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    Strengthening of Surveillance during Monkeypox Outbreak, Republic of the Congo, 2017.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jun;24(6):1158-1160
    Reports of 10 suspected cases of monkeypox in Likouala Department, Republic of the Congo, triggered an investigation and response in March 2017 that included community education and surveillance strengthening. Increasing numbers of outbreaks suggest that monkeypox virus is becoming a more prevalent human pathogen. Diverse approaches are necessary for disease control and prevention. Read More

    Genome Sequences of Akhmeta Virus, an Early Divergent Old World Orthopoxvirus.
    Viruses 2018 05 12;10(5). Epub 2018 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers of Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
    Annotated whole genome sequences of three isolates of the Akhmeta virus (AKMV), a novel species of orthopoxvirus (OPXV), isolated from the Akhmeta and Vani regions of the country Georgia, are presented and discussed. The AKMV genome is similar in genomic content and structure to that of the cowpox virus (CPXV), but a lower sequence identity was found between AKMV and Old World OPXVs than between other known species of Old World OPXVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AKMV diverged prior to other Old World OPXV. Read More

    A Nosocomial Outbreak of Human Monkeypox in the Central African Republic.
    Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 3;4(4):ofx168. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Unité Environnement et Risques Infectieux, Cellule d'Intervention Biologique d'Urgence.
    An outbreak of familial monkeypox occurred in the Central African Republic in 2015/2016 by 3 transmission modes: familial, health care-related, and transport-related. Ten people (3 children and 7 adults) were infected. Most presented with cutaneous lesions and fever, and 2 children died. Read More

    Mutagenic repair of double-stranded DNA breaks in vaccinia virus genomes requires cellular DNA ligase IV activity in the cytosol.
    J Gen Virol 2018 Jun 20;99(6):790-804. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    1​Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Read More

    Reemergence of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria, 2017.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jun 17;24(6):1149-1151. Epub 2018 Jun 17.
    In Nigeria, before 2017 the most recent case of human monkeypox had been reported in 1978. By mid-November 2017, a large outbreak caused by the West African clade resulted in 146 suspected cases and 42 laboratory-confirmed cases from 14 states. Although the source is unknown, multiple sources are suspected. Read More

    Investigation of an outbreak of monkeypox in an area occupied by armed groups, Central African Republic.
    Med Mal Infect 2018 Jun 21;48(4):263-268. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic.
    Background: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem.

    Patients And Method: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. Read More

    Evolution of Synonymous Codon Usage Bias in West African and Central African Strains of Monkeypox Virus.
    Evol Bioinform Online 2018 9;14:1176934318761368. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
    Department of Biotechnology, Vignan's University, Guntur, India.
    The evolution of bias in synonymous codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes and the factors influencing its diversification have not been reported so far. In this study, various trends associated with synonymous codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes were investigated, and the results are reported. Identification of factors that influence codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes was done using various codon usage indices, such as the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons, and the codon adaptation index. Read More

    Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 16;67(10):306-310. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement. Endemic human monkeypox has been reported from more countries in the past decade than during the previous 40 years. Read More

    Loss of Actin-Based Motility Impairs Ectromelia Virus Release In Vitro but Is Not Critical to Spread In Vivo.
    Viruses 2018 03 5;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 5.
    School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox. Like other poxviruses such as variola virus (agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (the live vaccine for smallpox), ECTV promotes actin-nucleation at the surface of infected cells during virus release. Homologs of the viral protein A36 mediate this function through phosphorylation of one or two tyrosine residues that ultimately recruit the cellular Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. Read More

    Modulating Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulators to Improve Immunological Memory.
    Viruses 2018 02 28;10(3). Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.
    The increasing frequency of monkeypox virus infections, new outbreaks of other zoonotic orthopoxviruses and concern about the re-emergence of smallpox have prompted research into developing antiviral drugs and better vaccines against these viruses. This article considers the genetic engineering of vaccinia virus (VACV) to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VACV strains engineered to lack specific immunomodulatory or host range proteins are described. Read More

    Bayesian reconstruction of the evolutionary history and cross-species transition of variola virus and orthopoxviruses.
    J Med Virol 2018 Jun 12;90(6):1134-1141. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences "Luigi Sacco", University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is an exclusively human virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes many other viral species covering a wide range of mammal hosts, such as vaccinia, cowpox, camelpox, taterapox, ectromelia, and monkeypox virus. The tempo and mode of evolution of Orthopoxviruses were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylodynamic framework by analysing 80 hemagglutinin sequences retrieved from public databases. Bayesian phylogeography was used to estimate their putative ancestral hosts. Read More

    Ghosts of infections past: using archival samples to understand a century of monkeypox virus prevalence among host communities across space and time.
    R Soc Open Sci 2018 Jan 31;5(1):171089. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
    Infectious diseases that originate from multiple wildlife hosts can be complex and problematic to manage. A full understanding is further limited by large temporal and spatial gaps in sampling. However, these limitations can be overcome, in part, by using historical samples, such as those derived from museum collections. Read More

    Beyond the Dirty Dozen: A Proposed Methodology for Assessing Future Bioweapon Threats.
    Mil Med 2018 Jan;183(1-2):e59-e65
    CBRN Program Office, Office of the U.S. Army Surgeon General, Falls Church, VA 22041.
    Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Read More


    Improving the Care and Treatment of Monkeypox Patients in Low-Resource Settings: Applying Evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research.
    Viruses 2017 12 12;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 12.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Read More

    Suppression of Poxvirus Replication by Resveratrol.
    Front Microbiol 2017 17;8:2196. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, United States.
    Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. Read More

    Frameworks for Preventing, Detecting, and Controlling Zoonotic Diseases.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Dec;23(13)
    Preventing zoonotic diseases requires coordinated actions by government authorities responsible for human and animal health. Constructing the frameworks needed to foster intersectoral collaboration can be approached in many ways. We highlight 3 examples of approaches to implement zoonotic disease prevention and control programs. Read More

    Validation of a pan-orthopox real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of viral genomes from nonhuman primate blood.
    Virol J 2017 11 3;14(1):210. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Division of Medicine, U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, 21702-5011, USA.
    Background: In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Siberia) and one in the United States (CDC Atlanta). Vaccinations among the general public ceased shortly after the successful eradication campaign, resulting in an increasingly immunologically susceptible population. Because of the possibility of intentional reintroduction of Variola virus and the emergence of other pathogenic poxviruses, there is a great need for the development of medical countermeasures to treat poxvirus disease. Read More

    Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Human Monkeypox Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct;216(7):824-828
    L'Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale.
    Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet. Read More

    Assessing Monkeypox Virus Prevalence in Small Mammals at the Human-Animal Interface in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Viruses 2017 10 3;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, 1600 Clifton Rd. NE, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.
    During 2012, 2013 and 2015, we collected small mammals within 25 km of the town of Boende in Tshuapa Province, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in this area is unknown; however, cases of human infection were previously confirmed near these collection sites. Samples were collected from 353 mammals (rodents, shrews, pangolins, elephant shrews, a potamogale, and a hyrax). Read More

    Varicella Coinfection in Patients with Active Monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Ecohealth 2017 09 11;14(3):564-574. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, 41-275 CHS, 650 Charles E. Young Dr. South, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.
    From 2006 to 2007, an active surveillance program for human monkeypox (MPX) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo identified 151 cases of coinfection with monkeypox virus and varicella zoster virus from 1158 suspected cases of human MPX (13%). Using clinical and socio-demographic data collected with standardized instruments by trained, local nurse supervisors, we examined a variety of hypotheses to explain the unexpectedly high proportion of coinfections among the sample, including the hypothesis that the two viruses occur independently. The probabilities of disease incidence and selection necessary to yield the observed sample proportion of coinfections under an assumption of independence are plausible given what is known and assumed about human MPX incidence. Read More

    Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005857. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Read More

    Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp. Read More

    [F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Lymphoid Tissue Serves as a Predictor of Disease Outcome in the Nonhuman Primate Model of Monkeypox Virus Infection.
    J Virol 2017 11 13;91(21). Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
    Real-time bioimaging of infectious disease processes may aid countermeasure development and lead to an improved understanding of pathogenesis. However, few studies have identified biomarkers for monitoring infections using imaging. Previously, we demonstrated that positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can monitor monkeypox disease progression in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Read More

    Evaluation of Taterapox Virus in Small Animals.
    Viruses 2017 08 1;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 South Grand Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA.
    Taterapox virus (TATV), which was isolated from an African gerbil () in 1975, is the most closely related virus to variola; however, only the original report has examined its virology. We have evaluated the tropism of TATV in vivo in small animals. We found that TATV does not infect , a species of African dormouse, but does induce seroconversion in the Mongolian gerbil () and in mice; however, in wild-type mice and gerbils, the virus produces an unapparent infection. Read More

    Insufficient Innate Immunity Contributes to the Susceptibility of the Castaneous Mouse to Orthopoxvirus Infection.
    J Virol 2017 10 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 10 PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. Read More

    Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.
    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

    Comparative Efficacy of Intramuscular and Scarification Routes of Administration of Live Smallpox Vaccine in a Murine Challenge Model.
    Vaccine 2017 07 9;35(31):3889-3896. Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    CBR Division, Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK; The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking GU24 0NF, UK. Electronic address:
    In recent years concern has mounted regarding the possibility of a re-emergence of smallpox through biowarfare or bioterrorism. There is also concern over the incidence of human monkeypox in endemic areas and the potential for monkeypox to be accidentally transported to non-endemic areas. In the event of re-emergence of smallpox or emergence of monkeypox, the accepted route of administration for live replicating smallpox vaccine is dermal scarification, which generates a virus-shedding lesion that persists for several days at the vaccination site. Read More

    Review of poxvirus: emergence of monkeypox.
    Med Sante Trop 2017 Feb;27(1):29-39
    Service de dermatologie, HIA Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France.
    This article reviews the different types of poxvirus infections. Smallpox, although eradicated, must continue to be monitored because of the potential risk of accidental or voluntary (by bioterrorism) reintroduction. Monkeypox and cowpox viruses are considered to be emergent today ; their high risk of dissemination is due to the increase in international transport as well as trends for new animals as pets and the loss of vaccinal protection against smallpox. Read More

    Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
    J Virol 2017 06 12;91(11). Epub 2017 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the genus, which includes and (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    A rapid Orthopoxvirus purification protocol suitable for high-containment laboratories.
    J Virol Methods 2017 05 26;243:68-73. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
    Virus purification in a high-containment setting provides unique challenges due to barrier precautions and operational safety approaches that are not necessary in lower biosafety level (BSL) 2 environments. The need for high risk group pathogen diagnostic assay development, anti-viral research, pathogenesis and vaccine efficacy research necessitates work in BSL-3 and BSL-4 labs with infectious agents. When this work is performed in accordance with BSL-4 practices, modifications are often required in standard protocols. Read More

    Buccal viral DNA as a trigger for brincidofovir therapy in the mousepox model of smallpox.
    Antiviral Res 2017 Mar 27;139:112-116. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Saint Louis University School of Medicine, 1100 S. Grand Blvd, St. Louis, MO 63104, USA. Electronic address:
    Orthopoxviruses continue to pose a significant threat to the population as potential agents of bioterrorism. An intentional release of natural or engineered variola virus (VARV) or monkeypox viruses would cause mortality and morbidity in the target population. To address this, antivirals have been developed and evaluated in animal models of smallpox and monkeypox. Read More

    A Single Vaccination of Nonhuman Primates with Highly Attenuated Smallpox Vaccine, LC16m8, Provides Long-term Protection against Monkeypox.
    Jpn J Infect Dis 2017 Jul 22;70(4):408-415. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Laboratory of Special Pathogens, Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes human monkeypox (human MPX), which is a similar disease to smallpox in humans. A previous study showed that a single vaccination of monkeys with LC16m8, a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine, protected them from MPX from 4-5 weeks post-vaccination. In this study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a single vaccination with LC16m8 in a nonhuman primate model of MPXV infection. Read More

    Evaluation of the GeneXpert for Human Monkeypox Diagnosis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 19;96(2):405-410. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Enteric and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX), is endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, diagnostic assays for human monkeypox (MPX) focus on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which are typically performed in sophisticated laboratory settings. Herein, we evaluated the accuracy and utility of a multiplex MPX assay using the GeneXpert platform, a portable rapid diagnostic device that may serve as a point-of-care test to diagnose infections in endemic areas. Read More

    Rapid and sensitive point-of-care detection of Orthopoxviruses by ABICAP immunofiltration.
    Virol J 2016 12 9;13(1):207. Epub 2016 Dec 9.
    Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens (ZBS), Robert Koch Institute, Seestrasse 10, 13353, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce.

    Results: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). Read More

    Integration of Global Analyses of Host Molecular Responses with Clinical Data To Evaluate Pathogenesis and Advance Therapies for Emerging and Re-emerging Viral Infections.
    ACS Infect Dis 2016 Nov 5;2(11):787-799. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Critical Care Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda, Maryland 20814, United States.
    Outbreaks associated with emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens continue to increase in frequency and are associated with an increasing burden to global health. In light of this, there is a need to integrate basic and clinical research for investigating the connections between molecular and clinical pathogenesis and for therapeutic development strategies. Here, we will discuss this approach with a focus on the emerging viral pathogens Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola virus (EBOV), and monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the context of clinical presentation, immunological and molecular features of the diseases, and OMICS-based analyses of pathogenesis. Read More

    [Twelve cases of monkeypox virus outbreak in Bangassou District (Central African Republic) in December 2015].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Dec 25;109(5):358-363. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Unité des mycobactéries, Service de laboratoire, Hôpital de l'Amitié, Bangui, République centrafricaine.
    An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Protection of mice against the highly pathogenic VV by DNA and fowlpox recombinant vaccines, administered by electroporation and intranasal routes, correlates with serum neutralizing activity.
    Antiviral Res 2016 10 13;134:182-191. Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti, 9, 20133 Milano, Italy; Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology Section, National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Neurosciences, University of Milan, Via Vanvitelli, 32, 20129 Milano, Italy. Electronic address:
    The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Read More

    Finishing monkeypox genomes from short reads: assembly analysis and a neural network method.
    BMC Genomics 2016 08 31;17 Suppl 5:497. Epub 2016 Aug 31.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, 30333, USA.
    Background: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification. Read More

    Species-specific differentiation of variola, monkeypox, and varicella-zoster viruses by multiplex real-time PCR assay.
    J Virol Methods 2016 10 28;236:215-220. Epub 2016 Jul 28.
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "VECTOR", Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, 630559, Russia. Electronic address:
    A method of one-stage rapid detection and differentiation of epidemiologically important variola virus (VARV), monkeypox virus (MPXV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) utilizing multiplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay was developed. Four hybridization probes with various fluorescent dyes and the corresponding fluorescence quenchers were simultaneously used for the assay. The hybridization probes specific for the VARV sequence contained FAM/BHQ1 as a dye/quencher pair; MPXV-specific, JOE/BHQ1; VZV-specific, TAMRA/BHQ2; and internal control-specific, Cy5/BHQ3. Read More

    Monkeypox virus induces the synthesis of less dsRNA than vaccinia virus, and is more resistant to the anti-poxvirus drug, IBT, than vaccinia virus.
    Virology 2016 10 26;497:125-135. Epub 2016 Jul 26.
    School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, MC5401, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401, USA; The Biodesign Institute, Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, Arizona State University, MC5401, Tempe, AZ 85287-5401, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection fails to activate the host anti-viral protein, PKR, despite lacking a full-length homologue of the vaccinia virus (VACV) PKR inhibitor, E3. Since PKR can be activated by dsRNA produced during a viral infection, we have analyzed the accumulation of dsRNA in MPXV-infected cells. MPXV infection led to less accumulation of dsRNA than VACV infection. Read More

    Retrograde Transport from Early Endosomes to the trans-Golgi Network Enables Membrane Wrapping and Egress of Vaccinia Virus Virions.
    J Virol 2016 10 12;90(19):8891-905. Epub 2016 Sep 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    Unlabelled: The anterograde pathway, from the endoplasmic reticulum through the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface, is utilized by trans-membrane and secretory proteins. The retrograde pathway, which directs traffic in the opposite direction, is used following endocytosis of exogenous molecules and recycling of membrane proteins. Microbes exploit both routes: viruses typically use the anterograde pathway for envelope formation prior to exiting the cell, whereas ricin and Shiga-like toxins and some nonenveloped viruses use the retrograde pathway for cell entry. Read More

    Extended Human-to-Human Transmission during a Monkeypox Outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2016 06;22(6):1014-21
    A >600% increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9. Read More

    Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Mar 18;65(10):257-62. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e. Read More

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