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    Trichoscopic Features of Linear Morphea on the Scalp.
    Skin Appendage Disord 2018 Jan 12;4(1):31-33. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (LSCS) is the most common form of morphea on the scalp and its trichoscopic features have not been described yet. We report 2 adult women with LSCS with distinct dermoscopic findings. They both had an atrophic well-defined linear patch of alopecia on the frontotemporal scalp. Read More

    Disabling pansclerotic morphoea of childhood.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 17;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Nephrology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    Disabling pansclerotic morphoea (DPM) of childhood is a severe and often fatal variant of deep morphoea. It usually starts in childhood and rarely seen in adults. The course of the disease is progressive with lifelong morbidity in the form of joint contractures and immobility. Read More

    Children with Facial Morphea Managing Everyday Life: A Qualitative Study.
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
    Background: This study explores the everyday experiences of children with facial morphea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphea and how children and their families manage its impact.

    Methods: We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphea 8-17 years of age and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Read More


    New developments on skin fibrosis - Essential signals emanating from the extracellular matrix for the control of myofibroblasts.
    Matrix Biol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Translational Matrix Biology, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:
    Many different diseases are associated with fibrosis of the skin. The clinical symptoms can vary considerably with a broad range from isolated small areas to the involvement of the entire integument. Fibrosis is triggered by a multitude of different stimuli leading to activation of the immune and vascular system that then initiate fibroblast activation and formation of matrix depositing and remodeling myofibroblasts. Read More

    Case report: One case of primary AL amyloidosis repeatedly misdiagnosed as scleroderma.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(50):e8771
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.
    Introduction: Amyloid light chain (AL) results from the deposition of immunoglobulin light chain fragments, and can affect multiple organs/systems. Our patient was diagnosed as scleroderma repeatedly because of extensive skin thickening and hardening, but the treatment was not effective. We did extensive laboratory examinations including serum/urine protein electrophoresis and flow cytometry assay of bone marrow aspiration. Read More

    Imaging molecular signatures for clinical detection of scleroderma in the hand by multispectral photoacoustic elastic tomography.
    J Biophotonics 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Bioimaging Core, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, SAR, China.
    Scleroderma (SD) is a rare autoimmune disease, which is divided into two categories: the localized SD and systemic SD. The localized SD mainly causes skin thickening of the fingers, whereas the systemic SD can further affect the blood vessels and internal organs. In this pilot study, the multispectral photoacoustic elastic tomography (PAET) imaging technique was used to recover the quantitative physiological and elastic properties of biological tissues for the diagnosis of SD. Read More

    An overlap case of Parry-Romberg syndrome and en coup de sabre with striking ocular involvement and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Feb;66(2):336-338
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ministry of Health, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) may overlap localized scleroderma (morphea) lesions with linear depression (en coup de sabre [ECDS]). Overlap case with PRS and ECDS was presented. Enophthalmos, uveitis, ocular torticollis, keratic linear precipitates, and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity were identified. Read More

    Serum microRNA screening and functional studies reveal miR-483-5p as a potential driver of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis.
    J Autoimmun 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules, which have been addressed as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in rheumatic diseases. Here, we investigated the miRNA signature in the serum of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and we further assessed their expression in early stages of the disease.

    Methods: The levels of 758 miRNAs were evaluated in the serum of 26 SSc patients as compared to 9 healthy controls by using an Openarray platform. Read More

    Impact of a new simplified disability scoring system for adult patients with localized scleroderma.
    J Dermatol 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Localized scleroderma (LoS) involves dermal but not internal inflammation and fibrosis. Cosmetic changes often impact quality of life (QOL), however, impairment of activities of daily living (ADL) in LoS patients has not been investigated. To determine what factor(s) are associated with ADL in adult patients with LoS, we performed a retrospective observational study in 177 Japanese adult LoS patients using a novel LoS disability score based on Barthel's indices of ADL: feeding, bathing, grooming, dressing, bowels, bladder, toilet use, transfers, mobility and stairs. Read More

    Scleroderma with an update about clinico-pathological correlation.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018 Jan 24. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare "Sapienza" Università di Roma, Rome, Italy.
    Scleroderma is divided into a systemic form called systemic sclerosis and a localized form also called morphea. According to 2013 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria for Systemic Sclerosis, developed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), skin thickening of the fingers extending proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints is sufficient for a patient to be classified as having scleroderma. Histological examination is not included in the diagnostic criteria and is not routinely performed. Read More

    The Childhood Arthritis & Rheumatology Research Alliance Consensus Treatment Plans: Towards Comparative Effectiveness in the Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Pediatric Rheumatology, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, United States.
    The pediatric rheumatic diseases are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases, posing a number of challenges for the use of traditional clinical and translational research approaches. Innovative comparative effectiveness approaches are needed to efficiently study treatment approaches and disease outcomes. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed the consensus treatment plan (CTP) approach as a comparative effectiveness tool for research in pediatric rheumatology. Read More

    Skin mapping for the classification of generalized morphea.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Feb;78(2):351-357
    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:
    Background: Generalized morphea lacks cohesive clinical features, limiting its clinical and investigative utility.

    Objective: We sought to use computerized lesion mapping to objectively subtype morphea.

    Methods: We conducted a 2-part cross-sectional study. Read More

    Mood changes with methotrexate therapy for dermatologic disease.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jan 9. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Neurotoxicity and cognitive effects of low-dose methotrexate for rheumatologic disease have often been described, but the neuropsychiatric effects of low-dose methotrexate for cutaneous disease have been underreported in the dermatology literature. We describe two children who experienced mood changes with methotrexate treatment for lichen sclerosus with morphea overlap and psoriasis, with rapid resolution of these symptoms after methotrexate cessation. We also detail possible mechanisms underlying psychiatric changes with methotrexate therapy. Read More

    Scleroderma in hospital settings in Lomé: 50 cases.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 Nov;27(4):446-448
    Service dermatologie du CHU Campus, Université de Lomé, BP 81056 Lomé, Togo.
    The aim of this study was to document the epidemiological and clinical profile, treatment used, and outcome of patients with scleroderma in hospital settings in Lomé. This descriptive study examined the records of all patients seen as outpatients or admitted for scleroderma in hospital dermatology and rheumatology departments in Lomé during the 20-year period of 1993-2012. During the study period, 50 (0. Read More

    Severe persistent injection site reactions after subcutaneous 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
    Neuromuscul Disord 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK. Electronic address:

    Cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of linear scleroderma of the face.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Jan 3;16(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128, Padova, Italy.
    Background: To date, standardized methods for assessing the disease progression of linear scleroderma of the face (LSF) are lacking.

    Objectives: We investigated whether Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) may represent a reliable tool for assessing linear scleroderma of the face (LSF).

    Methods: Ten patients with LSF and five age-matched controls underwent CBCT assessment. Read More

    Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for the treatment of deep morphoea in a child.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Dec 27. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Instituto Nacional Pediatría, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Morphoea, also known as localized scleroderma, is a disorder characterized by excessive collagen deposition leading to thickening of the dermis and/or subcutaneous tissues. Intravenous IgG therapy has induced improvement in some fibrotic conditions. The primary indication for subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) is in primary immunodeficiency disorders as replacement therapy; however, recently there has been considerable interest in SCIG as an immunomodulatory agent. Read More

    Systemic sclerosis complicated with localized scleroderma-like lesions induced by Köbner phenomenon.
    J Dermatol Sci 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.
    Background: Scleroderma is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by skin fibrosis and is divided into two clinical entities: systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LSc). In general, LSc is rarely complicated with SSc, but a certain portion of SSc patients manifests bilateral symmetric LSc-like lesions on the trunk and extremities.

    Objective: We investigated SSc patients with LSc-like lesions to clarify the underlying pathophysiology. Read More

    Morphoea profunda and its relationship to eosinophilic fasciitis.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2017 Dec 26. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Royal United Hospital Bath, Bath, Avon, UK.
    In this small case series, all eight patients were women in their fifth and sixth decades. This is similar to the female predominance in morphoea and less in keeping with eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). All cases had diffuse induration of their limbs with both proximal and distal patterns of distribution, and five of the patients exhibited peau d'orange skin. Read More

    Esophageal symptoms and their lack of association with high-resolution manometry in systemic sclerosis patients.
    Reumatol Clin 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Servicio de Reumatología, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Monterrey, Mexico.
    Background: The esophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) causes impact in the morbidity and mortality. High resolution manometry assesses esophageal involvement. Our aim was to categorize esophageal motor disorder in patients with SSc by HRM. Read More

    Morphea in Childhood: An Update.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Universitario Infanta Cristina , Parla, Madrid, España.
    Morphea is an inflammatory, fibrosing skin disorder. When it occurs in childhood, it is also known as localized juvenile scleroderma. It is more common in girls and typically appears around the age of 5 to 7 years. Read More

    Transcriptional and cytokine profiles identify CXCL9 as a biomarker of disease activity in morphea.
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

    Dermoscopy of Morphea and Cutaneous Lichen Sclerosus: Clinicopathological Correlation Study and Comparative Analysis.
    Dermatology 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Dermatology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Background: Dermoscopy of morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus (CLS) has been described by various studies, with none of them considering variability according to clinical phases and investigating dermoscopic-histological correlations.

    Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic features in general and according to clinical stage, identify possible distinctive dermoscopic clues, and assess dermoscopy accuracy in detecting subclinical alterations in morphea and CLS.

    Methods: A representative dermoscopic image of target lesions was evaluated for the presence of specific features, correlating them with clinical subtype (inflammatory, inflammatory-sclerotic, sclerotic, or sclerotic-atrophic). Read More

    Radiation-induced circumscribed superficial morphea after brachytherapy for endometrial adenocarcinoma.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2017 Dec 21;3(4):234-236. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT.
    Radiation-induced morphea (RIM) is a rare and underrecognized complication of radiation therapy that most commonly occurs in women after treatment for breast cancer. Although not fully understood, RIM is hypothesized to arise from an increase in cytokines that stimulate collagen production and extracellular matrix formation. Most documented cases of RIM occur 1 year after radiation therapy and are localized to areas that were treated for breast cancer. Read More

    A Case of Circumscribed Scalp Morphea with Perineural Lymphocytes on Pathology.
    Skin Appendage Disord 2017 Oct 29;3(4):175-178. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Scalp morphea presents as a scarring alopecia inpattern. We report an unusual presentation of a round hairless patch of morphea on the occipital scalp present for 15 years. The scalp lesion aligned with 2 other hyperpigmented lesions of biopsy-proven morphea in the lower back. Read More

    Esophageal abnormalities in juvenile localized scleroderma: is it associated with other extracutaneous manifestations?
    Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed 2017 Nov - Dec;57(6):521-525. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Unidade de Reumatologia Pediátrica, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão de Reumatologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Objective: To assess esophageal involvement (EI) in juvenile localized scleroderma (JLS) population and the possible association between this gastrointestinal manifestation and demographic data, clinical features, laboratory exams, treatments and outcomes.

    Methods: For a period of 30 years, 5881 patients with rheumatic diseases were followed in our Pediatric Rheumatology Division. EI was defined by the presence of symptoms (solid/liquid dysphagia, heartburn, esophageal regurgitation, nausea/vomiting and epigastralgia) and confirmed by at least one EI exam abnormality: barium contrast radiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 24-hour esophageal pH-monitoring. Read More

    A case report of open craniofacial sutures, a novel feature of systemic sclerosis?
    Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2017 Dec 15:20170374. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    2 Department of Radiology, Birmingham Dental Hospital , Birmingham , UK.
    Scleroderma is an uncommon connective-tissue disease, its key feature being excessive collagen deposition resulting in fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. There are different types that can vary in severity from localized scleroderma to systemic sclerosis. Various clinical and radiographic findings can be attributed to the disease, which arise owing to the progressive nature of microvascular changes and collagen deposition. Read More

    Evaluation of mean platelet volume in localized scleroderma.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;92(5):635-637
    Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakıf University - Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Localized scleroderma is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by sclerosis of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Platelets play an important role in inflammation. Following activation, platelets rapidly release numerous mediators and cytokines, which contribute to inflammation. Read More

    Coexistence of morphea and granuloma annulare: a rare case report.
    Sao Paulo Med J 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    MD. Attending Physician and Associate Professor, Dermatology Clinic, Haseki Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Context: Localized scleroderma (morphea) is characterized by fibrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue. Granuloma annulare is a relatively common disease that is characterized by dermal papules and arciform plaques.

    Case Report: Here, we present the case of a 42-year-old woman who developed granuloma annulare on the dorsum of her feet and abdominal region, and morphea on the anterior side of her lower limbs. Read More

    Discordance of pediatric morphea treatment by pediatric dermatologists.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jan 22;35(1):47-54. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Section of Dermatology, Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, USA.
    Background/objectives: Studies describing treatment efficacy in pediatric morphea are lacking. Subspecialists have reached no consensus on how to optimally treat pediatric morphea. The objective of the current study was to describe the most common treatment practices of pediatric dermatologists worldwide who care for children with morphea. Read More

    A Case of a Patient with Residual Symptoms of Schizophrenia who Relapsed Following Treatment with the Topical Corticosteroid, Clobetasol: A Review of its Risk of Systemic Absorption and Possibility of Exacerbating Psychosis.
    Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA, USA.
    Almost fifty percent of patients with schizophrenia experience some type of dermatitis. The standard treatment for dermatitis is a topical corticosteroid. Despite their demonstrated effectiveness, topical corticosteroids are associated with various side effects that may limit their use. Read More

    Localized Scleroderma, Systemic Sclerosis and Cardiovascular Risk: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Herlev and Gentofte University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Kildegaardsvej 28, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark.
    Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. Read More

    Orthopedic complications of linear morphea: Implications for early interdisciplinary care.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jan 9;35(1):43-46. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Dermatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
    Linear morphea of the limb primarily affects children, and extracutaneous manifestations are common. Orthopedic surgeons are often essential in the care of patients with linear morphea, yet there are few reports outlining specific orthopedic complications in this population. We sought to improve the understanding of orthopedic complications in linear morphea of the limb. Read More

    Targeting of cadherin-11 decreases skin fibrosis in the tight skin-1 mouse model.
    PLoS One 2017 7;12(11):e0187109. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Section of Immunology, Allergy, and Rheumatology, Biology of Inflammation Center, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States of America.
    Objective: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease clinically manifesting as progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Cadherin-11 (CDH11) expression is increased in fibrotic skin and lung tissue. Targeting CDH11 may be an effective approach to treating fibrosis. Read More

    Post-irradiation morphoea of the breast: a case report and review of the literature.
    Histopathology 2018 Jan 7;72(2):342-350. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Breast Cancer Research Program, Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
    We describe a 44-year-old female with triple-negative breast cancer who developed skin erythaema, sclerosis and contracture of her entire right breast 15 months after completion of post-lumpectomy chemotherapy and radiotherapy, consistent with post-irradiation morphoea (PIM). PIM is a rare complication of breast irradiation that impairs a patient's quality of life. PIM is located usually at the radiation port or in the surrounding tissue. Read More

    Granuloma Annulare and Morphea: Correlation with Borrelia burgdorferi Infections and Chlamydia-related Bacteria.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Dermatology, Allergology and Venereal Diseases, University of Helsinki and Center of Inflammation, Helsinki University Central Hospital, FIN-00029 Helsinki, Finland.
    A retrospective study of 109 skin biopsies with granuloma annulare (GA) or morphea histology from patients with suspected tick bite was performed. Biopsies were tested for cutaneous Borrelia burgdorferi DNA using PCR. The same biopsies were analysed for tick-borne novel agents, Chlamydia-related bacteria (members of the Chlamydiales order), using a PCR-based method. Read More

    Surgical Management of Localized Scleroderma.
    Arch Craniofac Surg 2017 Sep 26;18(3):166-171. Epub 2017 Sep 26.
    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
    Background: Localized scleroderma is characterized by a thickening of the skin from excessive collagen deposits. It is not a fatal disease, but quality of life can be adversely affected due to changes in skin appearance, joint contractures, and, rarely, serious deformities of the face and extremities. We present six cases of localized scleroderma in face from our surgical practice. Read More

    Early-Life Gut Dysbiosis: A Driver of Later-Life Fibrosis?
    J Invest Dermatol 2017 Nov;137(11):2253-2255
    Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Electronic address:
    Using a novel mouse model of scleroderma induced by immunization with topoisomerase-I peptide-loaded dendritic cells, Mehta et al. found that early-life antibiotic exposure resulted in increased later-life fibrosis in the skin and lungs. These observations advance the novel concept that gut microbiome alterations caused by early-life exposures may contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis, and warrant in-depth characterization and validation in complementary disease models. Read More

    Swallowing difficulties with medication intake assessed with a novel self-report questionnaire in patients with systemic sclerosis - a cross-sectional population study.
    Patient Prefer Adherence 2017 28;11:1687-1699. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Pharmaceutical Care Research Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
    Objectives: To assess subjective swallowing difficulties (SD) with medication intake and their practical consequences in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis (SSc) with a novel self-report questionnaire.

    Design And Setting: Based on a systematic literature review, we developed a self-report questionnaire and got it approved by an expert panel. Subsequently, we sent the questionnaire by post mail to SSc patients of the European Center for the Rehabilitation of Scleroderma Rheinfelden, Switzerland. Read More

    Tocilizumab in two children with pansclerotic morphoea: a hopeful therapy for refractory cases?
    Clin Exp Rheumatol 2017 Sep-Oct;35 Suppl 106(4):211-213. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Paediatric Rheumatology Unit, Department for the Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Italy.
    Pansclerotic morphoea (PM) is a subtype of juvenile localised scleroderma characterised by severe course with generalised full-thickness skin involvement and possible growth and functional impairment. PM treatment comprises a combination of immunosuppressive agents such as corticosteroids, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, PUVA and antithymocyte globulin and biological agents used in off-label. A possible role of IL-6 in the regulation of firoblast differentiation and stimulation of collagen synthesis has been suggested and in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) the treatment with tocilizumab (TCZ) was associated to improvement of skin thickness and joint motion. Read More

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