4,120 results match your criteria Molecular Neurobiology [Journal]


The Endocannabinoid System Is Present in Rod Outer Segments from Retina and Is Modulated by Light.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 24. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Bahía Blanca (INIBIBB, UNS-CONICET), Edificio E1, Camino La Carrindanga km 7, 8000, Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

The aim of the present research was to evaluate if the endocannabinoid system (enzymes and receptors) could be modulated by light in rod outer segment (ROS) from bovine retina. First, we analyzed endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) metabolism in purified ROS obtained from dark-adapted (DROS) or light-adapted (LROS) retinas. To this end, diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), and lysophosphatidate phosphohydrolase (LPAP) enzymatic activities were analyzed using radioactive substrates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1603-5DOI Listing

Reverting Metabolic Dysfunction in Cortex and Cerebellum of APP/PS1 Mice, a Model for Alzheimer's Disease by Pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) Agonist.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 23. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important for the development of new therapies against and diagnosis of AD. In this study, gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics approach was employed to investigate the metabolic profiles in plasma and brain tissues harvested from 5-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their wildtype counterparts. Since different brain regions were expected to have their own distinct metabolic signals, four different brain regions, namely cortex, hippocampus, midbrain and cerebellum tissues, were dissected and had their metabolic profiles studied separately. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1586-2DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Effects of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibitors Acute Administration on the Positive and Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Lublin, Chodzki 4a Street, 20-093, Lublin, Poland.

The connection between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and schizophrenia is supported by a large body of research. The ECS is composed of two types cannabinoid (CB: CB1 and CB2) receptors and their endogenous ligands, endocannabinoids. The best-known endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are intracellularly degraded by fatty acid hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1596-0DOI Listing

LRP1 Has a Predominant Role in Production over Clearance of Aβ in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 19. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Laboratory for Experimental Mouse Genetics, Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 604, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) has a dual role in the metabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In cellular models, LRP1 enhances amyloid-β (Aβ) generation via APP internalization and thus its amyloidogenic processing. However, conditional knock-out studies in mice define LRP1 as an important mediator for the clearance of extracellular Aβ from brain via cellular degradation or transcytosis across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1594-2DOI Listing

A New Neural Pathway from the Ventral Striatum to the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert with Functional Implication to Learning and Memory.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Biomedical Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL, 33431, USA.

The cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM) are among the first group of neurons known to become degenerated in Alzheimer's disease, and thus the NBM is proposed to be involved in learning and memory. The marginal division (MrD) of the striatum is a newly discovered subdivision at the ventromedial border of the mammalian striatum and is considered to be one part of the ventral striatum involved in learning and memory. The present study provided evidence to support the hypothesis that the MrD and the NBM were structurally connected at cellular and subcellular levels with functional implications in learning and memory. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1588-0DOI Listing

Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D) Reduces Rat Neuropathic Pain by Modulating Opioid Signaling.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Institut de NeuroPhysioPathologie, CNRS UMR 7051, Aix-Marseille Université - Faculté de Médecine Nord, CS 811. 51 Bd P. Dramard, 13344, Marseille Cedex 15, France.

The impact of vitamin D on sensory function, including pain processing, has been receiving increasing attention. Indeed, vitamin D deficiency is associated with various chronic pain conditions, and several lines of evidence indicate that vitamin D supplementation may trigger pain relief. However, the underlying mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1582-6
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1582-6DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Sphingosine Kinase-1 Is Essential for Maintaining External/Outer Limiting Membrane and Associated Adherens Junctions in the Aging Retina.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, 73104, USA.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) produced by sphingosine kinases (SPHK1 and SPHK2) is a signaling molecule involved in cell proliferation and formation of cellular junctions. In this study, we characterized the retinas of Sphk1 knockout (KO) mice by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. We also tested cultured Müller glia for their response to S1P. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1599-xDOI Listing

Biological Hallmarks of Cancer in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an international health research priority for our aging population, little therapeutic progress has been made. This lack of progress may be partially attributable to disease heterogeneity. Previous studies have identified an inverse association of cancer and AD, suggesting that cancer history may be one source of AD heterogeneity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1591-5DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Increased Inflammation and Oxidative Damage in the Hippocampus.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biology, The City College of New York, New York, NY, 10031, USA.

Increasing evidence indicates that chemotherapy results in long-term effects on cognitive dysfunction in some cancer survivors. While many studies have established the domains of cognition and corresponding regions in the brain most affected, little is revealed about the potential molecular mechanisms that mediate these adverse changes after treatment. The effects of chemotherapy on the brain are likely attributed to various mechanisms, including oxidative stress and immune dysregulation, features that are also reminiscent of cognitive aging. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1589-zDOI Listing

Selective Sensory Axon Reinnervation and TRPV1 Activation.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine and the Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta, 132A-Clinical Sciences Building, 11350 Ave, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2G3, Canada.

Current strategies to enhance regeneration of peripheral neurons involve broad activation of sensory, autonomic, and motor axons. Peripheral neuron regeneration is limited in persons with damage or disease of peripheral axons. Here, we provide evidence that subtoxic activation of TRPV1 channels in sensory neurons is associated with activation of growth and subtle changes in skin reinnervation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1574-6
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1574-6DOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Amyloid-β Oligomers Regulate ADAM10 Synaptic Localization Through Aberrant Plasticity Phenomena.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy.

A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is a synaptic enzyme that has been previously shown to limit amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Furthermore, ADAM10 participates to spine shaping through the cleavage of adhesion molecules and its activity is under the control of synaptic plasticity events. In particular, long-term depression (LTD) promotes ADAM10 synaptic localization triggering its forward trafficking to the synapse, while long-term potentiation elicits ADAM10 internalization. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1583-5
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1583-5DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Machine Learning Analysis of Matricellular Proteins and Clinical Variables for Early Prediction of Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.

Although delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a well-known complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), there are no reliable biomarkers to predict DCI development. Matricellular proteins (MCPs) have been reported relevant to DCI and expected to become biomarkers. As machine learning (ML) enables the classification of various input data and the result prediction, the aim of this study was to construct early prediction models of DCI development with clinical variables and MCPs using ML analyses. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1601-7DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Transcriptome and Proteome Profiling of Neural Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Individuals with Down Syndrome Disclose Dynamic Dysregulations of Key Pathways and Cellular Functions.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 815, SE-751 08, Uppsala, Sweden.

Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy 21 (T21) is a leading genetic cause of intellectual disability. To gain insights into dynamics of molecular perturbations during neurogenesis in DS, we established a model using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) with transcriptome profiles comparable to that of normal fetal brain development. When applied on iPSCs with T21, transcriptome and proteome signatures at two stages of differentiation revealed strong temporal dynamics of dysregulated genes, proteins and pathways belonging to 11 major functional clusters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1585-3DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Higher Reliance on Glycolysis Limits Glycolytic Responsiveness in Degenerating Glaucomatous Optic Nerve.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Northeast Ohio Medical University, 4209 State Route 44, Rootstown, OH, 44272, USA.

Metabolic dysfunction accompanies neurodegenerative disease and aging. An important step for therapeutic development is a more sophisticated understanding of the source of metabolic dysfunction, as well as to distinguish disease-associated changes from aging effects. We examined mitochondrial function in ex vivo aging and glaucomatous optic nerve using a novel approach, the Seahorse Analyzer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1576-4DOI Listing

Fn14 Participates in Neuropathic Pain Through NF-κB Pathway in Primary Sensory Neurons.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Anesthesiology, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 185 S. Orange Ave., MSB, E-661, Newark, NJ, 07103, USA.

Fibroblast growth factor-inducible-14 (Fn14), a receptor for tumor necrosis-like weak inducer of apoptosis, is expressed in the neurons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Its mRNA is increased in the injured DRG following peripheral nerve injury. Whether this increase contributes to neuropathic pain is unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1545-yDOI Listing

A Bioluminescence Reporter Assay for Retinoic Acid Control of Translation of the GluR1 Subunit of the AMPA Glutamate Receptor.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen, Scotland, AB25 2ZD, UK.

Retinoic acid (RA) regulates numerous aspects of central nervous system function through modulation of gene transcription via retinoic acid receptors (RARs). However, RA has important roles independent of gene transcription (non-genomic actions) and in the brain a crucial regulator of homeostatic plasticity is RAR control of glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) translation. An assay to quantify RAR regulation of GluR1 translation would be beneficial both to study the molecular components regulating this system and screen drugs that influence this critical mechanism for learning and memory in the brain. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1571-9DOI Listing

Upregulation of the Intestinal Paracellular Pathway with Breakdown of Tight and Adherens Junctions in Deficit Schizophrenia.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Immunosciences Laboratory, Inc., Los Angeles, CA, USA.

In 2001, the first author of this paper reported that schizophrenia is associated with an increased frequency of the haptoglobin (Hp)-2 gene. The precursor of Hp-2 is zonulin, a molecule that affects intercellular tight junction integrity. Recently, we reported increased plasma IgA/IgM responses to Gram-negative bacteria in deficit schizophrenia indicating leaky gut and gut dysbiosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1578-2DOI Listing

Acute Cocaine Enhances Dopamine DR Recognition and Signaling and Counteracts DR Internalization in Sigma1R-DR Heteroreceptor Complexes.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Biomedicum (B0851). Solnavägen 9, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

The current study was performed to establish the actions of nanomolar concentrations of cocaine, not blocking the dopamine transporter, on dopamine D2 receptor (DR)-sigma 1 receptor (δ1R) heteroreceptor complexes and the DR protomer recognition, signaling and internalization in cellular models. We report the existence of DR-δ1R heteroreceptor complexes in subcortical limbic areas as well as the dorsal striatum, with different distribution patterns using the in situ proximity ligation assay. Also, through BRET, these heteromers were demonstrated in HEK293 cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1580-8DOI Listing

Molecular Targets in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is known as a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in aged subjects, which is related to multiple heterogeneous genetic factors. The two basic pathological aspects of AD are related to amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides and tau proteins. Some researchers have demonstrated plaques and tangles as apparently primary lesions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1563-9DOI Listing
April 2019
5.137 Impact Factor

Network and Pathway-Based Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism of miRNA in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410008, China.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a complex disease with its pathogenetic mechanism still unclear. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of miRNA (miRSNPs) are SNPs located on miRNA genes or target sites of miRNAs, which have been proved to be associated with neuropsychic disease development by interfering with miRNA-mediated regulatory function. In this study, we integrated TLE-related risk genes and risk pathways multi-dimensionally based on public data resources. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1584-4DOI Listing

Alterations in Striatal microRNA-mRNA Networks Contribute to Neuroinflammation in Multiple System Atrophy.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroscience, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., MTF 344 MC0624, La Jolla, CA, 92093-0624, USA.

Multiple systems atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of α-synuclein in glial cells and neurodegeneration in the striatum, substantia nigra, and cerebellum. Aberrant miRNA regulation has been associated with neurodegeneration, including alterations of specific miRNAs in brain tissue, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid from MSA patients. Still, a causal link between deregulation of miRNA networks and pathological changes in the transcriptome remains elusive. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1577-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1577-3DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Increased MDR1 Transporter Expression in Human Brain Endothelial Cells Through Enhanced Histone Acetylation and Activation of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA.

Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1, ABCB1, P-glycoprotein) is a critical efflux transporter that extrudes chemicals from the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and limits neuronal exposure to xenobiotics. Prior studies in malignant cells demonstrated that MDR1 expression can be altered by inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDAC), enzymes that modify histone structure and influence transcription factor binding to DNA. Here, we sought to identify the mechanisms responsible for the up-regulation of MDR1 by HDAC inhibitors in human BBB cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1565-7DOI Listing

Novel miRNA PC-5P-12969 in Ischemic Stroke.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used effectively as peripheral biomarkers and mechanistic targets for human diseases such as stroke, Alzheimer's, and cancer. The purpose of our study is to determine noninvasive, blood-based early detectable biomarkers for ischemic stroke (IS). Based on our previous global miRNA sequencing study, four miRNAs were previously unreported (novel) in IS condition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1562-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Synergy in Disruption of Mitochondrial Dynamics by Aβ (1-42) and Glia Maturation Factor (GMF) in SH-SY5Y Cells Is Mediated Through Alterations in Fission and Fusion Proteins.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Neurology, and Center for Translational Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, M741A Medical Science Building, 1 Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO, USA.

The pathological form of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is shown to be toxic to the mitochondria and implicates this organelle in the progression and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mitochondria are dynamic structures constantly undergoing fission and fusion, and altering their shape and size while traveling through neurons. Mitochondrial fission (Drp1, Fis1) and fusion (OPA1, Mfn1, and Mfn2) proteins are balanced in healthy neuronal cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1544-zDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Klotho-Mediated Changes in Shelterin Complex Promote Cytotoxic Autophagy and Apoptosis in Amitriptyline-Treated Hippocampal Neuronal Cells.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Animal Physiology and Reproduction, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100, Kolbuszowa, Poland.

Amitriptyline, antidepressant frequently prescribed for treatment of depressive disorders and several neuropathic and inflammatory diseases, has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects. This effect has been partially linked with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis initiation; however, the exact mechanism is still unknown. Klotho protein due to its neuroprotective characteristics seems to be involved in the amitriptyline-mediated neurotoxicity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1575-5DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

The Impact of Chronic Intestinal Inflammation on Brain Disorders: the Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

CNC - Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

It has been shown that the gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that dysbiosis is closely correlated with chronic intestinal inflammation, contributing to the development of chronic intestinal diseases, and also of brain pathologies, including neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders. Given the paramount importance of gut microbiota for the establishment of communication between the gut and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis has been increasingly explored within the scope of neurosciences. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1572-8DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Zinc Uptake and Storage During the Formation of the Cerebral Cortex in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA, BIG-LCBM, 38000, Grenoble, France.

The cerebral cortex (or neocortex) is a brain structure formed during embryogenesis. The present study seeks to provide a detailed characterization of the Zn homeostatic mechanisms during cerebral cortex formation and development. To reach that goal, we have combined high-throughput RNA-sequencing analysis of the whole murine genome, X-ray fluorescence nanoimaging (XRF), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and live-cell imaging of dissociated cortical neurons loaded with the Zn fluorescent probe FluoZin-3. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1581-7DOI Listing

Secretome of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Its Potential Protective Effects on Brain Pathologies.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Departamento de Nutrición y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, DC, Colombia.

Previous studies have indicated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a fundamental role in the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues. There is strong evidence showing that much of the beneficial effects of these cells are due to the secretion of bioactive molecules-besides microRNAs, hormones, and neurotrophins-with anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, angiogenic, and trophic effects. These factors have been reported by many studies to possess protective effects on the nervous tissue. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1570-x
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1570-xDOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Can Neonatal Systemic Inflammation and Hypoxia Yield a Cerebral Palsy-Like Phenotype in Periadolescent Mice?

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common childhood-onset motor disabilities, attributed to injuries of the immature brain in the foetal or early postnatal period. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, rendering prevention and treatment strategies challenging. The aim of the present study was to establish a mouse model of CP for preclinical assessment of new interventions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1548-8DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Impaired Remyelination in a Mouse Model of Huntington Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Translational Laboratory in Genetic Medicine, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore (A*STAR), 8A Biomedical Grove, Immunos, Level 5, Singapore, 138648, Singapore.

White matter (WM) abnormalities are a well-established feature of Huntington disease (HD), although their nature is not fully understood. Here, we asked whether remyelination as a measure of WM plasticity is impaired in a model of HD. Using the cuprizone assay, we examined demyelination and remyelination responses in YAC128 HD mice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1579-1DOI Listing

Overview of Impaired BDNF Signaling, Their Coupled Downstream Serine-Threonine Kinases and SNARE/SM Complex in the Neuromuscular Junction of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model SOD1-G93A Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Unitat d'Histologia i Neurobiologia (UHNEUROB), Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Carrer St Llorenç num 21, 43201, Reus, Spain.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor weakness. It is accepted that it is caused by motoneuron degeneration leading to a decrease in muscle stimulation. However, ALS is being redefined as a distal axonopathy, in that neuromuscular junction dysfunction precedes and may even influence motoneuron loss. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1550-1DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Prominent Postsynaptic and Dendritic Exocytosis of Endogenous BDNF Vesicles in BDNF-GFP Knock-in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 30. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120, Magdeburg, Germany.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a secreted messenger molecule that is crucial for neuronal function and induction of synaptic plasticity. Although altered availability of BDNF underlies many neurological deficits and neurodegenerative disorders, secretion dynamics of endogenous BDNF are unexplored. We generated a BDNF-GFP knock-in (KiBE) mouse, in which GFP-labeled BDNF is expressed under the control of the unaltered endogenous mouse BDNF gene regulatory elements. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1551-0DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Reference Gene Validation via RT-qPCR for Human iPSC-Derived Neural Stem Cells and Neural Progenitors.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 29. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Stem Cell Bioengineering, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Pawinskiego Str., 02-106, Warsaw, Poland.

Correct selection of the reference gene(s) is the most important step in gene expression analysis. The aims of this study were to identify and evaluate the panel of possible reference genes in neural stem cells (NSC), early neural progenitors (eNP) and neural progenitors (NP) obtained from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). The stability of expression of genes commonly used as the reference in cells during neural differentiation is variable and does not meet the criteria for reference genes. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1538-x
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1538-xDOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

BMP4/Smad1 Signalling Promotes Spinal Dorsal Column Axon Regeneration and Functional Recovery After Injury.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Neuroscience and Ophthalmology, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Signalling through the BMP4/Smad1 pathway promotes corticospinal tract axon regeneration and functional recovery in mice. However, unlike humans and rats, mice do not cavitate. Here, we investigated if activation of the BMP4/Smad1 pathway promotes axon regeneration and functional recovery in a rat model that cavitates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1555-9DOI Listing

Arginine Vasopressin and Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Pathophysiology: the Missing Link?

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Université de Tours, INSERM, Centre d'étude des pathologies respiratoires (CEPR) - UMR 1100, CHRU de Tours, Service de Médecine Intensive Réanimation, CIC 1415, réseau CRICS-TRIGGERSEP, Tours, France.

Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinicoradiological entity characterized by a typical brain edema. Its pathogenesis is still debated through hypoperfusion and hyperperfusion theories, which have many limitations. As PRES occurs almost exclusively in clinical situations with arginine vasopressin (AVP) hypersecretion, such as eclampsia and sepsis, we hypothesize that AVP plays a central pathophysiologic role. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1553-yDOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Wnt Signaling Alterations in the Human Spinal Cord of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cases: Spotlight on Fz2 and Wnt5a.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 28. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

Molecular Neurology Group, Hospital Nacional de Parapléjicos (HNP), Finca la Peraleda s/n, 45071, Toledo, Spain.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder with no cure, and elucidation of the mechanisms mediating neuronal death in this neuropathology is crucial to develop effective treatments. It has recently been demonstrated in animal models that the Wnt family of proteins is involved in this neuropathology, although its potential involvement in case of humans is almost unknown. We analyzed the expression of Wnt signaling components in healthy and ALS human spinal cords by quantitative RT-PCR, and we found that most Wnt ligands, modulators, receptors, and co-receptors were expressed in healthy controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1547-9DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Brain Metabolic DNA Is Reverse Transcribed in Cytoplasm: Evidence by Immunofluorescence Analysis.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Accademia di Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche, Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134, Naples, Italy.

In a previous study (Mol Neurobiol 55:7476-7486, 2017), newly synthesized brain metabolic DNA (BMD) from rat subcellular fractions has been shown to behave as a DNA-RNA hybrid when analyzed in cesium gradients at early [H] thymidine incorporation times but to assume the double-stranded configuration at later times. Conversely, BMD from purified nuclei displayed the dsDNA configuration even at early incorporation times. The results were interpreted to support the BMD origin by reverse transcription in the cytoplasm and its later acquisition of the double-stranded configuration before the partial transfer to the nuclei. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1569-3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1569-3DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Biased G Protein-Independent Signaling of Dopamine D-D Receptor Heteromers in the Nucleus Accumbens.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Integrative Neurobiology Section, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Several studies found in vitro evidence for heteromerization of dopamine D receptors (D1R) and D receptors (D3R), and it has been postulated that functional D1R-D3R heteromers that are normally present in the ventral striatum mediate synergistic locomotor-activating effects of D1R and D3R agonists in rodents. Based also on results obtained in vitro, with mammalian transfected cells, it has been hypothesized that those behavioral effects depend on a D1R-D3R heteromer-mediated G protein-independent signaling. Here, we demonstrate the presence on D1R-D3R heteromers in the mouse ventral striatum by using a synthetic peptide that selectively destabilizes D1R-D3R heteromers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1564-8DOI Listing
March 2019
5.137 Impact Factor

Dysregulation of CRMP2 Post-Translational Modifications Drive Its Pathological Functions.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 27. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 North Campbell Drive, P.O. Box 245050, Tucson, AZ, 85724, USA.

Collapsin response mediator proteins (CRMPs) are a family of ubiquitously expressed, homologous phosphoproteins best known for coordinating cytoskeletal formation and regulating cellular division, migration, polarity, and synaptic connection. CRMP2, the most studied of the five family members, is best known for its affinity for tubulin heterodimers and function in regulating the microtubule network. These functions are tightly regulated by post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, SUMOylation, oxidation, and O-GlcNAcylation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1568-4DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read
5.137 Impact Factor

Dopamine D1 Receptor (D1R) Expression Is Controlled by a Transcriptional Repressor Complex Containing DISC1.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, 37673, Republic of Korea.

Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a scaffold protein implicated in various psychiatric diseases. Dysregulation of the dopamine system has been associated with DISC1 deficiency, while the molecular mechanism is unclear. In this study, we propose a novel molecular mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) in the striatum via DISC1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1566-6DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Functional Role of Ambra1 in Autism and Schizophrenia.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Neurosciences, Department of Experimental Neurosciences, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.

The activating molecule in Beclin-1-regulated autophagy (Ambra1) is a highly intrinsically disordered protein best known for its role as a mediator in autophagy, by favoring the formation of autophagosomes. Additional studies have revealed that Ambra1 is able to coordinate cell responses to stress conditions such as starvation, and it actively participates in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal modification, apoptosis, mitochondria removal, and cell cycle downregulation. All these functions highlight the importance of Ambra1 in crucial physiological events, including metabolism, cell death, and cell division. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1557-7DOI Listing

Advances, Challenges, and Perspectives in Translational Stem Cell Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation (DEPT), Dino Ferrari Centre, Neuroscience Section, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Finding an effective therapeutic approach is a primary goal for current and future research for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurological disease characterized by degeneration and loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Transplantation approaches based on stem cells have been attempted in virtue of their potential to contrast simultaneously different ALS pathogenic aspects including either the replacement of lost cells or the protection of motor neurons from degeneration and toxic microenvironment. Here, we critically review the recent translational research aimed at the assessment of stem cell transplantation safety and feasibility in the treatment of ALS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1554-x
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1554-xDOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

The Role of Brain Vasculature in Glioblastoma.

Authors:
J Robert Kane

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Departments of Pathology and Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

For normal functioning, the brain requires an adequate supply of blood. The components of normal brain vasculature are collectively referred to as the neurovascular unit. When the brain develops pathology, the structural and functional components of brain vasculature become compromised. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1561-yDOI Listing

The Neuroprotective Role of the GM1 Oligosaccharide, IINeu5Ac-Gg, in Neuroblastoma Cells.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Via Fratelli Cervi 93, 20090, Segrate, MI, Italy.

Recently, we demonstrated that the GM1 oligosaccharide, IINeu5Ac-Gg (OligoGM1), administered to cultured murine Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells interacts with the NGF receptor TrkA, leading to the activation of the ERK1/2 downstream pathway and to cell differentiation. To understand how the activation of the TrkA pathway is able to trigger key biochemical signaling, we performed a proteomic analysis on Neuro2a cells treated with 50 μM OligoGM1 for 24 h. Over 3000 proteins were identified. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1556-8
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1556-8DOI Listing
March 2019
4 Reads

Development of a Novel Staging Model for Affective Disorders Using Partial Least Squares Bootstrapping: Effects of Lipid-Associated Antioxidant Defenses and Neuro-Oxidative Stress.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Health Sciences Graduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Av. Robert Koch, Londrina, PR, 60 86035-380, Brazil.

Although, staging models gained momentum to stage define affective disorders, no attempts were made to construct mathematical staging models using clinical and biomarker data in patients with major depression and bipolar disorder. The aims of this study were to use clinical and biomarker data to construct statistically derived staging models, which are associated with early lifetime traumata (ELTs), affective phenomenology, and biomarkers. In the current study, 172 subjects participated, 105 with affective disorders (both bipolar and unipolar) and 67 controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1552-zDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Exercise Prevents Memory Consolidation Defects Via Enhancing Prolactin Responsiveness of CA1 Neurons in Mice Under Chronic Stress.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 23. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Mok-6-dong 911-1, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul, 158-710, South Korea.

We investigated the effects of regular exercise on chronic stress-induced memory consolidation impairment and its underlying mechanism. We focused on prolactin (PRL)-modulated calcium-permeable (CP)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors (AMPARs) in neurons in the CA1 stratum lacunosum-moleculare (SLM) area of the dorsal hippocampus. Regular exercise protected against memory retention defects and prevented dendritic retraction in apical distal segments of hippocampal CA1 neurons, as indicated by enhanced dendritic ramification, dendritic length, spine density, and synaptic protein levels following chronic stress. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1560-zDOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Autophagy as a Homeostatic Mechanism in Response to Stress Conditions in the Central Nervous System.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 23. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

División de Neurociencias, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), 04510, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Autophagy is considered a major bulk degradation system that helps cells to counteract different intracellular and extracellular stress signals. Several protein complexes integrate multiple signals in order to activate autophagy, which sequesters damaged cellular components and carries them to lysosomes for degradation. This active mechanism is essential to maintain cell homeostasis and particularly in neurons to sustain their viability. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1546-xDOI Listing

Correction to: GM6 Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in APP Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 23. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

The name of author "William Swindell" missed the midle initial "R.". This should be written as "William R. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1558-6DOI Listing
March 2019
2 Reads

Rapamycin Removes Damaged Mitochondria and Protects Human Trabecular Meshwork (TM-1) Cells from Chronic Oxidative Stress.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 147K Argyle Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Glaucoma is a chronic optic neuropathy that could lead to permanent vision loss. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common type of glaucoma, with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) as a major risk factor. IOP is mainly regulated by trabecular meshwork (TM), an important component of the conventional aqueous humor (AH) outflow pathway. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1559-5DOI Listing

Decreased Expression of the CD57 Molecule in T Lymphocytes of Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Authors:
P Espinosa J M Urra

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Immunology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain.

The chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by a prolonged incapacitating fatigue, headaches, sleep disturbances, and decreases in cognition, besides alterations in other physiological functions. At present, no specific biological markers have been described in this pathology. In the present study, we analyzed in lymphocytes the CD57 expression for the diagnosis of CFS, evaluating both the percentage of blood lymphocytes expressing CD57 and the average amount of the molecule expressed per cell. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1549-7DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read