4,051 results match your criteria Molecular Neurobiology [Journal]


Effect of the HDAC Inhibitor, Sodium Butyrate, on Neurogenesis in a Rat Model of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Potential Mechanism of Action.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Neurorepair Department, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 A. Pawinskiego Street, 02-106, Warsaw, Poland.

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury likely represents the major cause of long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities in surviving babies. Despite significant investigations, there is not yet any known reliable treatment to reduce brain damage in suffering infants. Our recent studies in an animal model of HI revealed the therapeutic potential of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1518-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Transferrin Enhances Microglial Phagocytic Capacity.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Departamento de Química Biológica e Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológica "Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini" (IQUIFIB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica (FFyB), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Junín 965, CABA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Transferrin (Tf) is a glycoprotein playing a critical role in iron homeostasis and transport and distribution throughout the body and within tissues and cells. This molecule has been shown to accelerate the process of myelination and remyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) in vivo and induce oligodendroglial cell maturation in vitro. While the mechanisms involved in oligodendroglial precursor cell (OPC) differentiation have not been fully elucidated yet, our group has previously described the first molecular events taking place in OPC in response to extracellular Tf. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1519-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Oxytocin Neurons Enable Melanocortin Regulation of Male Sexual Function in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, 3000 Arlington Ave., Toledo, OH, 43614, USA.

The melanocortin pathway has been implicated in both metabolism and sexual function. When the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is knocked out globally, male mice display obesity, low sexual desire, and copulatory difficulties; however, it is unclear whether these phenotypes are interdependent. To elucidate the neuronal circuitry involved in sexual dysfunction in MC4R knockouts, we re-expressed the MC4R in these mice exclusively on Sim1 neurons (tbMC4R mice) or on a subset of Sim1 neurons, namely oxytocin neurons (tbMC4R mice). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1514-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Hesperetin Confers Neuroprotection by Regulating Nrf2/TLR4/NF-κB Signaling in an Aβ Mouse Model.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Division of Life Science and Applied Life Science (BK21 plus), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 52828, Republic of Korea.

Hesperetin is a bioactive flavonoid in the body, produced from hesperidin. No comprehensive studies have shown its protective effects in neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we hypothesized that hesperetin may protect the mice brain against Aβ-induced neurodegeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1512-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Spike-Related Electrophysiological Identification of Cultured Hippocampal Excitatory and Inhibitory Neurons.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Genoa, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

Cultured hippocampal neurons represent the most widely used experimental substrate for in vitro electrophysiological studies. Nevertheless, in most cases, the nature of neuron under study is not identified as excitatory or inhibitory, or even worse, recorded neurons are considered as excitatory because of the paucity of GABAergic interneurons. Thus, the definition of reliable criteria able to guarantee an unequivocal identification of excitatory and inhibitory cultured hippocampal neurons is an unmet need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1506-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Changes in Dendritic Spine Density and Inhibitory Perisomatic Connectivity onto Medium Spiny Neurons in L-Dopa-Induced Dyskinesia.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Using bacterial artificial chromosome-double transgenic mice expressing tdTomato in D1 receptor-medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and enhanced green fluorescent protein in D2 receptor-MSNs, we have studied changes in spine density and perisomatic GABAergic boutons density in MSNs of both the D1R and D2R pathways, in an experimental model of parkinsonism (mouse injected with 6-hydroxydopamine in the medial forebrain bundle), both in the parkinsonian and dyskinetic condition induced by L-DOPA treatment. To assess changes in perisomatic GABAergic connectivity onto MSNs, we measured the number of contacts originated from parvalbumin (PV)-containing striatal "fast-spiking" interneurons (FSIs), the major component of a feed-forward inhibition mechanism that regulates spike timing in MSNs, in both cell types as well as the number of vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) contacts. Furthermore, we determined changes in PV-immunoreactive cell density by PV immunolabeling combined with Wisteria floribunda agglutinin (WFA) labeling to detect FSI in a PV-independent manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1515-4DOI Listing
February 2019
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Transcriptional Signatures of Cognitive Impairment in Rat Exposed to Prenatal Stress.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Exposure to adverse events during gestation has detrimental effects on the maturation of specific brain networks, triggering changes in the expression of several stress-related mechanisms that may lead to long-lasting functional consequences, including cognitive deterioration. On these bases, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of early-life stress exposure on cognition and to explore potential molecular mechanisms contributing to the long-term functional impairment. We found that exposure to prenatal stress, a well-established animal model of early-life adversity, produces a significant disruption in the novel object recognition test both in male and female adult rats, although such impairment was more pronounced in females. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1523-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Tactile Stimulation on Adulthood Modifies the HPA Axis, Neurotrophic Factors, and GFAP Signaling Reverting Depression-Like Behavior in Female Rats.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Centro de Ciências da Saúde Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900, Brazil.

Depression is a common psychiatric disease which pharmacological treatment relieves symptoms, but still far from ideal. Tactile stimulation (TS) has shown beneficial influences in neuropsychiatric disorders, but the mechanism of action is not clear. Here, we evaluated the TS influence when applied on adult female rats previously exposed to a reserpine-induced depression-like animal model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1522-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Water-Soluble Arginyl-Diosgenin Analog Attenuates Hippocampal Neurogenesis Impairment Through Blocking Microglial Activation Underlying NF-κB and JNK MAPK Signaling in Adult Mice Challenged by LPS.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Dental Science Research Institute, Medical Research Center for Biomineralization Disorders, Department of Oral Physiology, School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-Ro, Buk-Gu, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory responses are well known to inhibit neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the adult hippocampus, and growing evidence indicates that therapeutic intervention to suppress microglial activation could be an effective strategy for restoring the impaired neurogenesis and memory performance. In the present study, we investigated the effects of water-soluble arginyl-diosgenin analog (Arg-DG) on the adult hippocampal neurogenesis using a central LPS-induced inflammatory mice model, along with the fundamental mechanisms in vivo and in vitro using LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. Arg-DG (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1496-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Dopamine Neurotransmission in the Ventral Tegmental Area Promotes Active Forgetting of Cocaine-Associated Memory.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Instituto de Biología Celular y Neurociencias, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paraguay 2155, C1121ABG, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are well-known components of the brain involved in reward-related behaviors and participate in the generation of new memories. Much attention has been focused to understand how DA neurons integrate a diversity of afferent signals with local excitatory and inhibitory influences regulated by somatodendritic release of dopamine. However, the mechanisms that actively forget rewarding information are still terra incognita. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1516-3DOI Listing
February 2019

The ERK Pathway: Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment of Depression.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 9. Epub 2019 Feb 9.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Medicine, 2411 Holmes Street, Rm. M3-213, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Major depressive disorder is a chronic debilitating mental illness. Its pathophysiology at cellular and molecular levels is incompletely understood. Increasing evidence supports a pivotal role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in particular the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) subclass of MAPKs, in the pathogenesis, symptomatology, and treatment of depression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1524-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Microglial Depletion with Clodronate Liposomes Increases Proinflammatory Cytokine Levels, Induces Astrocyte Activation, and Damages Blood Vessel Integrity.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Investigators are increasingly interested in using microglial depletion to study the role of microglia under pathologic conditions. Liposome-encapsulated clodronate is commonly used to eliminate macrophage populations because it causes functionally irreversible inhibition and apoptosis once phagocytized by macrophages. Recent studies have shown that microglia can be depleted in disease models by injecting clodronate liposomes into the brain parenchyma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1502-9DOI Listing
February 2019

Pathological Alterations of Tau in Alzheimer's Disease and 3xTg-AD Mouse Brains.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Neurochemistry, Inge Grundke-Iqbal Research Floor, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, NY, 10314, USA.

Microtubule-associated protein tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain is hyperphosphorylated, truncated, and aggregated into neurofibrillary tangles. Oligomeric and hyperphosphorylated tau (Oligo-tau) isolated from AD brain captures and templates normal tau into filaments both in vitro and in vivo; this prion-like activity is believed to be responsible for the progression of neurofibrillary pathology in AD. The 3xTg-AD mouse model develops both Aβ and tau pathologies and thus gains popularity in preclinical studies of AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1507-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Systematic Review of miRNA as Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Centre for Biological Engineering, Wolfscon School of Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.

Currently there are 850,000 people with Alzheimer's disease in the UK, with an estimated rise to 1.1 million by 2025. Alzheimer's disease is characterised by the accumulation of amyloid-beta plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau in the brain causing a progressive decline in cognitive impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1500-yDOI Listing
February 2019
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Immuno-Pharmacological Characterization of Presynaptic GluN3A-Containing NMDA Autoreceptors: Relevance to Anti-NMDA Receptor Autoimmune Diseases.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Pharmacy, DiFAR, Pharmacology and Toxicology Section, University of Genoa, Viale Cembrano 4, 16148, Genoa, Italy.

Mouse hippocampal glutamatergic nerve endings express presynaptic release-regulating NMDA autoreceptors (NMDARs). The presence of GluN1, GluN2A, GluN2B, and GluN3A subunits in hippocampal vesicular glutamate transporter type 1-positive synaptosomes was confirmed with confocal microscopy. GluN2C, GluN2D, and GluN3B immunopositivity was scarcely present. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1511-8DOI Listing
February 2019
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CHRM2 Genotype Affects Inhibitory Control Mechanisms During Cognitive Flexibility.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Cognitive Neurophysiology, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine of the TU Dresden, Schubertstraße 42, 01309, Dresden, Germany.

The cholinergic system is one of the most important neurotransmitter systems, but knowledge about the relevance of the cholinergic muscarinergic receptor system for cognitive functions is still scarce. Evidence suggests that the cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) plays an important role in the processing of cueing/prior information that help to increase the efficacy of lower-level attentional processes. In the current study, we investigated whether this is also the case for higher-level cognitive flexibility mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1521-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Correction to: Nanocarrier-Mediated Delivery of CORM-2 Enhances Anti-Allodynic and Anti-Hyperalgesic Effects of CORM-2.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, School of Medicine, CHA University, 59 Yaptap-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13496, Republic of Korea.

The original version of this article, the name of author was incorrectely presented. That is Kyungjae Won (K. Won) should be presented as Jae Won Kyung (J. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1520-7DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Copper Binding Regulates Cellular Prion Protein Function.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Prion Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

The cellular prion protein (PrP), mainly known for its role in neurodegenerative diseases, is involved in several physiological processes including neuritogenesis. In addition, its ability to bind copper or zinc has been suggested for its role in metal homeostasis. Although PrP has been known as a copper-binding molecule, little is known about how copper can affect PrP physiological functions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1510-9DOI Listing
February 2019
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Wide Profiling of Circulating MicroRNAs in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Genomic Medicine, Department of Genetics, National Rehabilitation Institute (INR-LGII), Calz. México-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal Guadalupe, 14389, Ciudad de México (CDMX), Mexico.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cerebellar ataxia and retinal degeneration, is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the ATXN7 gene coding region. Disease onset and progression are highly variable between patients, thus identification of specific/sensitive biomarkers that can improve the monitoring of disease progression is an immediate need. Because altered expression of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown in various neurological diseases, they could be useful biomarkers for SCA7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1480-yDOI Listing
February 2019

Rab18 Collaborates with Rab7 to Modulate Lysosomal and Autophagy Activities in the Nervous System: an Overlapping Mechanism for Warburg Micro Syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Type 2B.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 5. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Mutations in RAB18, a member of small G protein, cause Warburg micro syndrome (WARBM), whose clinical features include vision impairment, postnatal microcephaly, and lower limb spasticity. Previously, our Rab18 mice exhibited hind limb weakness and spasticity as well as signs of axonal degeneration in the spinal cord and lumbar spinal nerves. However, the cellular and molecular function of RAB18 and its roles in the pathogenesis of WARBM are still not fully understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1471-zDOI Listing
February 2019
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Current Understanding of the Role of Neuronal Calcium Sensor 1 in Neurological Disorders.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 3306 MSB, 1 King's College Circle, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1) is a high-affinity calcium-binding protein and its ubiquitous expression in the nervous system implies a wide range of functions. To date, it has been implicated in regulation of calcium channels in both axonal growth cones and presynaptic terminals, pre- and postsynaptic plasticity mechanisms, learning and memory behaviors, dopaminergic signaling, and axonal regeneration. This review summarizes these functions and relates them to several diseases in which NCS-1 plays a role, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, X-linked mental retardation and fragile X syndrome, and spinal cord injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1497-2DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Blood-Based Biomarkers in High Grade Gliomas: a Systematic Review.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Essen, 45147, Essen, Germany.

High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. During the course of disease, several challenges occur, like measuring tumor burden, monitoring of treatment response, estimating the patient's prognosis, and distinguishing between true progression and pseudo-progression. So far, no blood-based biomarker has been established in the clinical routine to address these challenges. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1509-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Pluripotent Stem Cells as Models of Retina Development.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.

The ability of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) to differentiate into retinal tissue has led to many attempts to direct this process to yield specific retinal cell types. The ability to do so would greatly impact both the study of normal retina development in model systems that can be precisely controlled and the generation of a homogeneous population of cells optimized for transplantation in cell replacement therapy. Thus far, many reviews have focused on the translational potential of PSC retinal studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1504-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition by Acetyl Salicylic Acid (ASA) Enhances Antitumor Effects of Nitric Oxide in Glioblastoma In Vitro.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 64, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor with a high recurrence rate and a median survival of about 16 months even with multimodal therapy. Novel experimental strategies against malignant gliomas include cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition and nitric oxide (NO)-based therapies. Therapeutic doses of NO can be delivered to tumor cells by NO donors such as JS-K (O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) which releases NO upon enzymatic activation by glutathione S-transferase. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1513-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Prions Strongly Reduce NMDA Receptor S-Nitrosylation Levels at Pre-symptomatic and Terminal Stages of Prion Diseases.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Laboratory of Prion Biology, Department of Neuroscience, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (SISSA), Trieste, Italy.

Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the cellular prion protein (PrP) conversion into a misfolded and infectious isoform termed prion or PrP. The neuropathological mechanism underlying prion toxicity is still unclear, and the debate on prion protein gain- or loss-of-function is still open. PrP participates to a plethora of physiological mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1505-6DOI Listing
February 2019
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Upregulation of Proteolytic Pathways and Altered Protein Biosynthesis Underlie Retinal Pathology in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Increased amyloid β (Aβ) aggregation is a hallmark feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. The APP/PS1 mouse model of AD exhibits accumulation of Aβ in the retina and demonstrates reduced retinal function and other degenerative changes. The overall molecular effects of AD pathology on the retina remain undetermined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1479-4DOI Listing
February 2019
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Correction to: In Vitro Seeding Activity of Glycoform-Deficient Prions from Variably Protease-Sensitive Prionopathy and Familial CJD Associated with PrP Mutation.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Neurology, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.

The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The email address Dr. Wen-Quan Zou, one of the corresponding authors should be written as "wxz6@case. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1508-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Sex-Dependent Sensory Phenotypes and Related Transcriptomic Expression Profiles Are Differentially Affected by Angelman Syndrome.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Laboratory for Neurobiology of Psychiatric Disorders, Sagol Department of Neurobiology, University of Haifa, 199 Aba Khoushy Ave., Mt. Carmel, 3498838, Haifa, Israel.

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a genetic disorder which entails autism, intellectual disability, lack of speech, motor deficits, and seizure susceptibility. It is caused by the lack of UBE3A protein expression, which is an E3-ubiquitin ligase. Despite AS equal prevalence in males and females, not much data on how sex affects the syndrome was reported. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1503-8DOI Listing
January 2019
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Aluminum in Neurological and Neurodegenerative Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Moscow, 113152, Russia.

With continuing cooperation from 18 domestic and international brain banks over the last 36 years, we have analyzed the aluminum content of the temporal lobe neocortex of 511 high-quality human female brain samples from 16 diverse neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, including 2 groups of age-matched controls. Temporal lobes (Brodmann areas A20-A22) were selected for analysis because of their availability and their central role in massive information-processing operations including efferent-signal integration, cognition, and memory formation. We used the analytical technique of (i) Zeeman-type electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry (ETAAS) combined with (ii) preliminary analysis from the advanced photon source (APS) hard X-ray beam (7 GeV) fluorescence raster-scanning (XRFR) spectroscopy device (undulator beam line 2-ID-E) at the Argonne National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, University of Chicago IL, USA. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-018-1441-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1441-xDOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Inhibition of Semaphorin3A Promotes Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Rat Visual Cortex.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 31. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council CNR, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are condensed structures in the extracellular matrix that mainly surround GABA-ergic parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the adult brain. Previous studies revealed a parallel between PNN formation and the closure of the critical period. Moreover, ocular dominance plasticity is enhanced in response to PNN manipulations in adult animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1499-0DOI Listing
January 2019

Fingolimod Suppresses the Proinflammatory Status of Interferon-γ-Activated Cultured Rat Astrocytes.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Astroglia, the primary homeostatic cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in neuroinflammation. They act as facultative immunocompetent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens upon activation with interferon (IFN)-γ and possibly other proinflammatory cytokines that are upregulated in disease states, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We characterized the anti-inflammatory effects of fingolimod (FTY720), an established drug for MS, and its phosphorylated metabolite (FTY720-P) in IFN-γ-activated cultured rat astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1481-xDOI Listing
January 2019

ROS-Induced Activation of DNA Damage Responses Drives Senescence-Like State in Postmitotic Cochlear Cells: Implication for Hearing Preservation.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

INSERM - UMR 1051, Institut des Neurosciences de Montpellier, 80 rue Augustin Fliche, 34295, Montpellier, France.

In our aging society, age-related hearing loss (ARHL) has become a major socioeconomic issue. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be one of the main causal factors of age-related cochlear cell degeneration. We examined whether ROS-induced DNA damage response drives cochlear cell senescence and contributes to ARHL from the cellular up to the system level. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1493-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1493-6DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Altered Nup153 Expression Impairs the Function of Cultured Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells Isolated from a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Institute of Human Physiology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma, Italia.

Impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD), playing a crucial role in cognitive dysfunction associated with this pathology. However, the mechanisms underlying defective neurogenesis in AD are still unclear. Recently, the nucleoporin Nup153 has been described as a new epigenetic determinant of adult neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and fate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1466-1DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

A Targeted Mutation Disrupting Mitochondrial Complex IV Function in Primary Afferent Neurons Leads to Pain Hypersensitivity Through P2Y Receptor Activation.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Centre for Discovery Brain Sciences, Edinburgh Medical School: Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Hugh Robson Building, George Square, Edinburgh, EH8 9XD, UK.

As mitochondrial dysfunction is evident in neurodegenerative disorders that are accompanied by pain, we generated inducible mutant mice with disruption of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV, by COX10 deletion limited to sensory afferent neurons through the use of an Advillin Cre-reporter. COX10 deletion results in a selective energy-deficiency phenotype with minimal production of reactive oxygen species. Mutant mice showed reduced activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV in many sensory neurons, increased ADP/ATP ratios in dorsal root ganglia and dorsal spinal cord synaptoneurosomes, as well as impaired mitochondrial membrane potential, in these synaptoneurosome preparations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1455-4DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

CTGF/CCN2 from Skeletal Muscle to Nervous System: Impact on Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Centro de Envejecimiento y Regeneración, CARE Chile UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is a matricellular protein that belongs to the CCN family of proteins. Since its discovery, it has been linked to cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, and synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, among others. The pro-fibrotic role of CTGF/CCN2 has been well-studied in several pathologies characterized by the development of fibrosis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1490-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1490-9DOI Listing
January 2019
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Targeting CB and GPR55 Endocannabinoid Receptors as a Potential Neuroprotective Approach for Parkinson's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biomedicine, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 643, Prevosti Building, 08028, Barcelona, Spain.

Cannabinoid CB receptors (CBR) and the GPR55 receptor are expressed in striatum and are potential targets in the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases in developed countries. The aim of this paper was to address the potential of ligands acting on those receptors to prevent the action of a neurotoxic agent, MPP, that specifically affects neurons of the substantia nigra due to uptake via the dopamine DAT transporter. The SH-SY5Y cell line model was used as it expresses DAT and, therefore, is able to uptake MPP that inhibits complex I of the respiratory mitochondrial chain and leads to cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1495-4DOI Listing
January 2019

A Novel Divergent Gene Transcription Paradigm-the Decisive, Brain-Specific, Neural |-Srgap2-Fam72a-| Master Gene Paradigm.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791, Republic of Korea.

Brain development and repair largely depend on neural stem cells (NSCs). Here, we suggest that two genes, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1486-5DOI Listing
January 2019
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Socioeconomic Deprivation, Adverse Childhood Experiences and Medical Disorders in Adulthood: Mechanisms and Associations.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Severe socioeconomic deprivation (SED) and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are significantly associated with the development in adulthood of (i) enhanced inflammatory status and/or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction and (ii) neurological, neuroprogressive, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The mechanisms by which these associations take place are detailed. The two sets of consequences are themselves strongly associated, with the first set likely contributing to the second. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1498-1DOI Listing
January 2019
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JNK Isoforms Are Involved in the Control of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice, Both in Physiological Conditions and in an Experimental Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus allows the continuous generation of new neurons. This cellular process can be disturbed under specific environmental conditions, such as epileptic seizures; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for their control remain largely unknown. Although different studies have linked the JNK (c-Jun-N-terminal-kinase) activity with the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, the specific function of JNK in controlling adult hippocampal neurogenesis is not well known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1476-7DOI Listing
January 2019
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Impaired Pentose Phosphate Pathway in the Spinal Cord of the hSOD1 Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 26. Epub 2019 Jan 26.

Neurological Disorders and Metabolism Lab, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Impairments in energy metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have long been known. However, the changes in the energy-producing pathways in ALS are not comprehensively understood. To investigate specific alterations in glucose metabolism in glycolytic, pentose phosphate, and TCA cycle pathways, we injected uniformly labeled [U-C]glucose to wild-type and hSOD1 mice at symptom onset (80 days). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1485-6DOI Listing
January 2019
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NeuroMuscleDB: a Database of Genes Associated with Muscle Development, Neuromuscular Diseases, Ageing, and Neurodegeneration.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, 38541, Republic of Korea.

Skeletal muscle is a highly complex, heterogeneous tissue that serves a multitude of biological functions in living organisms. With the advent of methods, such as microarrays, transcriptome analysis, and proteomics, studies have been performed at the genome level to gain insight of changes in the expression profiles of genes during different stages of muscle development and of associated diseases. In the present study, a database was conceived for the straightforward retrieval of information on genes involved in skeletal muscle formation, neuromuscular diseases (NMDs), ageing, and neurodegenerative disorders (NDs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1478-5DOI Listing
January 2019
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5.137 Impact Factor

Mechanisms Associated with Type 2 Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer-Related Pathology.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Département Cognition & Comportement, Institut de Neurosciences Paris-Saclay (Neuro-PSI) CNRS UMR 9197, Université Paris Sud, Bat. 446, 91405, Orsay, France.

Current evidence suggests dementia and pathology in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are both dependent and independent of amyloid processing and can be induced by multiple 'hits' on vital neuronal functions. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) poses the most important risk factor for developing AD after ageing and dysfunctional IR/PI3K/Akt signalling is a major contributor in both diseases. We developed a model of T2D, coupling subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin (STZ) with a human junk food (HJF) diet to more closely mimic the human condition. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12035-019-1475-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1475-8DOI Listing
January 2019
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Molecular Insights into NR4A2(Nurr1): an Emerging Target for Neuroprotective Therapy Against Neuroinflammation and Neuronal Cell Death.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Applied Life Sciences and Integrated Bioscience, Graduate School, Konkuk University, Chungju, South Korea.

NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor and a transcription factor, with distinctive physiological features. In the cell nuclei of the central nervous system, it is widely expressed and identified as a crucial regulator of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal differentiation, survival, and maintenance. Importantly, it has regulated different genes crucial for dopaminergic signals, and its expression has been diminished in both aged and PD post-mortem brains and reduced in PD patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1487-4DOI Listing
January 2019
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SNAP-25 in Serum Is Carried by Exosomes of Neuronal Origin and Is a Potential Biomarker of Alzheimer's Disease.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine and Biotechnology, IRCCS Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Via Capecelatro 66, 20148, Milan, Italy.

A loss of synaptic density and connectivity is observed in multiple brain regions of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, resulting in a reduced expression of synaptic proteins such as SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated-protein-25). SNAP-25 alterations thus could be an index of the degree of synaptic degeneration in the central nervous system (CNS). We isolated from serum of both AD patients and healthy controls (HC) a population of neuron-derived exosomes (NDEs) and measured the concentrations of SNAP-25 contained in such NDEs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1501-xDOI Listing
January 2019
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Metabo-lipidomics of Fibroblasts and Mitochondrial-Endoplasmic Reticulum Extracts from ALS Patients Shows Alterations in Purine, Pyrimidine, Energetic, and Phospholipid Metabolisms.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Unité Mixte de Recherche MITOVASC, CNRS 6015-INSERM 1083, Université d'Angers, Angers, France.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by a wide metabolic remodeling, as shown by recent metabolomics and lipidomics studies performed in samples from patient cohorts and experimental animal models. Here, we explored the metabolome and lipidome of fibroblasts from sporadic ALS patients (n = 13) comparatively to age- and sex-matched controls (n = 11), and the subcellular fraction containing the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (mito-ER), given that mitochondrial dysfunctions and ER stress are important features of ALS patho-mechanisms. We also assessed the mitochondrial oxidative respiration and the mitochondrial genomic (mtDNA) sequence, although without yielding significant differences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1484-7DOI Listing
January 2019
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FABP7 Protects Astrocytes Against ROS Toxicity via Lipid Droplet Formation.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Organ Anatomy, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo-machi 2-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8575, Japan.

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) bind and internalize long-chain fatty acids, controlling lipid dynamics. Recent studies have proposed the involvement of FABPs, particularly FABP7, in lipid droplet (LD) formation in glioma, but the physiological significance of LDs is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the role of FABP7 in primary mouse astrocytes, focusing on its protective effect against reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1489-2DOI Listing
January 2019

Ethanol Exposure Transiently Elevates but Persistently Inhibits Tyrosine Kinase Activity and Impairs the Growth of the Nascent Apical Dendrite.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 505 Irving Ave, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA.

Dendritogenesis can be impaired by exposure to alcohol, and aspects of this impairment share phenotypic similarities to dendritic defects observed after blockade of the Reelin-Dab1 tyrosine kinase signaling pathway. In this study, we find that 10 min of alcohol exposure (400 mg/dL ethanol) by itself causes an unexpected increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of many proteins including Src and Dab1 that are essential downstream effectors of Reelin signaling. This increase in phosphotyrosine is dose-dependent and blockable by selective inhibitors of Src Family Kinases (SFKs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1473-xDOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads
5.137 Impact Factor

The Role of Glia in Canine Degenerative Myelopathy: Relevance to Human Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn, Poland.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons and grim prognosis. Over the last decade, studies on neurodegenerative diseases pointed on the role of glia in supporting the proper function of neurons. Particularly, oligodendrocytes were shown to be essential through myelin production and supplying axons with energy metabolites via monocarboxylate transporters (MCT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1488-3DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Exploring Cerebrospinal Fluid IgG N-Glycosylation as Potential Biomarker for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Institute of Physiology, Instituto de Medicina Molecular-Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal motor neuron disease for which the existing candidate biomarkers (neurofilaments) have low specificity. Changes in blood IgG N-glycosylation have been observed in several diseases, including ALS, whereas cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG has been less studied. Here, we characterized N-glycans of CSF IgG from ALS patients in comparison with a control group of other neurological diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1482-9DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Non-Peptidergic Nociceptive Neurons Are Essential for Mechanical Inflammatory Hypersensitivity in Mice.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Bandeirantes Avenue, 3900, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, 14049-900, Brazil.

Small nerve fibers that bind the isolectin B4 (IB4 C-fibers) are a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons that are involved in nociceptive sensory transduction and do not express the neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP). Several studies have attempted to elucidate the functional role of IB4-nociceptors in different models of pain. However, a functional characterization of the non-peptidergic nociceptors in mediating mechanical inflammatory hypersensitivity in mice is still lacking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1494-5DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read