Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
MRI Research, CHU Amiens-Picardie, Amiens, France.
We assessed the sex and the lateralization differences in the corticospinal tract (CST) during the early postnatal period. Twenty-five healthy term neonates (13 girls, aged 39.2 ± 1. Read More
Laryngoscope 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana, U.S.A.
Objective: Tissue engineering of the larynx requires a complex, multiple tissue layer design. Additionally, spontaneous reinnervation of the larynx after recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is often disorganized, resulting in subpar function. This study investigates use of tissue-engineered cartilage and motor endplate-expressing (MEE) tissue-engineered skeletal muscle implants for laryngeal reconstruction and the promotion of organized reinnervation after RLN injury. Read More
Dev Med Child Neurol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Aim: Our aim was to characterize the sensory processing outcome following neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) and identify neuroanatomical correlates of abnormal sensory processing.
Method: We evaluated children with NAIS longitudinally at 12 months, 18 months, and/or 30 months in areas of cognitive, motor, and language development. We gathered sensory processing data using the Sensory Profile-2 Caregiver Questionnaire. Read More
Pediatr Pulmonol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Pediatrics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
Background: Spinal Muscular Atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is a rare genetic neuromuscular disease where 75% of SMA1 patients die/require permanent-ventilation by 13.6 months. This study assessed the health outcomes of SMA1 infants treated with AVXS-101 gene replacement therapy. Read More
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Office of the Clinical Director, NHGRI, and NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
We describe two unrelated children with de novo variants in the non-erythrocytic alpha-II-spectrin (SPTAN1) gene who have hypoplastic brain structures, intellectual disability, and both fine and gross motor impairments. Using agnostic exome sequencing, we identified a nonsense variant creating a premature stop codon in exon 21 of SPTAN1, and in a second patient we identified an intronic substitution in SPTAN1 prior to exon 50 creating a new donor acceptor site. Neither of these variants has been described previously. Read More
Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Neuroscience, Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neuroscience, Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Stem/progenitor cell transplantation delivery of astrocytes is a potentially powerful strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI). Axon extension into SCI lesions that occur spontaneously or in response to experimental manipulations is often observed along endogenous astrocyte "bridges," suggesting that augmenting this response via astrocyte lineage transplantation can enhance axon regrowth. Given the importance of respiratory dysfunction post-SCI, we transplanted glial-restricted precursors (GRPs)-a class of lineage-restricted astrocyte progenitors-into the C2 hemisection model and evaluated effects on diaphragm function and the growth response of descending rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) axons that innervate phrenic motor neurons (PhMNs). Read More