405 results match your criteria Millipede Envenomation


A revision of dragon millipedes IV: the new genus , with the description of nine new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zookeys 2018 19(797):19-69. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

Nine new species constituting the '' group of dragon millipedes are assigned to the new genus Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, Seven new species are described from Thailand: Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, and Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Surat Thani Province, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Chumphon Province, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, (type species) and Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Krabi Province, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , and Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, from Phang Nga Province; as well as one from Malaysia, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, , and one from Myanmar, Srisonchai, Enghoff & Panha, The new genus is endemic to South Myanmar, South Thailand, and Malaysia, and all new species are restricted to limestone habitats. All were exclusively found living on humid rock walls and/or inside small caves. Complete illustrations of external morphological characters, an identification key, and a distribution map are provided. Read More

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November 2018

Benthic walking, bounding, and maneuvering in flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes: Pleuronectidae): New vertebrate gaits.

Zoology (Jena) 2018 Oct 17;130:19-29. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University Museum of Vertebrates, Corson Hall, 215 Tower Rd., Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853, USA. Electronic address:

Video-based observations of voluntary movements reveal that six species of pleuronectid flatfishes use sequential portions of long-based dorsal and anal fins as "feet" (hereafter, fin-feet) to move on the substrate. All six species used a gait that we term "walking," which produced constant forward movement, and several of these species also used a second gait that we call "bounding" for intermittent movements over the substrate. We selected Pacific Sand Sole, Psettichthys melanostictus, and English Sole, Parophrys vetulus, for kinematic analyses of these two gaits. Read More

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October 2018

Novelty upon novelty visualized by rotational scanning electron micrographs (rSEM): Laboulbeniales on the millipede order Chordeumatida.

PLoS One 2018 28;13(11):e0206900. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Unitat de Botànica, Departament de Biologia Animal, de Biologia Vegetal i d'Ecologia, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Laboulbeniales are highly specific ectoparasitic fungi of arthropods (insects, millipedes, and arachnids). The first Laboulbeniales parasitizing the millipede order Chordeumatida (Diplopoda) were discovered and described as a new dioecious genus of Laboulbeniales, Thaxterimyces, to accommodate the new species T. baliensis. Read More

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November 2018

Biosynthesis of (2-nitroethyl)benzene and ()- and ()-(2-nitroethenyl)benzenes from ()- and ()-phenylacetaldoximes and phenylacetonitrile; defense allomone of and (Polydesmida: Haplodesmidae).

J Pestic Sci 2018 Nov;43(4):240-247

Biotechnology Research Center and Department of Biotechnology, Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama 939-0398, Japan.

The defense allomones of two haplodesmid millipedes, and (Polydesmida: Haplodesmidae), are known as a mixture of the following three nitro compounds: (2-nitroethyl)benzene and ()- and ()-(2-nitroethenyl)benzenes. Administrations of a mixture of H-labeled ()- and ()-phenylacetaldoximes and of H-labeled phenylacetonitrile as precursors resulted in the same production of three H-labeled nitro compounds, [2'-nitroethyl][2,3,4,5,6-H]benzene and [()- and ()-2'-nitroethenyl][2,3,4,5,6-H]benzenes, in both species. Oxime administration at an appropriate dose resulted in the production of three nitro compounds with similar natural ratios more effectively than nitrile administration. Read More

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November 2018

First continental troglobiont millipede (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

Zookeys 2018 8(795):93-103. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 København Ø, Denmark University of Copenhagen København Denmark.

The new species of millipede is described from a cave in the Estremenho karst massif in central Portugal. It is the first cave-adapted species of its genus with a strict subterranean life-style in continental Europe, and is the fifth blind species of the genus. The new species is illustrated with photographs and diagrammatic drawings. Read More

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November 2018
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n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditida: Thelastomatidae) from Appalachian Polydesmid Millipedes (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae).

J Nematol 2018 Sep 3;50(2):133-146. Epub 2018 Sep 3.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, 370 Plant Biotechnology Building, 2505 E J Chapman Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-4560 USA.

Stauratostoma shelleyi n. gen., n. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

A synopsis of Estonian myriapod fauna (Myriapoda: Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Symphyla and Pauropoda).

Zookeys 2018 29(793):63-96. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi st 5D, 51006 Tartu, Estonia Estonian University of Life Sciences Tartu Estonia.

The data on Estonian Myriapoda are scattered in various publications and there has been no overview of the fauna up to the present. A critical summary of the previous information on Estonian Myriapoda is given, supplemented by new records and distribution maps. Altogether, 5784 specimens from 276 collecting sites were studied. Read More

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October 2018
4 Reads

Antibiotic Activity of Actinobacteria from the Digestive Tract of Millipede (Diplopoda).

Antibiotics (Basel) 2018 Oct 29;7(4). Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, 119021 Moscow, Russia.

Because of the spread of drug resistance, it is necessary to look for new antibiotics that are effective against pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to analyse the species composition of actinobacteria isolated from the digestive tract of the millipedes and to determine their antimicrobial properties. Species identification was carried out on the basis of the morphological and culture properties and the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Diversity in the section Compressa of the genus Chaetoceros (Bacillariophyceae), with description of two new species from Chinese warm waters.

J Phycol 2018 Oct 28. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Subtropical Biodiversity and Biomonitoring, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Healthy and Safe Aquaculture, College of Life Science, South China Normal University, West 55 of Zhongshan Avenue, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Monoclonal strains of Chaetoceros species were collected from Chinese warm waters. Vegetative cells and resting spores were examined using light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Combined morphological and DNA sequence data from the hypervariable D1-D3 region of the nuclear ribosomal large subunit showed the presence of two new species within the section Compressa, herein described as Chaetoceros bifurcatus sp. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads
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The millipede Craspedosoma raulinsii Leach, 1814 (Chordeumatida: Craspedosomatidae) in North America with comments on the derivation of its binomial name.

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 2;4455(2):389-394. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Natural Science, New Brunswick Museum, Saint John, New Brunswick, E2K 1E5 Canada and Biology Department, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3.

The millipede Craspedosoma raulinsii (Craspedosomatidae) is widespread in Central Europe from Belarus and southern Scandinavia west to Britain and Ireland. Although the species is often not common and rarely encountered (Blower 1985, Hoffman 1999, Lee 2006), Kime (2004) reports C. raulinsii as the third most widespread millipede in Belgium. Read More

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August 2018
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The millipede genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 in continental China, with descriptions of seven new cavernicolous species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Polydesmidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 14;4459(1):53-84. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Department of Entomology, College of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, 483 Wushanlu, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Seven new species of Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 are described from caves in southern China: Epanerchodus latus n. sp., Epanerchodus tujiaphilus n. Read More

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The millipede genus Julus Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caucasus (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 20;4461(1):89-117. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Don State Technical University, Department of Biology and general pathology, Gagarin sq. 1, building 6, Rostov-on-Don 344000, Russia.

The genus Julus includes seven species already described from the Caucasus region: J. alexandrae Evsyukov, 2016; J. colchicus Lohmander, 1936; J. Read More

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First record of the millipede genus Nesorthomorpha Jeekel, 1980 in Vietnam with description of a new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 28;4462(3):426-434. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Duy Tan University, 254, Nguyen Van Linh, Da Nang City, VIETNAM. Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18, Hoangquocviet Rd., Caugiay, Hanoi, VIETNAM..

The genus Nesorthomorpha Jeekel, 1980 is recorded in Vietnam for the first time based on the discovery of the new species Nesorthomorpha montana n. sp. from the Highlands of Vietnam. Read More

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Out of the dark void: Ommatoiulus longicornis n. sp., a new julid from Spain (Diplopoda, Julida) with notes on some troglobiomorphic traits in millipedes.

Zootaxa 2018 May 17;4420(3):415-429. Epub 2018 May 17.

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Burgring 7, 1010 Wien, Austria..

A new millipede species, Ommatoiulus longicornis n. sp. is described from the subterranean habitat in eastern Spain, and the elongation of its antennae is discussed in relation to the habitat where it dwells. Read More

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Revision of the millipede tribe Brachyiulini Verhoeff, 1909 (Diplopoda: Julida: Julidae), with descriptions of new taxa.

Zootaxa 2018 May 21;4421(1):1-142. Epub 2018 May 21.

Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 2 Yurii Gagarin Street, 1113, Sofia, Bulgaria.

A comprehensive taxonomic revision of the circum-Mediterranean julid tribe Brachyiulini is undertaken. A total of 13 genera and 103 species are assigned to the tribe. One new genus, one new subgenus, and 10 new species are described from Greece, Turkey or Iran: Byzantorhopalum (Byzantorhopalum) elephantum sp. Read More

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A new species of and a new transfer from the millipede genus Polydrepanum Carl, 1932 (Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae, Polydrepanini).

Zootaxa 2018 Sep 4;4471(1):169-178. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Division of Arachnology, Department of Zoology, Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Cochin, Kerala 682 013, India.

A new species of Polydrepanum Carl, 1932, is described and illustrated in detail from the Eastern Ghats of India: P. fissum sp. nov. Read More

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September 2018

Xanthotropis, a new genus in the Neotropical millipede subfamily Aphelidesminae (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Aphelidesmidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Sep 5;4471(2):351-360. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia-INPA, CPEN-Programa de Pós-Graduação em Entomologia, Campus II, Caixa postal 478, CEP 69011-97, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil..

The monotypic taxon Xanthotropis n. gen. is established to accommodate Haematotropis media Golovatch, Hoffman Spelda, 2004, known only from the vicinity of Manaus, Brazil, as it is incompatible with both its originally assigned genus and Aphelidesmus Brölemann, 1898, a suggested alternative. Read More

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September 2018

Pseudotibiozus Demange, 1970-millipedes of the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Spirostreptidae).

Zootaxa 2018 May 31;4425(3):541-554. Epub 2018 May 31.

Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen OE, Denmark.

The genus Pseudotibiozus Demange, 1970, is discussed, its type species, P. cerasopus (Attems, 1914) is re-described based on type and new material, and P. zophoribates sp. Read More

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A review of the millipede genus Rupidesmus Schubart, 1952 (Polydesmida: Chelodesmidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Jun 18;4434(3):589-599. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Pós-graduação em Zoologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil..

The chelodesmid genus Rupidesmus Schubart, 1952 is revised. Currently, the genus contains only Rupidesmus ruber Schubart, 1952, herein redescribed, and the new species Rupidesmus aclys n. sp. Read More

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Gene expression analysis of potential morphogen signalling modifying factors in Panarthropoda.

Evodevo 2018 29;9:20. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Uppsala University, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Morphogen signalling represents a key mechanism of developmental processes during animal development. Previously, several evolutionary conserved morphogen signalling pathways have been identified, and their players such as the morphogen receptors, morphogen modulating factors (MMFs) and the morphogens themselves have been studied. MMFs are factors that regulate morphogen distribution and activity. Read More

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September 2018

Two new species of the millipede genus Attems, 1937 from the Balkan Peninsula (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zookeys 2018 25(786):43-57. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Russia.

In addition to the eleven previously known species of the Mediterranean genus , two more species are described: , from the Rhodopi Mts. and Bunardzhik Hill in Bulgaria, and ., from the island of Mljet in Croatia. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Cryptic diversity in Cope, 1869 and description of a new species from New Mexico (Diplopoda, Platydesmida, Andrognathidae).

Zookeys 2018 25(786):19-41. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Entomology, Price Hall, 170 Drillfield Drive, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Blacksburg United States of America.

is a genus of small, thin-bodied millipedes found in deciduous forests of North America. Poorly understood, these organisms inhabit decaying wood and have morphologically conserved and difficult-to-identify sexual characters that have limited study historically. Recent use of scanning electron microscopy has uncovered variation in male genitalia that was previously unknown in the genus. Read More

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September 2018
4 Reads

Morphological study of the ovary in Hanseniella caldaria (Myriapoda; Symphyla): The position of oocyte-growth and evolution of ovarian structure in Arthropoda.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2018 Oct 17. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8572, Japan.

In Arthropoda, the ovary is classified into Chelicerata-type and Mandibulata-type, based on the oocyte-growth position within the ovary. By contrast, oocytes of Diplopoda and Chilopoda grow within the hemocoelic space. However, as the position of oocyte-growth in Symphyla and Pauropoda has not been confirmed, whether the hemocoelic nature of oocyte-growth is common among myriapods remains ambiguous. Read More

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October 2018

Trichopolydesmidae from Cameroon, 1: The genus Schubart, 1955. With a genus-level reclassification of Afrotropical genera of the family (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).

Zookeys 2018 19(785):49-98. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Musée Royal de l'Afrique centrale, Tervuren, Belgique.

In addition to one of the two species of Trichopolydesmidae hitherto recorded from Cameroon, Porat, 1894, which is revised based on type material and shown to represent the genus Schubart, 1955, , 12 new species from the same genus are described from that country: , , , , , , , , , , and A key to all 13 species (of ) known to occur in Cameroon is presented, and their distributions are mapped. All ten recognizable (but excluding two dubious) Afrotropical genera or subgenera of Trichopolydesmidae are rediagnosed and reclassified, based both on their type species and a presumed scenario of gonopodal evolution. As a result, the number of accepted genera is reduced to five: Attems, 1909 (= Brolemann, 1920), Brolemann, 1920 (= Attems, 1939, , = Chamberlin, 1951, , = Schubart, 1955, }, Schubart, 1955, Brolemann, 1926 (= Verhoeff, 1941, ), and . Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

An integrative and citizen science based approach to the rediscovery and redescription of the only known high-altitude endemic Pill Millipede, Koch (Diplopoda, Glomerida).

Authors:
Thomas Wesener

PeerJ 2018 13;6:e5569. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Center for Taxonomy and Evolutionary Research (Section Myriapoda), Zoological Research Museum A. Koenig, Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Bonn, Germany.

The pill millipede species Koch, 1847 remained of relative unknown origin and appearance until its recent rediscovery in samples from the Bergamasque Alps, northern Italy. In order to provide an integrative redescription and accurate identification of the high-altitude microendemic , COI barcode sequences from three individuals coming from two different localities were obtained. These sequences are compared with those of the syntopic endemic Verhoeff, 1894, the widespread black morph of Verhoeff, 1900, as well as several widespread species including Villers, 1789, Koch, 1847, and Brandt, 1833, which have rare colour morphs that exhibit some similarity to . Read More

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September 2018

Identification of saturated and unsaturated 1-methoxyalkanes from the Thai millipede Orthomorpha communis as potential "Raincoat Compounds".

Sci Rep 2018 Aug 6;8(1):11730. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Asano Active Enzyme Molecular Project, JST, ERATO, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama, 939-0398, Japan.

Mixtures of saturated and unsaturated 1-methoxyalkanes (alkyl methyl ethers, representing more than 45.4% of the millipede hexane extracts) were newly identified from the Thai polydesmid millipede, Orthomorpha communis, in addition to well-known polydesmid defense allomones (benzaldehyde, benzoyl cyanide, benzoic acid, mandelonitrile, and mandelonitrile benzoate) and phenolics (phenol, o- and p-cresol, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-methoxy-5-methylphenol and 3-methoxy-4-methylphenol). The major compound was 1-methoxy-n-hexadecane (32. Read More

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August 2018
20 Reads

Potential self-medication using millipede secretions in red-fronted lemurs: combining anointment and ingestion for a joint action against gastrointestinal parasites?

Primates 2018 Sep 30;59(5):483-494. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology Unit, German Primate Center, Leibniz Institute for Primate Research, Kellnerweg 4, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.

Self-anointing, referring to the behaviour of rubbing a material object or foreign substance over different parts of the body, has been observed in several vertebrate species, including primates. Several functions, such as detoxifying a rich food source, social communication and protection against ectoparasites, have been proposed to explain this behaviour. Here, we report observations of six wild red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufifrons) of both sexes and different age classes anointing their perianal-genital areas and tails with chewed millipedes. Read More

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September 2018
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Embryonic expression patterns and phylogenetic analysis of panarthropod sox genes: insight into nervous system development, segmentation and gonadogenesis.

BMC Evol Biol 2018 06 8;18(1):88. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences, Palaeobiology, Villavägen 16, 75236, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Sox (Sry-related high-mobility-group box) genes represent important factors in animal development. Relatively little, however, is known about the embryonic expression patterns and thus possible function(s) of Sox genes during ontogenesis in panarthropods (Arthropoda+Tardigrada+Onychophora). To date, studies have been restricted exclusively to higher insects, including the model system Drosophila melanogaster, with no comprehensive data available for any other arthropod group, or any tardigrade or onychophoran. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

A revision of dragon millipedes I: genus Chamberlin, 1923, with the description of eight new species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zookeys 2018 29(761):1-177. Epub 2018 May 29.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

The dragon millipede genus s.l. is split into five genera, based on morphological characters and preliminary molecular phylogenetic analyses. Read More

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Two new species of the millipede family Cambalopsidae from Myanmar (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida).

Zookeys 2018 28(760):55-71. Epub 2018 May 28.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Two new species of cave-dwelling millipedes are described from Myanmar, one each in the genera Silvestri, 1923 and Peters, 1864. joins the small peculiar group of congeners from Thailand which is characterized by such plesiomorphies as the tergal crests on the collum and following metaterga being transversely divided into two, not three parts, as in species of the genus Gervais, 1847. However, this new species differs by the 3-segmented telopodites of ♂ legs 1, the anterior gonopodal coxosternum showing higher and nearly straight apicomesal processes and very evident apicolateral teeth, as well as the higher and acuminate paramedian coxal processes of the posterior gonopods, the latter's telopodites demonstrating an apical fovea bearing a group of microsetae at the bottom. Read More

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Four new endemic genera of Rubiaceae (Pavetteae) from Madagascar represent multiple radiations into drylands.

PhytoKeys 2018 21(99):1-66. Epub 2018 May 21.

Botanic Garden Meise, Nieuwelaan 38, 1860 Meise, Belgium.

The taxonomic positions and phylogenetic relationships of six Pavetteae species endemic to Madagascar were tested with a phylogenetic study of the Afro-Madagascan representatives of the tribe Pavetteae based on sequence data from six markers , , , -, and ITS. The six species were resolved into four well-supported and morphologically distinct clades which we here formally recognise at generic level. The new genera are the monospecific and , each with a single species, and and , each with two species. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Food preference and ecotoxicological tests with millipedes in litter contaminated with mercury.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Aug 28;633:1173-1182. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Environmental Geochemistry, Fluminense Federal University, Outeiro São João Baptista, s/n., Centro, 24020-007 Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Worldwide, various guidelines and directives for human health and the environment aim to reduce anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission. Forest ecosystems are natural sinks of this element, transferring it from the atmosphere to litter and soil. Millipedes play an important role in litter/soil and may be negatively affected by contamination. Read More

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The bipartite mitochondrial genome of Ruizia karukerae (Rhigonematomorpha, Nematoda).

Sci Rep 2018 May 10;8(1):7482. Epub 2018 May 10.

Division of EcoScience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 03760, Republic of Korea.

Mitochondrial genes and whole mitochondrial genome sequences are widely used as molecular markers in studying population genetics and resolving both deep and shallow nodes in phylogenetics. In animals the mitochondrial genome is generally composed of a single chromosome, but mystifying exceptions sometimes occur. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the millipede-parasitic nematode Ruizia karukerae and found its mitochondrial genome consists of two circular chromosomes, which is highly unusual in bilateral animals. Read More

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Phylogenetic comparative analysis supports aposematic colouration-body size association in millipede assassins (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae).

J Evol Biol 2018 Jul 6;31(7):1071-1078. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

The diversity of colour patterns and its importance in interactions with the environment make colouration in animals an intriguing research focus. Aposematic colouration is positively correlated with body size in certain groups of animals, suggesting that warning colours are more effective or that crypsis is harder to achieve in larger animals. Surprisingly, this relationship has not been recovered in studies investigating insects, which may have been confounded by a focus on aposematic taxa that are also gregarious. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Millipede and centipede assemblages on the northern and southern slopes of the lowland Altais, southwestern Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Chilopoda).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):219-254. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Ecology, Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Altai State University, Lenina avenue 61, Barnaul,656049, Russia.

The total species richness in the myriapod assemblages of the lowland Altais near Charyshskoe Village, Altai Province, southwestern Siberia, Russia is estimated to be at least 19 species from ten genera, eight families, five orders, and two classes. The following species are new to SW Siberia: Lithobius (Ezembius) ostiacorum Stuxberg, 1876, Stuxberg, 1876, and L. (Monotarsobius) nordenskioeldii Stuxberg, 1876, while L. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Four new species of the group from southern China (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Cambalopsidae).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):155-179. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Donghu South Rd., Wuhan 430072, Hubei, China.

Hitherto, 24 species of the group have been recorded, all endemic to Southeast Asia, including 14 in China. Nevertheless, this species group needs further exploration. In this context, four new species of this group are described, all collected from limestone caves in Southern China: , , , and They can be separated easily from each other and other congeners by their carinotaxic formulae, the structures of male legs I, and the gonopods. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Two new species (Diplopoda, Polyxenida, Lophoproctidae) from Queensland, Australia.

Zookeys 2018 7(741):133-154. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, Melbourne, 3125, Australia.

Verhoeff, 1924 was the first penicillate millipede in the family Lophoproctidae collected from Cairns, a tropical region in Queensland, Australia, to be formally described. Specimens collected from this region in a recent study had the morphological characters known to define this genus. However, their body form and length, as well as dorsal colouration proved to be different, suggesting the possibility of more than one species. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

An apparently non-swinging tentorium in the Diplopoda (Myriapoda): comparative morphology of the tentorial complex in giant pill-millipedes (Sphaerotheriida).

Zookeys 2018 7(741):77-91. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Ecology, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 1, 53121 Bonn, Germany.

The presence of a swinging tentorium is a key apomorphy of Myriapoda, but this character has been studied in detail in only few species. Here the tentorium, i.e. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Cyrtodesmus baerti, n. sp., a cryptic millipede from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Cyrtodesmidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Mar 4;4388(3):417-424. Epub 2018 Mar 4.

Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney VA, 23943 USA..

Cyrtodesmus baerti, n. sp., previously reported from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, as Cyrtodesmus sp. Read More

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Two new species of penicillate millipedes (Diplopoda, Polyxenidae) from Phu Quoc Island in southern Vietnam.

Zootaxa 2018 Mar 28;4402(2):283-302. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB), Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, Melbourne, Australia 3125.

Two new penicillate millipede species from the genera Unixenus and Monographis (Diplopoda, Polyxenidae) were collected from Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam's largest island. Unixenus intragramineus sp. n. Read More

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Dalmatosomatidae, a new monotypic family, and Dalmatosoma agaricum gen. et sp. nov. (Diplopoda: Chordeumatida: Craspedosomatidea) from Croatia, Balkan Peninsula.

Zootaxa 2018 Apr 4;4403(2):289-306. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Institute of Zoology, University of Belgrade - Faculty of Biology, Studentski Trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

A new millipede species, Dalmatosoma agaricum gen. et sp. nov. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Apheloria polychroma, a new species of millipede from the Cumberland Mountains (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Jan 25;4375(3):409-425. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Entomology, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, U.S.A..

Millipedes of the genus Apheloria Chamberlin, 1921 occur in temperate broadleaf forests throughout eastern North America and west of the Mississippi River in the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains. Chemically defended with toxins made up of cyanide and benzaldehyde, the genus is part of a community of xystodesmid millipedes that compose several Müllerian mimicry rings in the Appalachian Mountains. We describe a model species of these mimicry rings, Apheloria polychroma n. Read More

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January 2018

From the depths: Heterocaucaseuma deprofundum sp. nov., the world's deepest-occurring millipede (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Anthroleucosomatidae) from caves in the western Caucasus.

Zootaxa 2018 Jan 31;4377(1):110-124. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Institute of Zoology, University of Belgrade - Faculty of Biology, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.

We describe a new anthroleucosomatid millipede, Heterocaucaseuma deprofundum sp. nov., found in the second and third deepest caves of our planet, Krubera-Voronja and Sarma, in Abkhazia, western Caucasus. Read More

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January 2018

Occurrence of the millipede genus Jeekel, 1953 in China, with the description of the first presumed troglobitic species of this genus (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).

Zookeys 2018 12(742):23-34. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Institute for Problems of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky pr. 33, Moscow 119071, Russia.

The genus Jeekel, 1953 has hitherto been known to contain only two species, both from northern Vietnam. Jeekel, 1953, the type species of the genus, is recorded from Guangxi, southern China, for the first time. , a presumed troglobite, is described from caves in Guizhou, southwestern China. Read More

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A first phylogenetic analysis of the pill millipedes of the order Glomerida, with a special assessment of mandible characters (Myriapoda, Diplopoda, Pentazonia).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2018 Mar 9;47(2):214-228. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Zoological Research Museum A. Koenig (ZFMK), Leibniz Institute for Animal Biodiversity, Adenauerallee 160, D-53113 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

The pill millipedes of the order Glomerida are a moderately diverse group with a classical Holarctic distribution pattern. Their classification is based on a typological system utilizing mainly a single character complex, the male telopods. In order to infer the apomorphies of the Glomerida, to elucidate its position in the Pentazonia, and to test the monophyly of its families and subfamilies, we conduct the first phylogenetic analysis of the order. Read More

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Step-wise evolution of complex chemical defenses in millipedes: a phylogenomic approach.

Sci Rep 2018 Feb 16;8(1):3209. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Biological Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

With fossil representatives from the Silurian capable of respiring atmospheric oxygen, millipedes are among the oldest terrestrial animals, and likely the first to acquire diverse and complex chemical defenses against predators. Exploring the origin of complex adaptive traits is critical for understanding the evolution of Earth's biological complexity, and chemical defense evolution serves as an ideal study system. The classic explanation for the evolution of complexity is by gradual increase from simple to complex, passing through intermediate "stepping stone" states. Read More

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February 2018

Hydroxynitrile lyases from cyanogenic millipedes: molecular cloning, heterologous expression, and whole-cell biocatalysis for the production of (R)-mandelonitrile.

Sci Rep 2018 Feb 14;8(1):3051. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Biotechnology Research Center and Department of Biotechnology, Toyama Prefectural University, 5180 Kurokawa, Imizu, Toyama, 939-0398, Japan.

Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs), which are key enzymes in cyanogenesis, catalyze the cleavage of cyanohydrins into carbonyl compounds and hydrogen cyanide. Since HNLs also catalyze the reverse reaction, they are used industrially for the asymmetric synthesis of cyanohydrins, which are valuable building blocks of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. HNLs have been isolated from cyanogenic plants and bacteria. Read More

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February 2018
7 Reads

A new species of Pocock, 1894 from southern China, with a checklist and a distribution map of species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Cryptodesmidae).

Zookeys 2017 29(725):123-137. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

Animal Systematics Research Unit, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

The millipede genus Pocock, 1894 contains 12 described species including a new species from southern China described here. can be distinguished from congeners by its gonopods that are strongly caudolaterally curved and have a prominent, high, curved, densely setose process on each coxa. An updated checklist and a distribution map are provided for all species of the genus. Read More

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December 2017
2 Reads

Juvenile hormone and sesquiterpenoids in arthropods: Biosynthesis, signaling, and role of MicroRNA.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 Nov 3;184:69-76. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

School of Life Sciences, Simon F.S. Li Marine Science Laboratory, Partner State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

Arthropod molting and reproduction are precisely controlled by the levels of sesquiterpenoids, a class of C15 hormones derived from three isoprene units. The two major functional arthropod sesquiterpenoids are juvenile hormone (JH) and methyl farnesoate (MF). In hemimetabolous insects (such as the aphids, bugs, and cockroaches) and holometabolous insects (such as beetles, bees, butterflies, and flies), dramatic decrease in the titers of JH and/or MF promote metamorphosis from larvae to adults either directly or through an intermediate pupal stage, respectively. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads