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    Diagnostic criteria, severity classification and guidelines of localized scleroderma.
    J Dermatol 2018 Apr 23. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    We established diagnostic criteria and severity classification of localized scleroderma because there is no established diagnostic criteria or widely accepted severity classification of the disease. Also, there has been no clinical guideline for localized scleroderma, so we established its clinical guideline ahead of all over the world. In particular, the clinical guideline was established by clinical questions based on evidence-based medicine according to the New Minds Clinical Practice Guideline Creation Manual (version 1. Read More

    From Localized Scleroderma to Systemic Sclerosis: Coexistence or Possible Evolution.
    Dermatol Res Pract 2018 30;2018:1284687. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Scleroderma Unit, Chair of Rheumatology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
    Background: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LoS) are two different diseases that may share some features. We evaluated the relationship between SSc and LoS in our case series of SSc patients.

    Methods: We analysed the clinical records of 330 SSc patients, in order to find the eventual occurrence of both the two diseases. Read More

    Comparing ultraviolet light A photo(chemo)therapy with Methotrexate protocol in childhood localized scleroderma: Evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis approach.
    Semin Arthritis Rheum 2018 Mar 14. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
    Department of Neurofarba, University of Studies of Florence, Italy; Paediatric Rheumatology, Hospital Anna Meyer, Florence, Italy.
    Objective: Localized scleroderma is a skin fibrosing disorder that, if untreated, may result in severe disability. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the present evidence concerning the effectiveness of Methotrexate versus phototherapy, alone or associated with Psoralen, in childhood localized scleroderma.

    Method: A systematic search between January 1996 and May 2017 was performed to identify studies investigating the efficacy of Methotrexate (MTX) or phototherapy (UVA) for treating localized scleroderma with onset ≤18 years. Read More

    Detection of autoimmune antibodies in localized scleroderma by synthetic oligonucleotide antigens.
    PLoS One 2018 11;13(4):e0195381. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Region Hovedstaden, Denmark.
    In this study, we developed a series of synthetic oligonucleotides that allowed us to investigate the details on the antigen recognition by autoimmune antibodies in localized scleroderma subjects. Besides dramatically improved analytical specificity of the assay, our data suggests a potential linking for antibodies to DNA to the biological status of disease state in localized scleroderma. Moreover, introducing chemical modifications into short synthetic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules completely changed the binding titers of corresponding antibodies and their clinical relevance. Read More

    Clinico-epidemiological study of morphea from a tertiary care hospital.
    Curr Rheumatol Rev 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
    Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College (JNMC), Aligarh Muslim University (AMU), Aligarh. India.
    Introduction: Morphea is an uncommon disease that presents with skin induration and sclerosis. The disease is common in Caucasians and there are few studies describing the clinico-epidemiological profile of these patients from the Indian subcontinent.

    Methods: This prospective study was conducted during a three year period from June 2014 to May 2017. Read More

    Underdiagnosed and disfiguring - Radiation-induced morphea following breast cancer treatment.
    Breast 2018 Apr 7;39:97-100. Epub 2018 Apr 7.
    Department of Dermatology, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    Objectives: Radiation-induced morphea (RIM) is a rare, painful and disfiguring complication in women who receive adjuvant radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. It is a distinct entity unrelated to radiation-induced fibrosis of the breast.

    Materials And Methods: Between the years 2005-2016, approximately 12,000 breast cancer cases were treated with surgery and radiation in the central district of Israel. Read More

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus, morphea profunda and psoriasis: A case report.
    Reumatol Clin 2018 Apr 3. Epub 2018 Apr 3.
    Servicio de Reumatología, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real, España.
    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory dermatosis that may be associated with a number of diseases. Recent studies provide evidence that there is a greater frequency of autoimmune diseases, but association with autoimmune connective tissue diseases is uncommon. The coexistence of psoriasis and lupus erythematosus is rare. Read More

    Expression of selected genes of dendritic and Treg cells in blood and skin of morphea patients treated with UVA1 phototherapy.
    Arch Med Sci 2018 Mar 21;14(2):361-369. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Dermatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
    Introduction: Morphea is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by fibrosis of the skin. Dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a significant role in development of autoimmune and tolerance mechanisms. The aim of the study was to establish the expression of selected genes of plasmacytoid and myeloid DC, Treg cells, and the microenvironment of cytokines (interleukin-17A (IL-17A), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)) in blood and skin of morphea patients. Read More

    Inflammatory arthritis in pediatric patients with morphea.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    Division of Pediatric Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. Electronic address:
    Background: Morphea, or 'localized scleroderma', is an inflammatory disorder resulting in fibrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. Joint contractures, arthralgias and functional compromise are recognized associations of pediatric morphea. The co-existence of inflammatory arthritis and morphea is not well-described in the literature. Read More

    Ultrasound characterization of cutaneous ulcers in systemic sclerosis.
    Clin Rheumatol 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
    Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Division, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Skin ulcers in scleroderma (SSc) patients are considered a major challenge, both in clinical assessment and treatment decisions. The objective of our study is to assess ultrasonographic (US) morphology of skin ulcers in SSc patients and evaluate if US will be of value in enhancing our clinical information and influence our management plans. We examined a convenience sample of 21 skin ulcers reported in 10 SSc patients by US. Read More

    Localized Scleroderma of the Head and Face Area: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of 96 Patients from 5 German Tertiary Referral Centres.
    Acta Derm Venereol 2018 Mar 2. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, HELIOS St. Elisabeth Hospital Oberhausen, University Witten/Herdecke, Josefstr. 3, DE-46045 Oberhausen, Germany.

    High-frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) as a useful tool in differentiating between plaque morphea and extragenital lichen sclerosus lesions.
    Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Oct 10;34(5):485-489. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Introduction: Morphea and lichen sclerosus (LS) are chronic inflammatory diseases that may pose a diagnostic challenge for a physician. High-frequency ultrasonography (HFUS) is a versatile diagnostic method utilized in dermatologic practice, allowing monitoring the course of the disease, treatment response and differentiation between certain skin disorders.

    Aim: To prove the usefulness of HFUS in differentiating between plaque morphea and extragenital LS lesions. Read More

    Trichoscopic Features of Linear Morphea on the Scalp.
    Skin Appendage Disord 2018 Jan 12;4(1):31-33. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre (LSCS) is the most common form of morphea on the scalp and its trichoscopic features have not been described yet. We report 2 adult women with LSCS with distinct dermoscopic findings. They both had an atrophic well-defined linear patch of alopecia on the frontotemporal scalp. Read More

    Disabling pansclerotic morphoea of childhood.
    BMJ Case Rep 2018 Feb 17;2018. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Nephrology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
    Disabling pansclerotic morphoea (DPM) of childhood is a severe and often fatal variant of deep morphoea. It usually starts in childhood and rarely seen in adults. The course of the disease is progressive with lifelong morbidity in the form of joint contractures and immobility. Read More

    Children with Facial Morphea Managing Everyday Life: A Qualitative Study.
    Br J Dermatol 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario.
    Background: This study explores the everyday experiences of children with facial morphea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphea and how children and their families manage its impact.

    Methods: We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphea 8-17 years of age and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Read More

    New developments on skin fibrosis - Essential signals emanating from the extracellular matrix for the control of myofibroblasts.
    Matrix Biol 2018 Feb 12. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Translational Matrix Biology, University of Cologne, Medical Faculty, Cologne, Germany. Electronic address:
    Many different diseases are associated with fibrosis of the skin. The clinical symptoms can vary considerably with a broad range from isolated small areas to the involvement of the entire integument. Fibrosis is triggered by a multitude of different stimuli leading to activation of the immune and vascular system that then initiate fibroblast activation and formation of matrix depositing and remodeling myofibroblasts. Read More

    Case report: One case of primary AL amyloidosis repeatedly misdiagnosed as scleroderma.
    Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(50):e8771
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.
    Introduction: Amyloid light chain (AL) results from the deposition of immunoglobulin light chain fragments, and can affect multiple organs/systems. Our patient was diagnosed as scleroderma repeatedly because of extensive skin thickening and hardening, but the treatment was not effective. We did extensive laboratory examinations including serum/urine protein electrophoresis and flow cytometry assay of bone marrow aspiration. Read More

    Imaging molecular signatures for clinical detection of scleroderma in the hand by multispectral photoacoustic elastic tomography.
    J Biophotonics 2018 Feb 1. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
    Bioimaging Core, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China.
    Scleroderma (SD) is a rare autoimmune disease, which is divided into 2 categories: the localized SD and systemic SD. The localized SD mainly causes skin thickening of the fingers, whereas the systemic SD can further affect the blood vessels and internal organs. In this pilot study, the multispectral photoacoustic elastic tomography (PAET) imaging technique was used to recover the quantitative physiological and elastic properties of biological tissues for the diagnosis of SD. Read More

    An overlap case of Parry-Romberg syndrome and en coup de sabre with striking ocular involvement and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 02;66(2):336-338
    Department of Ophthalmology, Ministry of Health, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.
    Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) may overlap localized scleroderma (morphea) lesions with linear depression (en coup de sabre [ECDS]). Overlap case with PRS and ECDS was presented. Enophthalmos, uveitis, ocular torticollis, keratic linear precipitates, and anti-double-stranded DNA positivity were identified. Read More

    Serum microRNA screening and functional studies reveal miR-483-5p as a potential driver of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis.
    J Autoimmun 2018 May 20;89:162-170. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Objective: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules, which have been addressed as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in rheumatic diseases. Here, we investigated the miRNA signature in the serum of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients and we further assessed their expression in early stages of the disease.

    Methods: The levels of 758 miRNAs were evaluated in the serum of 26 SSc patients as compared to 9 healthy controls by using an Openarray platform. Read More

    Impact of a new simplified disability scoring system for adult patients with localized scleroderma.
    J Dermatol 2018 Apr 25;45(4):431-435. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Department of Dermatology and Plastic Surgery, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
    Localized scleroderma (LoS) involves dermal but not internal inflammation and fibrosis. Cosmetic changes often impact quality of life (QOL), however, impairment of activities of daily living (ADL) in LoS patients has not been investigated. To determine what factor(s) are associated with ADL in adult patients with LoS, we performed a retrospective observational study in 177 Japanese adult LoS patients using a novel LoS disability score based on Barthel's indices of ADL: feeding, bathing, grooming, dressing, bowels, bladder, toilet use, transfers, mobility and stairs. Read More

    Scleroderma with an update about clinico-pathological correlation.
    G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 24;153(2):208-215. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, "Sapienza" University, Rome, Italy.
    Scleroderma is divided into a systemic form called systemic sclerosis and a localized form also called morphea. According to 2013 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria for Systemic Sclerosis, developed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), skin thickening of the fingers extending proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints is sufficient for a patient to be classified as having scleroderma. Histological examination is not included in the diagnostic criteria and is not routinely performed. Read More

    The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance Consensus Treatment Plans: Toward Comparative Effectiveness in the Pediatric Rheumatic Diseases.
    Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, New Jersey.
    The pediatric rheumatic diseases are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases, posing a number of challenges for the use of traditional clinical and translational research methods. Innovative comparative effectiveness approaches are needed to efficiently study treatment strategies and disease outcomes. The Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) developed the consensus treatment plan (CTP) approach as a comparative effectiveness tool for research in pediatric rheumatology. Read More

    Skin mapping for the classification of generalized morphea.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Feb;78(2):351-357
    Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas. Electronic address:
    Background: Generalized morphea lacks cohesive clinical features, limiting its clinical and investigative utility.

    Objective: We sought to use computerized lesion mapping to objectively subtype morphea.

    Methods: We conducted a 2-part cross-sectional study. Read More

    Mood changes with methotrexate therapy for dermatologic disease.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Mar 9;35(2):253-254. Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA.
    Neurotoxicity and cognitive effects of low-dose methotrexate for rheumatologic disease have often been described, but the neuropsychiatric effects of low-dose methotrexate for cutaneous disease have been underreported in the dermatology literature. We describe two children who experienced mood changes with methotrexate treatment for lichen sclerosus with morphea overlap and psoriasis, with rapid resolution of these symptoms after methotrexate cessation. We also detail possible mechanisms underlying psychiatric changes with methotrexate therapy. Read More

    Scleroderma in hospital settings in Lomé: 50 cases.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 Nov;27(4):446-448
    Service dermatologie du CHU Campus, Université de Lomé, BP 81056 Lomé, Togo.
    The aim of this study was to document the epidemiological and clinical profile, treatment used, and outcome of patients with scleroderma in hospital settings in Lomé. This descriptive study examined the records of all patients seen as outpatients or admitted for scleroderma in hospital dermatology and rheumatology departments in Lomé during the 20-year period of 1993-2012. During the study period, 50 (0. Read More

    Severe persistent injection site reactions after subcutaneous 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate oligonucleotide therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
    Neuromuscul Disord 2018 Feb 28;28(2):176-177. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    Dubowitz Neuromuscular Centre, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital, 30 Guilford Street, London WC1N 1EH, UK. Electronic address:

    Cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of linear scleroderma of the face.
    Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Jan 3;16(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 3, 35128, Padova, Italy.
    Background: To date, standardized methods for assessing the disease progression of linear scleroderma of the face (LSF) are lacking.

    Objectives: We investigated whether Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) may represent a reliable tool for assessing linear scleroderma of the face (LSF).

    Methods: Ten patients with LSF and five age-matched controls underwent CBCT assessment. Read More

    Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for the treatment of deep morphoea in a child.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Apr 27;43(3):303-305. Epub 2017 Dec 27.
    Department of Dermatology, Instituto Nacional Pediatría, Mexico City, Mexico.
    Morphoea, also known as localized scleroderma, is a disorder characterized by excessive collagen deposition leading to thickening of the dermis and/or subcutaneous tissues. Intravenous IgG therapy has induced improvement in some fibrotic conditions. The primary indication for subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) is in primary immunodeficiency disorders as replacement therapy; however, recently there has been considerable interest in SCIG as an immunomodulatory agent. Read More

    Systemic sclerosis complicated with localized scleroderma-like lesions induced by Köbner phenomenon.
    J Dermatol Sci 2018 Mar 16;89(3):282-289. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan.
    Background: Scleroderma is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by skin fibrosis and is divided into two clinical entities: systemic sclerosis (SSc) and localized scleroderma (LSc). In general, LSc is rarely complicated with SSc, but a certain portion of SSc patients manifests bilateral symmetric LSc-like lesions on the trunk and extremities.

    Objective: We investigated SSc patients with LSc-like lesions to clarify the underlying pathophysiology. Read More

    Morphoea profunda and its relationship to eosinophilic fasciitis.
    Clin Exp Dermatol 2018 Apr 26;43(3):306-310. Epub 2017 Dec 26.
    Royal United Hospital Bath, Bath, Avon, UK.
    In this small case series, all eight patients were women in their fifth and sixth decades. This is similar to the female predominance in morphoea and less in keeping with eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). All cases had diffuse induration of their limbs with both proximal and distal patterns of distribution, and five of the patients exhibited peau d'orange skin. Read More

    Esophageal symptoms and their lack of association with high-resolution manometry in systemic sclerosis patients.
    Reumatol Clin 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Servicio de Reumatología, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González", Monterrey, Mexico.
    Background: The esophageal involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) causes impact in the morbidity and mortality. High resolution manometry assesses esophageal involvement. Our aim was to categorize esophageal motor disorder in patients with SSc by HRM. Read More

    Morphea in Childhood: An Update.
    Actas Dermosifiliogr 2017 Dec 13. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Universitario Infanta Cristina , Parla, Madrid, España.
    Morphea is an inflammatory, fibrosing skin disorder. When it occurs in childhood, it is also known as localized juvenile scleroderma. It is more common in girls and typically appears around the age of 5 to 7 years. Read More

    Regarding "Transcriptional and Cytokine Profiles Identify CXCL9 as a Biomarker of Disease Activity in Morphea".
    J Invest Dermatol 2018 May 12;138(5):1212-1215. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

    Dermoscopy of Morphea and Cutaneous Lichen Sclerosus: Clinicopathological Correlation Study and Comparative Analysis.
    Dermatology 2017 14;233(6):462-470. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Dermatology, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.
    Background: Dermoscopy of morphea and cutaneous lichen sclerosus (CLS) has been described by various studies, with none of them considering variability according to clinical phases and investigating dermoscopic-histological correlations.

    Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic features in general and according to clinical stage, identify possible distinctive dermoscopic clues, and assess dermoscopy accuracy in detecting subclinical alterations in morphea and CLS.

    Methods: A representative dermoscopic image of target lesions was evaluated for the presence of specific features, correlating them with clinical subtype (inflammatory, inflammatory-sclerotic, sclerotic, or sclerotic-atrophic). Read More

    Radiation-induced circumscribed superficial morphea after brachytherapy for endometrial adenocarcinoma.
    Int J Womens Dermatol 2017 Dec 21;3(4):234-236. Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT.
    Radiation-induced morphea (RIM) is a rare and underrecognized complication of radiation therapy that most commonly occurs in women after treatment for breast cancer. Although not fully understood, RIM is hypothesized to arise from an increase in cytokines that stimulate collagen production and extracellular matrix formation. Most documented cases of RIM occur 1 year after radiation therapy and are localized to areas that were treated for breast cancer. Read More

    A Case of Circumscribed Scalp Morphea with Perineural Lymphocytes on Pathology.
    Skin Appendage Disord 2017 Oct 29;3(4):175-178. Epub 2017 Apr 29.
    Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.
    Scalp morphea presents as a scarring alopecia in pattern. We report an unusual presentation of a round hairless patch of morphea on the occipital scalp present for 15 years. The scalp lesion aligned with 2 other hyperpigmented lesions of biopsy-proven morphea in the lower back. Read More

    Esophageal abnormalities in juvenile localized scleroderma: is it associated with other extracutaneous manifestations?
    Rev Bras Reumatol Engl Ed 2017 Nov - Dec;57(6):521-525. Epub 2016 Oct 17.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Unidade de Reumatologia Pediátrica, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão de Reumatologia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Objective: To assess esophageal involvement (EI) in juvenile localized scleroderma (JLS) population and the possible association between this gastrointestinal manifestation and demographic data, clinical features, laboratory exams, treatments and outcomes.

    Methods: For a period of 30 years, 5881 patients with rheumatic diseases were followed in our Pediatric Rheumatology Division. EI was defined by the presence of symptoms (solid/liquid dysphagia, heartburn, esophageal regurgitation, nausea/vomiting and epigastralgia) and confirmed by at least one EI exam abnormality: barium contrast radiography, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 24-hour esophageal pH-monitoring. Read More

    A case report of open craniofacial sutures, a novel feature of systemic sclerosis?
    Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2018 Feb 15;47(3):20170374. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
    2 Department of Radiology, Birmingham Dental Hospital , Birmingham , UK.
    Scleroderma is an uncommon connective-tissue disease, its key feature being excessive collagen deposition resulting in fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. There are different types that can vary in severity from localized scleroderma to systemic sclerosis. Various clinical and radiographic findings can be attributed to the disease, which arise owing to the progressive nature of microvascular changes and collagen deposition. Read More

    Evaluation of mean platelet volume in localized scleroderma.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Sep-Oct;92(5):635-637
    Department of Dermatology, Bezmialem Vakıf University - Istanbul, Turkey.
    Background: Localized scleroderma is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by sclerosis of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue. Platelets play an important role in inflammation. Following activation, platelets rapidly release numerous mediators and cytokines, which contribute to inflammation. Read More

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