12,883 results match your criteria Molecular Microbiology [Journal]


Toxic but tasty - Temporal dynamics and network architecture of heme-responsive two-component signalling in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Institute of Bio- und Geosciences, IBG-1: Biotechnology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, 52425, Jülich, Germany.

Heme is an essential cofactor and alternative iron source for almost all bacterial species but may cause severe toxicity upon elevated levels and consequently, regulatory mechanisms coordinating heme homeostasis represent an important fitness trait. A remarkable scenario is found in several corynebacterial species, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14226DOI Listing
February 2019

Maintenance of the virulence plasmid in Shigella flexneri is influenced by Lon and two functional partitioning systems.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, South Parks Road, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RE, United Kingdom.

Members of the genus Shigella carry a large plasmid, pINV, which is essential for virulence. In Shigella flexneri, pINV harbours three toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems, CcdAB, GmvAT and VapBC that promote vertical transmission of the plasmid. Type II TA systems, such as those on pINV, consist of a toxic protein and protein antitoxin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14225DOI Listing
February 2019

Substrate-dependent cluster density dynamics of Corynebacterium glutamicum phosphotransferase system permeases.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Faculty of Biology, Großhaderner Straße 2-4, 82152, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Many bacteria take up carbohydrates by membrane-integral sugar specific phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent carbohydrate:phosphotransferase systems (PTS). Although the PTS is centrally involved in regulation of carbon metabolism in different bacteria, little is known about localization and putative oligomerization of the permease subunits (EII). Here, we analyzed localization of the fructose specific PtsF and the glucose specific PtsG transporters, as well as the general components EI and HPr from Corynebacterium glutamicum using widefield and single molecule localization microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14224DOI Listing
February 2019

Bacterial NHEJ: A never ending story.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Université de Lorraine, Inra, DynAMic, F-54000, Nancy, France.

Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most detrimental DNA damage encountered by bacterial cells. DBSs can be repaired by homologous recombination thanks to the availability of an intact DNA template or by Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) when no intact template is available. Bacterial NHEJ is performed by sets of proteins of growing complexity from Bacillus subtilis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Streptomyces and Sinorhizobium meliloti. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14218DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The meiosis-specific APC activator FgAMA1 is dispensable for meiosis but important for ascosporogenesis in Fusarium graminearum.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and NWAFU-Purdue Joint Research Center, College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.

Ascospores are the primary inoculum in Fusarium graminearum. Interestingly, 70 of its genes have premature stop codons (PSC) and require A-to-I editing during sexual reproduction to encode full-length proteins, including the ortholog of yeast Ama1, a meiosis-specific activator of APC/C. In this study, we characterized the function of FgAMA1 and its PSC editing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14219DOI Listing
February 2019

Tic22 from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 with holdase function involved in outer membrane protein biogenesis shuttles between plasma membrane and Omp85.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Institute for Molecular Biosciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main.

β-barrel shaped outer membrane proteins (OMPs) ensure regulated exchange of molecules across the cell-wall of Gram-negative bacteria. They are synthesized in the cytoplasm and translocated across the plasma membrane via the SEC translocon. In the periplasm several proteins participate in the transfer of OMPs to the outer membrane localized complex catalyzing their insertion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14222DOI Listing
February 2019

The master quorum sensing regulators LuxR/HapR directly interact with the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase to drive transcription activation in Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio cholerae.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47405.

In Vibrio species, quorum sensing controls gene expression for numerous group behaviors, including bioluminescence production, biofilm formation, virulence factor secretion systems, and competence. The LuxR/HapR master quorum sensing regulators activate expression of hundreds of genes in response to changes in population densities. The mechanism of transcription activation by these TetR-type transcription factors is unknown, though LuxR DNA binding sites that lie in close proximity to the -35 region of the promoter are required for activation at some promoters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14223DOI Listing
February 2019

Increased drug permeability of a stiffened mycobacterial outer membrane in cells lacking MFS transporter Rv1410 and lipoprotein LprG.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter Rv1410 and the lipoprotein LprG (Rv1411) are encoded by a conserved two-gene operon and contribute to virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Rv1410 was originally postulated to function as a drug efflux pump, but recent studies suggested that Rv1410 and LprG work in concert to insert triacylglycerides (TAGs) and lipoarabinomannans (LAMs) into the outer membrane. Here, we conducted microscopic analyses of Mycobacterium smegmatis lacking the operon and observed a cell separation defect, while surface rigidity measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was found to be increased. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14220DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Division-site localization of RodZ is required for efficient Z ring formation in Escherichia coli.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Life Science, College of Science, Rikkyo University, 3-34-1 Nishi Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, 171-8501, Japan.

Bacteria such as Escherichia coli must coordinate cell elongation and cell division. Elongation is regulated by an elongasome complex containing MreB actin and the transmembrane protein RodZ, which regulates assembly of MreB, whereas division is regulated by a divisome complex containing FtsZ tubulin. These complexes were previously thought to function separately. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14217DOI Listing
February 2019

Modulation of calcineurin activity in Aspergillus nidulans: the roles of high magnesium concentrations and of transcriptional factor CrzA.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CIB), CSIC. Ramiro de Maeztu 9., Madrid, 28040., Spain.

A proper response to elevated extracellular calcium levels helps to most organisms to keep this secondary messenger under strict control, thereby preventing inadequate activation or inhibition of many regulatory activities into cells. In fungi, the calcineurin responsive zinc-finger Crz1/CrzA transcription factor transduces calcium signaling to gene expression. In Aspergillus nidulans, absence of CrzA activity leads to alkaline pH sensitivity and loss of tolerance to high levels of extracellular calcium. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14221DOI Listing
February 2019

Deciphering the essentiality and function of the anti-σ factors in Bacillus subtilis.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 4. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Cornell University, Department of Microbiology, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Bacteria use alternative sigma factors to adapt to different growth and stress conditions. The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor SigM regulates genes for cell wall synthesis and is crucial for maintaining cell wall homeostasis under stress conditions. The activity of SigM is regulated by its anti-sigma factor, YhdL, and the accessory protein YhdK. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14216DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Controlling chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections by strategically interfering with the sensory function of SagS.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 2. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, NY, 13902, United States.

The hybrid sensor SagS plays a central role in the formation of P. aeruginosa biofilms, by enabling the switch from the planktonic to the biofilm mode of growth, and by facilitating the transition of biofilm cells to a highly tolerant state. In this study, we examined the importance of the SagS key amino acid residues associated with biofilm formation (L154) and antibiotic tolerance (D105) in P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14215DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Class II Contact-Dependent growth Inhibition (CDI) systems allow for broad-range cross-species toxin delivery within the Enterobacteriaceae family.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, 75124, Sweden.

Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) allows bacteria to recognize kin cells in mixed bacterial populations. In Escherichia coli, CDI mediated effector delivery has been shown to be species-specific, with a preference for the own strain over others. This specificity is achieved through an interaction between a receptor-binding domain in the CdiA protein and its cognate receptor protein on the target cell. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14214DOI Listing
February 2019

L-Rhamnose catabolism in archaea.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

Institut für Allgemeine Mikrobiologie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, D-24118, Kiel, Germany.

The halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii utilizes L-rhamnose as a sole carbon and energy source. It is shown that L-rhamnose is taken up by an ABC transporter and is oxidatively degraded to pyruvate and L-lactate via the diketo-hydrolase pathway. The genes involved in L-rhamnose uptake and degradation form a L-rhamnose catabolism gene cluster (rhc). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14213DOI Listing
February 2019

Agrobacterium tumefaciens divisome proteins regulate the transition from polar growth to cell division.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 29. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65203.

The mechanisms that restrict peptidoglycan biosynthesis to the pole during elongation and re-direct peptidoglycan biosynthesis to mid-cell during cell division in polar-growing Alphaproteobacteria are largely unknown. Here, we explore the role of early division proteins of Agrobacterium tumefaciens including 3 FtsZ homologs, FtsA, and FtsW in the transition from polar growth to mid-cell growth and ultimately cell division. Although two of the three FtsZ homologs localize to mid-cell, exhibit GTPase activity and form co-polymers, only one, FtsZ , is required for cell division. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14212DOI Listing
January 2019

Mechanistic insight into 3-methylmercaptopropionate metabolism and kinetical regulation of demethylation pathway in marine dimethylsulfoniopropionate-catabolizing bacteria.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 24. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Marine Biotechnology Research Center, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

The vast majority of oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is thought to be catabolized by bacteria via the DMSP demethylation pathway. This pathway contains four enzymes termed DmdA, DmdB, DmdC and DmdD/AcuH, which together catabolise DMSP to acetylaldehyde and methanethiol as carbon and sulfur sources, respectively. Whilst molecular mechanisms for DmdA and DmdD have been proposed, little is known of the catalytic mechanisms of DmdB and DmdC, which are central to this pathway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14211DOI Listing
January 2019

New pieces to the lanthanide puzzle.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, USA.

Recently, rare earth elements lanthanides (Ln ) have emerged as enzyme cofactors of methanol dehydrogenases of the XoxF type. It is now understood that XoxF enzymes can functionally replace the alternative, calcium-dependent, MxaFI-type methanol dehydrogenases, when Ln are available. These rare-earth metals are not only essential for XoxF activity, but they also regulate gene expression, in a reverse fashion, activating the expression of XoxF and repressing the expression of MxaFI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14210DOI Listing
January 2019

Outer surface protein polymorphisms linked to host-spirochete association in Lyme borreliae.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 21. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Alba, NY, USA.

Lyme borreliosis is caused by multiple species of the spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The spirochetes are transmitted by ticks to vertebrate hosts including small and medium-sized mammals, birds, reptiles, and humans. Strain-to-strain variation in host specific infectivity has been documented, but the molecular basis that drives this differentiation is still unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14209DOI Listing
January 2019

A new factor controlling cell envelope integrity in Alphaproteobacteria in the context of cell cycle, stress response and infection.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

CNRS, LCB, Aix Marseille University, Marseille, France.

The bacterial envelope is a remarkable and complex compartment of the prokaryotic cell in which many essential functions take place. The article by Herrou and collaborators (Herrou et al., in press), by a clever combination of structural analysis, genetics and functional characterization in free-living bacterial cells and during infection in animal models, elucidates a new factor, named EipA, that plays a major role in Brucella spp envelope biogenesis and cell division. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14201
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14201DOI Listing
January 2019
4 Reads

Arginine and nitrogen mobilization in cyanobacteria.

Authors:
Hao Zhang Chen Yang

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 18. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

CAS-Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Cyanobacteria have evolved mechanisms to adapt to environmental stress and nutrient availability, including accumulation of storage compounds in inclusions and granules. As arginine is a key building block of cyanophycin, a dynamic nitrogen reservoir in many cyanobacteria, arginine metabolism plays a key role in cyanobacterial nitrogen storage and remobilization. Recently, an arginine dihydrolase AgrE/ArgZ was identified as a major arginine-degrading enzyme in nondiazotrophic Synechocystis, which catalyzes the conversion of arginine into ornithine and ammonia. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14204
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14204DOI Listing
January 2019
11 Reads
4.419 Impact Factor

Use of rare-earth elements in the phyllosphere colonizer Methylobacterium extorquens PA1.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 17. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Institute of Microbiology, Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 1-5/10, Zurich, 8093, Switzerland.

Until recently, rare-earth elements (REEs) had been thought to be biologically inactive. This view changed with the discovery of the methanol dehydrogenase XoxF that strictly relies on REEs for its activity. Some methylotrophs only contain xoxF, while others, including the model phyllosphere colonizer Methylobacterium extorquens PA1, harbor this gene in addition to mxaFI encoding a Ca -dependent enzyme. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14208DOI Listing
January 2019

Aurantimycin resistance genes contribute to survival of Listeria monocytogenes during life in the environment.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

FG11 Division of Enteropathogenic bacteria and Legionella, Robert Koch Institute, Burgstrasse 37, 38855, Wernigerode, Germany.

Bacteria can cope with toxic compounds such as antibiotics by inducing genes for their detoxification. A common detoxification strategy is compound excretion by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which are synthesized upon compound contact. We previously identified the multi drug resistance ABC transporter LieAB in Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive bacterium that occurs ubiquitously in the environment, but also causes severe infections in humans upon ingestion. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14205
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14205DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

Superfolder mTurquoise2 optimized for the bacterial periplasm allows high efficiency in vivo FRET of cell division antibiotic targets.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 15. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Bacterial Cell Biology& Physiology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Science park 904, 1098, XH, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Fluorescent proteins (FP)s are of vital importance to biomedical research. Many of the currently available fluorescent proteins do not fluoresce when expressed in non-native environments, such as the bacterial periplasm. This strongly limits the options for applications that employ multiple FPs, such as multiplex imaging or FRET. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14206
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14206DOI Listing
January 2019
5 Reads

YpdA, a putative bacillithiol disulfide reductase, contributes to cellular redox homeostasis and virulence in Staphylococcus aureus.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755, USA.

The intracellular redox environment of Staphylococcus aureus is mainly buffered by bacillithiol (BSH), a low molecular weight thiol. The identity of enzymes responsible for the recycling of oxidized bacillithiol disulfide (BSSB) to the reduced form (BSH) remains elusive. We examined YpdA, a putative bacillithiol reductase, for its role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14207
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14207DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Synthetic developmental regulator MciZ targets FtsZ across Bacillus species and inhibits bacterial division.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas, CSIC, Madrid, Spain.

Cell division in most bacteria is directed by FtsZ, a conserved tubulin-like GTPase that assembles forming the cytokinetic Z-ring and constitutes a target for the discovery of new antibiotics. The developmental regulator MciZ, a 40-amino acid peptide endogenously produced during Bacillus subtilis sporulation, halts cytokinesis in the mother cell by inhibiting FtsZ. The crystal structure of a FtsZ:MciZ complex revealed that bound MciZ extends the C-terminal β-sheet of FtsZ blocking its assembly interface. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14198DOI Listing
January 2019

Catabolic pathway of arginine in Anabaena involves a novel bifunctional enzyme that produces proline from arginine.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 12. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, CSIC and Universidad de Sevilla, Américo Vespucio 49, E-41092, Sevilla, Spain.

Arginine participates widely in metabolic processes. The heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena catabolizes arginine to produce proline and glutamate, with concomitant release of ammonium, as major products. Analysis of mutant Anabaena strains showed that this catabolic pathway is the product of two genes, agrE (alr4995) and putA (alr0540). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14203DOI Listing
January 2019

Physical and functional interaction between nucleoid-associated proteins HU and Lsr2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: altered DNA binding and gene regulation.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 11. Epub 2019 Jan 11.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Biology, Indian Institute of Science, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore, 560012, India.

Nucleoid-associated proteins (NAPs) in bacteria contribute to key activities such as DNA compaction, chromosome organization and regulation of gene expression. HU and Lsr2 are two principal NAPs in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). HU is essential for Mtb survival and is one of the most abundant NAPs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14202DOI Listing
January 2019
4.419 Impact Factor

Molecular insights into the master regulator CysB-mediated bacterial virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Key Laboratory of Resources Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an, ShaanXi, 710069, China.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen that causes serious acute and chronic infections in humans. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is an important virulence factor that plays essential roles in acute infections. However, the regulatory mechanisms of T3SS are not fully understood. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14200
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14200DOI Listing
January 2019
9 Reads
4.419 Impact Factor

Differential modes of crosslinking establish spatially distinct regions of peptidoglycan in Caulobacter crescentus.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 5. Epub 2019 Jan 5.

Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Rutgers University-Camden, Camden, NJ, 08102, USA.

The diversity of cell shapes across the bacterial kingdom reflects evolutionary pressures that have produced physiologically important morphologies. While efforts have been made to understand the regulation of some prototypical cell morphologies such as that of rod-shaped Escherichia coli, little is known about most cell shapes. For Caulobacter crescentus, polar stalk synthesis is tied to its dimorphic life cycle, and stalk elongation is regulated by phosphate availability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14199DOI Listing
January 2019

Streptococcal dTDP-L-rhamnose biosynthesis enzymes: functional characterization and lead compound identification.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 1. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Biosynthesis of the nucleotide sugar precursor dTDP-L-rhamnose is critical for the viability and virulence of many human pathogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus; GAS), Streptococcus mutans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Streptococcal pathogens require dTDP-L-rhamnose for the production of structurally similar rhamnose polysaccharides in their cell wall. Via heterologous expression in S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14197DOI Listing
January 2019
2 Reads

Insights into the autotransport process of a trimeric autotransporter, Yersinia Adhesin A (YadA).

Mol Microbiol 2019 Jan 1. Epub 2019 Jan 1.

Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Blindernveien 31, 0371, Oslo, Norway.

Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are a subset of a larger protein family called the type V secretion systems. They are localized on the cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria, function as mediators of attachment to inorganic surfaces and host cells, and thus include important virulence factors. Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) from Yersinia enterocolitica is a prototypical TAA that is used extensively to study the structure and function of the type Vc secretion system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14195DOI Listing
January 2019

TFS and Spt4/5 accelerate transcription through archaeal histone-based chromatin.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 80523, USA.

RNA polymerase must surmount translocation barriers for continued transcription. In Eukarya and most Archaea, DNA-bound histone proteins represent the most common and troublesome barrier to transcription elongation. Eukaryotes encode a plethora of chromatin-remodeling complexes, histone-modification enzymes and transcription elongation factors to aid transcription through nucleosomes, while archaea seemingly lack machinery to remodel/modify histone-based chromatin and thus must rely on elongation factors to accelerate transcription through chromatin-barriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14191DOI Listing
December 2018

Cognate sensor kinase-independent activation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis response regulator DevR (DosR) by acetyl phosphate: implications in anti-mycobacterial drug design.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 27. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Biotechnology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India.

The DevRS/DosT two-component system is essential for mycobacterial survival under hypoxia, a prevailing stress within granulomas. DevR (also known as DosR) is activated by an inducing stimulus, such as hypoxia, through conventional phosphorylation by its cognate sensor kinases, DevS (also known as DosS) and DosT. Here, we show that the DevR regulon is activated by acetyl phosphate under 'non-inducing' aerobic conditions when Mycobacterium tuberculosis devS and dosT double deletion strain is cultured on acetate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14196DOI Listing
December 2018
4.419 Impact Factor

The Cu chaperone CopZ is required for Cu homeostasis in Rhodobacter capsulatus and influences cytochrome cbb oxidase assembly.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Faculty of Medicine, Institut für Biochemie und Molekularbiologie, ZBMZ, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier-Strasse 17, Freiburg, 79104, Germany.

Cu homeostasis depends on a tightly regulated network of proteins that transport or sequester Cu, preventing the accumulation of this toxic metal while sustaining Cu supply for cuproproteins. In Rhodobacter capsulatus, Cu-detoxification and Cu delivery for cytochrome c oxidase (cbb -Cox) assembly depend on two distinct Cu-exporting P -type ATPases. The low-affinity CopA is suggested to export excess Cu and the high-affinity CcoI feeds Cu into a periplasmic Cu relay system required for cbb -Cox biogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14190DOI Listing
December 2018

Contributions of crust proteins to spore surface properties in Bacillus subtilis.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, Department of Biology, New York University, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Surface properties, such as adhesion and hydrophobicity, constrain dispersal of bacterial spores in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, these properties are influenced by the outermost layer of the spore, the crust. Previous work has shown that two clusters, cotVWXYZ and cgeAB, encode the protein components of the crust. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14194DOI Listing
December 2018

LiaR-independent pathways to daptomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecalis reveal a multilayer defense against cell envelope antibiotics.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Center for Antimicrobial Resistance and Microbial Genomics, University of Texas Health Science Center, McGovern School of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

The lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin (DAP) is a key drug against serious enterococcal infections, but the emergence of resistance in the clinical setting is a major concern. The LiaFSR system plays a prominent role in the development of DAP resistance (DAP-R) in enterococci, and blocking this stress response system has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy. In this work, we identify LiaR-independent pathways in Enterococcus faecalis that regulate cell membrane adaptation in response to antibiotics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14193DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Forms and abundance of chaperone proteins influence yeast prion variant competition.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 24. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, Taiwan.

[PSI ] variants are different infectious conformations of the same Sup35 protein. We show that when [PSI ] variants VK and VL co-infect a dividing host, only one prevails in the end and the host genetic background is involved in winner selection. In the 5V-H19 background, the VK variant dominates over the VL variant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14192DOI Listing
December 2018

Antigenic variation in the Lyme spirochete: detailed functional assessment of recombinational switching at vlsE in the JD1 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 23. Epub 2018 Dec 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4N1, Canada.

Borrelia burgdorferi is a causative agent of Lyme disease and establishes long-term infection in mammalian hosts. Persistence is promoted by the VlsE antigenic variation system, which generates combinatorial diversity of VlsE through unidirectional, segmental gene conversion from an array of silent cassettes. Here we explore the variants generated by the vls system of strain JD1, which has divergent sequence and structural elements from the type strain B31, the only B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14189DOI Listing
December 2018
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Functional reconstitution of the type IVa pilus assembly system from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Biochemistry of Macromolecular Interactions Unit, Department of Structural Biology and Chemistry, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3528, 28 rue du Dr Roux, Paris, 75724, France.

Type 4a pili (T4aP) are long, thin and dynamic fibres displayed on the surface of diverse bacteria promoting adherence, motility and transport functions. Genomes of many Enterobacteriaceae contain conserved gene clusters encoding putative T4aP assembly systems. However, their expression has been observed only in few strains including Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and their inducers remain unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14188DOI Listing
December 2018

The fascinating biology behind phage display: Filamentous Phage Assembly.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Zhejiang University-Edinburgh University (ZJU-UoE) Institute, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, International Campus, Zhejiang University, 718 East Haizhou Road, Haining, Zhejiang, 314400, P. R. China.

With the recently awarded Nobel Prize to the inventor of Phage Display, George Smith, the technique has once more gained attention. However, one should not forget about the biology behind the method. Almost always ignored is how the structure of this bacterial virus is assembled. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14187
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14187DOI Listing
December 2018
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Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycobacterium tuberculosis disulfide bond forming enzymes.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

In bacteria, disulfide bonds confer stability on many proteins exported to the cell envelope or beyond, including bacterial virulence factors. Thus, proteins involved in disulfide bond formation represent good targets for the development of inhibitors that can act as antibiotics or anti-virulence agents, resulting in the simultaneous inactivation of several types of virulence factors. Here, we present evidence that the disulfide bond forming enzymes, DsbB and VKOR, are required for P. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/mmi.14185
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14185DOI Listing
December 2018
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Tight control of genomic phosphorothioate modification by the ATP-modulated autoregulation and reusability of DndB.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Key Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

DNA phosphorothioate (PT) modification was recently identified to occur naturally in diverse bacteria and to be governed by DndABCDE proteins. The nuclease resistance as well as the redox and nucleophilic properties of PT sulfur make PT modification a versatile player in restriction-modification (R-M) defense, epigenetic regulation, environmental fitness, and the maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we discovered that tight control of PT levels is mediated by the ATPase activity of DndB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14186DOI Listing
December 2018
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CalY is a major virulence factor and a biofilm matrix protein.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Micalis Institute, INRA, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.

The extracellular biofilm matrix often contains a network of amyloid fibers which, in the human opportunistic pathogen Bacillus cereus, includes the two homologous proteins TasA and CalY. We show here, in the closely related entomopathogenic species B. thuringiensis, that CalY also displays a second function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14184DOI Listing
December 2018
13 Reads

Bioengineering nisin to overcome the nisin resistance protein.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a major medical challenge. Lantibiotics are highly modified bacterially produced antimicrobial peptides that have attracted considerable interest as alternatives or adjuncts to existing antibiotics. Nisin, the most widely studied and commercially exploited lantibiotic, exhibits high efficacy against many pathogens. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mmi.14183
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14183DOI Listing
December 2018
14 Reads
4.419 Impact Factor

Fungicide resistance toward fludioxonil conferred by overexpression of the phosphatase gene MoPTP2 in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Institut für Biotechnologie und Wirkstoff-Forschung gGmbH (IBWF), Erwin-Schrödinger-Str. 56, Kaiserslautern, D-67663, Germany.

The fungicide fludioxonil causes hyperactivation of the Hog1p MAPK within the high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathway essential for osmoregulation in pathogenic fungi. The molecular regulation of MoHog1p phosphorylation is not completely understood in pathogenic fungi. Thus, we identified and characterized the putative MoHog1p-interacting phosphatase gene MoPTP2 in the filamentous rice pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14179DOI Listing
December 2018
4.419 Impact Factor

Characterization of the atypical Ppz/Hal3 phosphatase system from the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular and Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Ppz Ser/Thr protein phosphatases (PPases) are found only in fungi and have been proposed as potential antifungal targets. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ppz1 (ScPpz1) is involved in regulation of monovalent cation homeostasis. ScPpz1 is inhibited by two regulatory proteins, Hal3 and Vhs3, which have moonlighting properties, contributing to the formation of an unusual heterotrimeric PPC decarboxylase (PPCDC) complex crucial for CoA biosynthesis. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mmi.14181
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14181DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

Periplasmic protein EipA determines envelope stress resistance and virulence in Brucella abortus.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Molecular components of the Brucella abortus cell envelope play a major role in its ability to infect, colonize and survive inside mammalian host cells. In this study, we have defined a role for a conserved gene of unknown function in B. abortus envelope stress resistance and infection. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mmi.14178
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14178DOI Listing
December 2018
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The UzcRS two-component system in Caulobacter crescentus integrates regulatory input from diverse auxiliary regulators.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Biosciences and Biotechnology Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, USA.

The UzcRS two-component system in Caulobacter crescentus mediates widespread transcriptional activation in response to the metals U, Zn and Cu. Unexpectedly, a screen for mutations that affected the activity of the UzcR-regulated urcA promoter (P ) revealed four previously uncharacterized proteins whose inactivation led to metal-independent induction of P . Using molecular genetics and functional genomics, we find that these auxiliary regulators control P expression by modulating the activity of UzcRS through distinct mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14180DOI Listing
December 2018
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Characterization of the Citrobacter rodentium Cpx regulon and its role in host infection.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Envelope-localized proteins, such as adhesins and secretion systems, play critical roles in host infection by Gram-negative pathogens. As such, their folding is monitored by envelope stress response systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the Cpx envelope stress response is required for virulence of Citrobacter rodentium, a murine pathogen used to model infections by the human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli; however, the mechanisms by which the Cpx response promotes host infection were previously unknown. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/mmi.14182
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14182DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

The antibiotic action of methylarsenite is an emergent property of microbial communities.

Mol Microbiol 2019 Feb 5;111(2):487-494. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin. Here, we demonstrate that bacteria have evolved the ability to use arsenic to gain a competitive advantage over other bacteria at least twice. Microbes generate toxic methylarsenite (MAs(III)) by methylation of arsenite (As(III)) or reduction of methylarsenate (MAs(V)). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6370046PMC
February 2019
3 Reads