63,251 results match your criteria Mind & Brain The Journal of Psychiatry [Journal]


Schizophrenia patients are impaired in recognition task but more for intentionality than physical causality.

Conscious Cogn 2018 Dec 14;67:98-107. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratoire HANDIReSP (EA4047), Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-En-Yvelines, Versailles, France; Service de Psychiatrie de l'Adulte et d'Addictologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

It is now largely accepted that patients with schizophrenia have a deficit to attribute mental states to others, such as intentions, needs and motivations but also to perform memory tasks. According to one hypothesis, these impairments may be due to an early visual attention deficit during the encounter of social stimuli. Another hypothesis posits a robust correlation between intention attribution and autobiographical memory that results in impaired recollection of past events making it difficult to infer others' intentions. Read More

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December 2018

The courses of maternal and paternal depressive and anxiety symptoms during the prenatal period in the FinnBrain Birth Cohort study.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0207856. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

University of Turku, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Turku Brain and Mind Center, FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku, Finland.

Maternal prenatal symptoms of depression and anxiety have been suggested to impose differential effects on later offspring development, depending on their characteristics, such as timing, intensity and persistence. Paternal symptoms have been less investigated. While knowledge on these trajectory characteristics is essential for improved comprehension of prenatal stress, prospective studies including both expecting parents have been scarce. Read More

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December 2018

Integrative Medicine in Plastic Surgery: A Systematic Review of Our Literature.

Ann Plast Surg 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background: Surveys have reported that as high as 80% of plastic surgery patients utilize integrative medicine approaches including natural products (NPs) and mind-body practices (MBPs). Little is known regarding the evidence of benefit of these integrative therapies specifically in a plastic surgery patient population.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies in MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE (inception through December 2016) evaluating integrative medicine among plastic surgery patients. Read More

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December 2018

Relationship between sick building syndrome and indoor air quality among hospital staff.

Med Lav 2018 Dec 20;109(6):435-443. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Medicine Faculty of Dumlupinar University, Department of Public Health.

Background: Sick building syndrome (SBS) is defined as a condition occurring in those who live or work in a modern building and who suffer from symptoms such as headache, fatigue, lack of concentration and irritation of the skin and mucous membranes.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personal characteristics, environmental factors and the prevalence of SBS among the secretaries working in a hospital.

Method: In this cross-sectional study, questionnaires were administered to all secretaries who were working in Kutahya hospital in January and March 2018. Read More

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December 2018
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Parkinson's Disease in the Era of Personalised Medicine: One Size Does Not Fit All.

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Parkinson's Disease Research Clinic, Brain and Mind Centre, University of Sydney, 100 Mallett St, Camperdown, NSW, 2050, Australia.

The concept of personalised medicine in Parkinson's disease has arrived where the implications of findings made in research are certain to have an increasing impact upon clinical practice. Disease heterogeneity in Parkinson's disease has been well described and lends itself to the construct of personalised medicine where it is hypothesised that a greater understanding of genetic and pathophysiological contributions may underpin the sub-groups described. This in turn has driven the development of potentially individualised disease-modifying therapies where, for example, we are beginning to see treatments that target patients with Parkinson's disease with specific genetic mutations. Read More

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December 2018

A rare case of nasal biphenotypic sino-nasal sarcoma in a young female.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2019 Jan 5;37:4-6. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Otolaryngology Surgeon in Farwaniya Hospital, Kuwait.

Introduction: We report a case of sino-nasal sarcoma (SNS) which is a rare malignant tumor that forms in the nasal structure and only a few cases that were reported in the literature.

Case Report: The patient was a 35 years old woman. She presented with a history of right nasal obstruction from a couple of months at the time of presentation and recent attacks of epistaxis. Read More

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January 2019

[Cu]CuCl PET imaging reveals activity of Dextran-Catechin on tumor copper homeostasis.

Theranostics 2018 9;8(20):5645-5659. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Children's Cancer Institute, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, NSW, Australia 2031.

Given the strong clinical evidence that copper levels are significantly elevated in a wide spectrum of tumors, copper homeostasis is considered as an emerging target for anticancer drug design. Monitoring copper levels is therefore of paramount importance when assessing the efficacy of copper-targeting drugs. Herein, we investigated the activity of the copper-targeting compound Dextran-Catechin by developing a [Cu]CuCl PET imaging protocol to monitor its effect on copper homeostasis in tumors. Read More

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November 2018

East Asian Young and Older Adult Perceptions of Emotional Faces From an Age- and Sex-Fair East Asian Facial Expression Database.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2358. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

There is increasing interest in clarifying how different face emotion expressions are perceived by people from different cultures, of different ages and sex. However, scant availability of well-controlled emotional face stimuli from non-Western populations limit the evaluation of cultural differences in face emotion perception and how this might be modulated by age and sex differences. We present a database of East Asian face expression stimuli, enacted by young and older, male and female, Taiwanese using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Read More

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November 2018

Assessment of Eight Entrepreneurial Personality Dimensions: Validity Evidence of the BEPE Battery.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2352. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

CIBERSAM, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

The study of entrepreneurial activity has undergone intense development in recent decades. Traditionally this topic has been addressed from three approaches: economic, sociological and psychological. In the study of enterprising personality, two fundamental perspectives stand out: the use of general personality traits, like the Big Five, and the use of more specific traits related to entrepreneurial spirit, such as self-efficacy, autonomy, innovation, optimism, and others. Read More

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November 2018

A Detour Task in Four Species of Fishes.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2341. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Rovereto, Italy.

Four species of fish (, , , and ) were tested in a detour task requiring them to temporarily abandon the view of the goal-object (a group of conspecifics) to circumvent an obstacle. Fishes were placed in the middle of a corridor, at the end of which there was an opaque wall with a small window through which the goal was visible. Midline along the corridor two symmetrical apertures allowed animals to access two compartments for each aperture. Read More

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November 2018

The History and Philosophy of Ecological Psychology.

Front Psychol 2018 27;9:2228. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Ecological Psychology is an embodied, situated, and non-representational approach pioneered by J. J. Gibson and E. Read More

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November 2018

Plural Embodiment(s) of Mind. Genealogy and Guidelines for a Radically Embodied Approach to Mind and Consciousness.

Front Psychol 2018 29;9:2204. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Research Group on Epistemology of the Sciences of the Artificial, Department of Ancient and Modern Civilizations, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

This article focuses on a scientific approach to the study of cognition that Warren McCulloch introduced in the era of cybernetics as "experimental epistemology." In line with recent attempts to highlight its contribution to cognitive science and AI, our article intends to draw attention to its unexplored influence on contemporary embodied approaches to the investigation of mind and consciousness. To this end, we will survey a series of models of cognitive systems genealogically related to the McCulloch-Pitts networks-based modeling approach, i. Read More

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November 2018

Getting a grip on cognitive flexibility.

Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2018 Dec 16;27(6):470-476. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, 27708, USA.

Cognitive flexibility refers to the ability to quickly reconfigure our mind, like when we switch between different tasks. This review highlights recent evidence showing that cognitive flexibility can be conditioned by simple incentives typically known to drive lower-level learning, such as stimulus-response associations. Cognitive flexibility can also become associated with, and triggered by, bottom-up contextual cues in our environment, including subliminal cues. Read More

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December 2018

Electroconvulsive therapy induced gray matter increase is not necessarily correlated with clinical data in depressed patients.

Brain Stimul 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Neuroimaging, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and depression have been associated with brain volume changes, especially in the hippocampus and the amygdala.

Methods: In this retrospective study we collected data from individual pre-post ECT whole brain magnetic resonance imaging scans of depressed patients from six German university hospitals. Gray matter volume (GMV) changes were quantified via voxel-based morphometry in a total sample of 92 patients with major depressive episodes (MDE). Read More

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December 2018

Precision medicine and global mental health.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Jan;7(1):e32

Mind Research Network, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA.

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January 2019

Factors associated with decision to undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy versus unilateral mastectomy.

Am J Surg 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, 20 York Street, 1st Floor, Suite A, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Factors associated with the decision to pursue unilateral mastectomy (UM) versus contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM) in unilateral breast cancer (UBC) patients, and satisfaction with this decision, remain to be elucidated.

Methods: UBC patients who underwent mastectomy were surveyed regarding factors affecting their surgical decision and satisfaction with the same.

Results: Both UM (n = 46) and CPM (n = 55) patients were satisfied with their surgical decision (mean 4. Read More

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December 2018

Crossed obsessive-compulsive personality disorder and impaired theory of mind in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Neurol Sci 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Diagnostics and Applied Technology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133, Milan, Italy.

People with epilepsy often suffer psychiatric symptoms or exhibit maladaptive personality characteristics which can impact them more than seizures. This case illustrates a selective association of a Theory of Mind dysfunction, including an impaired comparison of reality and others' behavior, with an obsessive-compulsive personality disorder in a patient with left temporal lobe epilepsy and crossed cognitive functions. The patient revealed visual memory deficits and impaired interpretation of other people's behavior, mental rigidity, and a tendency to formulate inflexible judgements. Read More

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December 2018

Association between prenatal opioid exposure, neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age.

Early Hum Dev 2018 Dec 13;128:69-76. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States of America.

Background: While use of prescription opioids and medication assisted therapy (MAT) for opioid use disorder in pregnancy, as well as the incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome (NOWS) continue to rise, little is known about outcomes for children with NOWS beyond the newborn period.

Methods: We examined 1) prenatal MAT exposure vs. unexposed healthy controls [HC]; and 2) treatment for NOWS and NOWS severity on infant neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes at 5-8 months of age in 78 maternal-infant pairs from the ENRICH prospective cohort study. Read More

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December 2018

Longitudinal trajectories of hippocampal and prefrontal contributions to episodic retrieval: Effects of age and puberty.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2018 Nov 20. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Center for Mind and Brain, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA; Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address:

The current study investigated longitudinal change in hippocampal and prefrontal contribution to episodic retrieval. Functional neuroimaging data were collected during an item-context association memory task for children between the ages of 8 and 14 with individuals scanned 1-3 times over the course of 0.75-3. Read More

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November 2018

Carl August Krauspe (1895-1983)-Founder and honorary member of the "European Society of Pathology" and "politically reliable" National Socialist.

Pathol Res Pract 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute for History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine, Medical Faculty, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074 Germany. Electronic address:

The name of the Hamburg pathologist Carl August Krauspe (1895-1983) is closely linked to the history of the "European Society of Pathology" (ESP) and the "German Pathological Society" (DGP): He was one of the founding fathers of the ESP, became its vice president, and was appointed an honorary member in 1983. From 1953-1962 he also served as secretary of the DGP and editor of the association's proceedings. In 1962/63 he finally held the chairmanship of the DGP. Read More

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December 2018

Decisional conflict among breast cancer patients considering contralateral prophylactic mastectomy.

Patient Educ Couns 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA.

Objectives: The study's goals were to characterize decisional conflict and preparedness for making the decision about having CPM among breast cancer patients considering CPM who do not carry cancer-predisposing mutation and to evaluate correlates of decisional conflict and preparedness.

Methods: 93 women considering CPM completed a survey of decisional conflict and preparedness for the CPM decision, knowledge, perceived risk, self-efficacy, reasons for CPM, input from others and discussion with the doctor about CPM, and cancer worry.

Results: Between 8% and 27% of women endorsed elevated decisional conflict. Read More

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December 2018

Beginning with high value care in mind: A scoping review and toolkit to support the content, delivery, measurement, and sustainment of high value care.

Patient Educ Couns 2018 May 20. Epub 2018 May 20.

Reaching for High Value Care Team, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Objective: To create a shared vision for the content, delivery, measurement, and sustainment of patient-centered high value care.

Methods: We performed a scoping review and translated findings into toolkit for system leaders. For our scoping review, we searched Medline, 2005-November 2015, for literature on patient-centered care (PCC) and its relationship to a high value care change model. Read More

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Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Emerging Adults with Poorly Controlled, Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Pediatr Diabetes 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Center for Mind-Body Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.

Background And Objective: The negative effects of stress on persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are well-established, but effective interventions to reduce stress among emerging adults with T1D are limited. The study objective was to conduct a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) to reduce stress and improve diabetes health outcomes in a population of high-risk, urban emerging adults with poorly controlled diabetes METHODS: 48 participants aged 16-20 years of age with T1D (mean duration= 8 years) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: MSBR, cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), or a diabetes support group. Data were collected at baseline, end of treatment and three months after treatment completion. Read More

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December 2018

Cortical interlaminar astrocytes across the therian mammal radiation.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA.

Interlaminar astrocytes (ILA) in the cerebral cortex possess a soma in layer I and extend an interlaminar process that runs perpendicular to the pia into deeper cortical layers. We examined cerebral cortex from 46 species that encompassed most orders of therian mammalians, including 22 primate species. We described two distinct cell types with interlaminar processes that have been referred to as ILA, that we termed pial ILA and supial ILA. Read More

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December 2018
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Periventricular Microglial Cells Interact with Dividing Precursor Cells in the Nonhuman Primate and Rodent Prenatal Cerebral Cortex.

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA.

Cortical proliferative zones have been studied for over 100 years, yet recent data has revealed that microglial cells constitute a sizeable proportion of ventricular zone cells during late stages of cortical neurogenesis. Microglia begin colonizing the forebrain after neural tube closure and during later stages of neurogenesis populate regions of the developing cortex that include the proliferative zones. We previously showed that microglia regulate the production of cortical cells by phagocytosing neural precursor cells (NPCs), but how microglia interact with NPCs remains poorly understood. Read More

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December 2018

Ten-year trends in traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study of California emergency department and hospital revisits and readmissions.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e022297. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: To describe visits and visit rates of adults presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI is a major cause of death and disability in the USA; yet, current literature is limited because few studies examine longer-term ED revisits and hospital readmission patterns of TBI patients across a broad spectrum of injury severity, which can help inform potential unmet healthcare needs.

Design: We performed a retrospective cohort study. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of positive and negative expectations on human pain perception engage separate but interrelated and dependently regulated cerebral mechanisms.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Graduate Institute of Brain and Mind Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Expectations substantially influence pain perception, but the relationship between positive and negative expectations remains unclear. Recent evidence indicates that the integration between pain-related expectations and prediction errors is crucial for pain perception, which suggests that aversive prediction error-associated regions, such as the anterior insular cortex (aIC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC), may play a pivotal role in expectation-induced pain modulation and help to delineate the relationship between positive and negative expectations. In a stimulus expectancy paradigm combining fMRI in healthy volunteers of both sexes, we found that, although positive and negative expectations respectively engaged the right aIC and right rACC to modulate pain, their associated activations and pain rating changes were significantly correlated. Read More

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December 2018

Loss of adult 5-HT1A autoreceptors results in a paradoxical anxiogenic response to antidepressant treatment.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (Neuroscience), Ottawa, Canada

Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line antidepressants, but require several weeks to elicit their actions. Chronic SSRI treatment induces desensitization of 5-HT1A autoreceptors to enhance 5-HT neurotransmission. Mice (both sexes) with gene deletion of 5-HT1A autoreceptors in adult 5-HT neurons (1AcKO) were tested for response to SSRIs. Read More

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December 2018

Upper Extremity Care for Children: Unique Medical and Psychosocial Aspects.

Authors:
Sonia Chaudhry

J Hand Surg Am 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatric Orthopaedic and Hand Surgery, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT. Electronic address:

Hand surgeons encountering pediatric patients should be attuned to both technical and practical facets of caring for congenital and traumatic pathologies. Psychosocial aspects include engaging children in conversation and factoring in both self and external perception of deformity. Medical considerations are also unique, from including child abuse in the differential to having techniques to assess active motion and sensation in the nonverbal child. Read More

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December 2018

Personalized Medicine and Molecular Interaction Networks in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Current Knowledge.

J Pers Med 2018 Dec 13;8(4). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, Altnagelvin Hospital Campus, Ulster University, Londonderry, BT47 6SB, Northern Ireland, UK.

Multiple genes and mechanisms of pathophysiology have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting it is a complex systemic disease. With this in mind, applying personalized medicine (PM) approaches to tailor treatment pipelines for ALS patients may be necessary. The modelling and analysis of molecular interaction networks could represent valuable resources in defining ALS-associated pathways and discovering novel therapeutic targets. Read More

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December 2018

Is the perception of illusions abnormal in schizophrenia?

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 30;270:929-939. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Laboratory of Psychophysics, Brain Mind Institute, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland.

There seems to be no common factor for visual perception, i.e., performance in visual tasks correlates only weakly with each other. Read More

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December 2018

Social cognition and interaction training for major depression: A preliminary study.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 5;270:890-894. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Department of Psychiatry, The Seventh Hospital of Hangzhou, 305 Tianmushan Road, Hangzhou, 310013, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

The present work investigated the efficacy of social cognition and interaction training (SCIT) for patients with major depression. Thirty first-episode patients with major depression who received the SCIT plus the treatment-as-usual (i.e. Read More

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December 2018
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Validity of a two-item screen for early psychosis.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 3;270:861-868. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. Electronic address:

Well-validated screening tools have been developed to identify people at high risk for psychosis, but these are rarely used outside of specialty clinics or research settings. The development of extremely brief and simple screening tools could increase dissemination, especially in settings with low buy-in such as those with low base rates of psychosis and/or time constraints. We sought to identify such a brief measure by modeling participant responses to three psychosis screening questionnaires (Prime Screen; Prodromal Questionnaire-Brief; Youth Psychosis At Risk Questionnaire) in a sample of 139 help-seeking individuals and 335 college students (age range: 12-25). Read More

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December 2018
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Beyond diagnosis: Mentalization and mental health from a transdiagnostic point of view in adolescents from non-clinical population.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 21;270:755-763. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Department of Mental Health. Fundació Sanitària Sant Pere Claver, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Centre for Biomedical Research Network on Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.

An increasing volume of evidence suggests that mentalization (MZ) can be an important factor in the transition from mental health to mental illness and vice versa. However, most studies are focused on the role of MZ in specific disorders. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between MZ and mental health as a trans-diagnostic process. Read More

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December 2018

Neurocognitive and theory of mind deficits and poor social competence in schizophrenia: The moderating role of social disinterest attitudes.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Dec 9;270:459-466. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, USA; Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA USA.

Neurocognitive and theory of mind deficits, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms have all been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but interactions among these factors have not been extensively examined. We investigated whether dysfunctional attitudes (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

Characterization of locomotor response to psychostimulants in the parthenogenetic marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis): A promising model for studying the neural and molecular mechanisms of drug addiction.

Behav Brain Res 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind & Behavior, and Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403, USA.

Although scientific research using mammalian models has made great strides in uncovering the enigmatic neural and molecular mechanisms orchestrating the state of drug addiction, a complete understanding has thus far eluded researchers. The complexity of the task has led to the use of invertebrate model systems to complement the research of drug-induced reward in mammalian systems. Invertebrates, such as crayfish, offer excellent model systems to help reveal the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as they retain the ancestral neural reward circuit that is evolutionarily conserved across taxa, and they possess relatively few, large neurons, laid out in an accessible, modularly organized nervous system. Read More

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December 2018

Asymmetrical interference between number and item size perception provides evidence for a domain specific impairment in dyscalculia.

PLoS One 2018 14;13(12):e0209256. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, CEA DRF/I2BM, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, NeuroSpin Center, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Dyscalculia, a specific learning disability that impacts arithmetical skills, has previously been associated to a deficit in the precision of the system that estimates the approximate number of objects in visual scenes (the so called 'number sense' system). However, because in tasks involving numerosity comparisons dyscalculics' judgements appears disproportionally affected by continuous quantitative dimensions (such as the size of the items), an alternative view linked dyscalculia to a domain-general difficulty in inhibiting task-irrelevant responses. To arbitrate between these views, we evaluated the degree of reciprocal interference between numerical and non-numerical quantitative dimensions in adult dyscalculics and matched controls. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical Practice Improvement: Mind the Gap or Fall Into the Chasm.

Anesth Analg 2019 Jan;128(1):19-20

Missoula Anesthesiology and The International Heart Institute of Montana, Missoula, Montana.

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January 2019
2 Reads

The intuitive greater good: Testing the corrective dual process model of moral cognition.

J Exp Psychol Gen 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UMR CNRS 8240.

Building on the old adage that the deliberate mind corrects the emotional heart, the influential dual process model of moral cognition has posited that utilitarian responding to moral dilemmas (i.e., choosing the greater good) requires deliberate correction of an intuitive deontological response. Read More

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December 2018

Perceiver and target characteristics contribute to impression formation differently across race and gender.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology.

Social impressions arise from characteristics of both perceivers and targets. However, empirical research in the domain of impression formation has yet to quantify the extent to which perceiver and target characteristics uniquely contribute to impressions across group boundaries (e.g. Read More

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December 2018

How mindfulness training promotes positive emotions: Dismantling acceptance skills training in two randomized controlled trials.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2018 Dec;115(6):944-973

Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University.

Mindfulness meditation interventions-which train skills in monitoring present-moment experiences with a lens of acceptance-have shown promise for increasing positive emotions. Using a theory-based approach, we hypothesized that learning acceptance skills in mindfulness interventions helps people notice more positive experiences in daily life, and tested whether removing acceptance training from mindfulness interventions would eliminate intervention-related boosts in positive affect. In 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stressed community adults, mindfulness skills were dismantled into 2 structurally equivalent interventions: (a) training in both monitoring and acceptance (Monitor + Accept) and (b) training in monitoring only (Monitor Only) without acceptance training. Read More

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December 2018
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Feel free to write this down: Writing about a stressful experience does not impair change detection task performance.

Emotion 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis.

Acute stress impairs working memory (i.e., the ability to update and keep information in mind). Read More

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December 2018

Altered frontal aslant tracts as a heritable neural basis of social communication deficits in autism spectrum disorder: A sibling study using tract-based automatic analysis.

Autism Res 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Institute of Medical Device and Imaging, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Investigating social behaviors and brain structural alterations in unaffected siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may help identify intermediate phenotypes of social communication deficits in ASD. This study hypothesized that such intermediate phenotypes could be identified in white matter tracts of the social communication model that exhibited reduced tract integrity and associations with social communication deficits. Boys with ASD (N = 30), unaffected male siblings (N = 27), and typically developing (TD) boys (N = 30) underwent clinical evaluation and MRI scanning. Read More

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December 2018

Role of BMP signaling for the formation of auditory brainstem nuclei and large auditory relay synapses.

Dev Neurobiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Laboratory of Synaptic Mechanisms, Brain Mind Institute, School of Life Science, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Large excitatory synapses are found at specific points in the neuronal circuits of the auditory brainstem, to enable fast information transfer and the preservation of acoustic timing information. The extracellular cues and signaling mechanisms that lead to the development of these specialized synaptic connections, exemplified by the calyx of Held in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), are still largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of BMP signaling for the early development of the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and MNTB, and for the initial formation of the calyx of Held synaptic connection. Read More

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December 2018

Similar time courses for word form and meaning preactivation during sentence comprehension.

Psychophysiology 2018 Dec 11:e13312. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), La Jolla, California.

Current psycholinguistic research generally acknowledges that aspects of sentence comprehension benefit from neural preactivation of different types of information. However, despite strong support from a number of studies, routine specific word form preactivation has been challenged by Ito, Corley, Pickering, Martin, and Nieuwland (2016). They suggest that word form prediction is contingent upon having enough processing time and resources (afforded by slower input rates) to progress through unidirectional, productionlike stages of comprehension to arrive at word forms via semantic feature preactivation. Read More

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December 2018

Mind the gaps: overlooking inaccessible regions confounds statistical testing in genome analysis.

BMC Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 14;19(1):481. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The current versions of reference genome assemblies still contain gaps represented by stretches of Ns. Since high throughput sequencing reads cannot be mapped to those gap regions, the regions are depleted of experimental data. Moreover, several technology platforms assay a targeted portion of the genomic sequence, meaning that regions from the unassayed portion of the genomic sequence cannot be detected in those experiments. Read More

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December 2018

Traumatic occipitoatlantal dissociation: high index of suspicion should be kept in mind.

Intensive Care Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Emergency and Intensive Care Department, Hospital de Faro, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Do Algarve, Faro, Portugal.

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December 2018

Gradients of connectivity distance in the cerebral cortex of the macaque monkey.

Brain Struct Funct 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Max Planck Research Group for Neuroanatomy and Connectivity, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.

Cortical connectivity conforms to a series of organizing principles that are common across species. Spatial proximity, similar cortical type, and similar connectional profile all constitute factors for determining the connectivity between cortical regions. We previously demonstrated another principle of connectivity that is closely related to the spatial layout of the cerebral cortex. Read More

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December 2018

Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the left gastric artery: A case report.

Trauma Case Rep 2019 Feb 5;19:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of General Surgery, Division of Trauma Surgery, Eulji University Hostpital, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the gastric artery is very rare. Prompt diagnosis and management are necessary because mortality is high due to massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. A 79-year-old man complained of abdominal pain after slipping down 2 days prior to admission. Read More

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February 2019