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    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 Apr 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

    The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC163 localizes to the mitochondria and dampens mitochondrial mediated apoptotic responses.
    Virology 2017 May 21;505:91-101. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 S. Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ 07079, United States. Electronic address:
    Apoptosis is a powerful host cell defense to prevent viruses from completing replication. Poxviruses have evolved complex means to dampen cellular apoptotic responses. The poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), encodes numerous host interacting molecules predicted to antagonize immune responses. Read More

    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Capripox outbreak in a mixed flock of sheep and goats in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Feb 27;64(1):27-30. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    Smallpox as an actual biothreat: lessons learned from its outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 Oct-Dec;52(4):587-597
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.
    Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 19;162(4):953-962. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    Acral manifestations of viral infections.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

    Genetic Variability of Myxoma Virus Genomes.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 31;91(4). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
    Myxomatosis is a recurrent problem on rabbit farms throughout Europe despite the success of vaccines. To identify gene variations of field and vaccine strains that may be responsible for changes in virulence, immunomodulation, and immunoprotection, the genomes of 6 myxoma virus (MYXV) strains were sequenced: German field isolates Munich-1, FLI-H, 2604, and 3207; vaccine strain MAV; and challenge strain ZA. The analyzed genomes ranged from 147. Read More

    [New subtype of molluscipoxvirus detected].
    Lakartidningen 2016 11 28;113. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset - Laboratoriemedicin Goteborg, Sweden Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset - Laboratoriemedicin Goteborg, Sweden.
    Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the epidermis characterized by skin-colored papules or nodules frequently with a central depression. Atypical variants may occur, primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. We here report a case of »giant Molluscum contagiosum« in an immunocompetent child. Read More

    Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Dec 1;109:129-134. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, AméricoVespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; Wildlife Ecology and Management Team, Landcare Research, PO Box 1930, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; Department of Zoology, Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address:
    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Read More

    Daily ingestion of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 decreases Vaccinia virus dissemination and lethality in a mouse model.
    Benef Microbes 2017 Feb 22;8(1):73-80. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    1 Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an important pathogen. Although studies have shown relationships between probiotics and viruses, the effect of probiotics on VACV infection is unknown. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the probiotics effects on VACV infection. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Corpora amylacea and molluscum contagiosum on a cervical pap smear.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Feb 8;45(2):179-181. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.
    When evaluating a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, the cytology of the squamous epithelial cells is of utmost importance. This is what cytopathologists use to render a diagnosis, ranging from normal to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, or even squamous cell carcinoma. However, occasionally the pathologist will run into microscopic noncellular material as in our case, such as corpora amylacea on the slides, or even uncommon viral inclusions such as Molluscum contagiosum (MCV). Read More

    Vaccinia virus Western Reserve induces rapid surface expression of a host molecule detected by the antibody 4C7 that is distinct from CLEC2D.
    Microbiol Immunol 2016 Nov;60(11):754-769
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada.
    In this study, the effect of active infection with vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV WR) on expression of C-type lectin domain family 2 (CLEC2D), a ligand of the human NK cell inhibitory receptor NKR-P1, was examined. As predicted, VACV infection led to a loss of CLEC2D mRNA in 221 cells, a B cell lymphoma line. Surprisingly, VACV infection of 221 cells caused a dramatic increase in cell surface staining for one CLEC2D-specific antibody, 4C7. Read More

    [Twelve cases of monkeypox virus outbreak in Bangassou District (Central African Republic) in December 2015].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Dec 25;109(5):358-363. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Unité des mycobactéries, Service de laboratoire, Hôpital de l'Amitié, Bangui, République centrafricaine.
    An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. Read More

    Investigation of a Possible Link Between Vaccination and the 2010 Sheep Pox Epizootic in Morocco.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 9;63(6):e278-e287. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
    Viral Diseases, Vesicular and Exotic Diseases, CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Sheep pox is endemic in most parts of Northern Africa and has the potential to cause severe economic problems. Live attenuated vaccines are used in Morocco, and in many other countries, to control the disease. Sheep pox virus (SPPV) re-appeared in 2010 causing a nodular clinical form previously not observed in Morocco. Read More

    Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 4;63(6):e187-e196. Epub 2015 Feb 4.
    Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMR1225, IHAP, Toulouse, France.
    Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of reinforcement programmes of endangered species. Houbara Bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years in North Africa and the Middle East. Field observations show that pox disease, caused by avipoxviruses (APV), regularly emerges in conservation projects of Houbara Bustard, despite a very strict implementation of both vaccination and biosecurity. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

    A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.
    Prev Vet Med 2016 Oct 14;133:108-113. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, Américo Vespucio S/N, 41092 Seville, Spain.
    Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. Read More

    Identification and function analysis of the host cell protein that interacted with Orf virus Bcl-2-like protein ORFV125.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Oct 24;108:93-7. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. Read More

    The genomes of three North American orthopoxviruses.
    Virus Genes 2017 Feb 9;53(1):21-34. Epub 2016 Sep 9.
    Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.
    The complete genomes of a skunkpox, volepox, and raccoonpox virus were sequenced and annotated. Phylogenetic analysis of these genomes indicates that although these viruses are all orthopoxviruses, they form a distinct clade to the other known species. This supports the ancient divergence of the North American orthopoxviruses from other members of the orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Role of autophagy in cellular response to infection with Orf virus Jilin isolate.
    Vet Microbiol 2016 Sep 4;193:22-7. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi'an Road, Changchun 130062, China. Electronic address:
    Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process of the cell, which has been described to be involved in the development of various viral diseases. However, the role of autophagy in Orf virus (ORFV) replication remains unknown. In this study, we provide the first evidence that ORFV infection triggered autophagy in primary ovine fetal turbinate cells (OFTu) based on the appearance of abundant double- and single-membrane vesicles, the accumulation of LC3 fluorescent puncta, the enhancement of LC3-I/-II conversion, and autophagic flux. Read More

    Protein Primary Structure of the Vaccinia Virion at Increased Resolution
    J Virol 2016 Nov 14;90(21):9905-9919. Epub 2016 Oct 14.
    Department of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, University of California-Irvine, Irvine, California, USA
    Here we examine the protein covalent structure of the vaccinia virus virion. Within two virion preparations, >88% of the theoretical vaccinia virus-encoded proteome was detected with high confidence, including the first detection of products from 27 open reading frames (ORFs) previously designated "predicted," "uncharacterized," "inferred," or "hypothetical" polypeptides containing as few as 39 amino acids (aa) and six proteins whose detection required nontryptic proteolysis. We also detected the expression of four short ORFs, each of which was located within an ORF ("ORF-within-ORF"), including one not previously recognized or known to be expressed. Read More

    Molecular detection and analysis of Sheeppox and Orf viruses isolated from sheep from Qalubia, Egypt.
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2016 Jul-Aug;129(7-8):310-7
    In this study an outbreak with Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and Orf virus (ORFV) in one sheep herd in the Qalubia province, Egypt, was investigated. Both, SPPV and ORFV caused clinically manifest infections among sheep. The affected sheep showed skin lesions around the mouth or all over the body. Read More

    Natural Vaccinia Virus Infection: Diagnosis, Isolation, and Characterization.
    Curr Protoc Microbiol 2016 Aug 12;42:14A.5.1-14A.5.43. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Natural infections of Vaccinia virus (VACV)-the prototype species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, from the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae-cause an occupational emergent zoonotic disease that is primarily associated with the handling of infected dairy cattle. In humans, VACV infection is characterized by skin lesions, primarily on the hands, and accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, myalgia, headache, and lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of VACV is usually performed according to the methods described for other orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Outbreak of sheeppox in farmed sheep in Kyrgystan: Histological, eletron microscopical and molecular characterization.
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2016 Jul;158(7):529-32
    PathoVet AG, Tagelswangen, Switzerland.
    Introduction: On a farm in the Kyrgyz Republic, several dead sheep were found without any history of illness. The sheep showed several ulcerations on lips and bare-skinned areas. At necropsy the lungs showed multiple firm nodules, which were defined as pox nodules histologically. Read More

    Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of Patients with Molluscum Contagiosum Treated at the University Dermatology Clinic Maribor in a 5-year period.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2016 Jun;24(2):130-6
    Katarina Trčko, MD, Department of Dermatovenereology, University Clinical Centre Maribor, Ljubljanska 5, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia;
    Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a common skin pathogen in both adults and children. In this prospective study, we clinically evaluated consecutive patients with molluscum contagiosum (MC) who had been examined during a 5-year period at the second-largest dermatology clinic in Slovenia and described their main demographic and clinical characteristics, concomitant diseases, and treatment success. The study included 188 patients, of which 121 (64%) were men and 67 (36%) were women. Read More

    Carp edema virus in Polish aquaculture - evidence of significant sequence divergence and a new lineage in common carp Cyprinus carpio (L.).
    J Fish Dis 2017 Mar 25;40(3):319-325. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
    Department of Fish Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100, Pulawy, Poland.
    Fish samples initially collected by local veterinarians on the common and koi carp farms in Poland between 2013 and 2015 as part of a KHV surveillance programme, when the water temperature was between 16 and 26 °C, and were also tested for CEV by qPCR. A partial 478 nucleotide fragment of the 4a gene was subsequently generated from 17 qPCR-positive common carp Cyprinus carpio samples from 36 farm sites tested during the period. Sequence alignments and analysis revealed the presence of CEV in Poland both in common carp as well as in koi carp farms, and phylogenetic analysis assigned the Polish CEV sequences into three distinct genogroups. Read More

    [THE USE OF THE MODEL MOUSE ICR--VARIOLA VIRUS FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIVIRAL DRUG EFFICACY].
    Vopr Virusol 2016 ;61(2):79-84
    Mice of the ICR outbred population were infected intranasally (i/n) with the variola virus (VARV, strain Ind-3a). Clinical signs of the disease did not appear even at the maximum possible dose of the virus 5.2 lg PFU/head (plaque-forming units per head). Read More

    [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].
    Vopr Virusol 2016 ;61(2):69-73
    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Read More

    Seizures and Methemoglobinemia After Topical Application of Eutectic Mixture of Lidocaine and Prilocaine on a 3.5-Year-Old Child with Molluscum Contagiosum and Atopic Dermatitis.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2016 Sep 11;33(5):e284-5. Epub 2016 Jul 11.
    Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea.
    A eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) is used topically to provide local anesthesia for a variety of painful superficial procedures. Although the side effects of EMLA are usually mild and transient local reactions, potentially life-threatening complications can occur. We report a case of generalized seizures and methemoglobinemia after topical application of EMLA for curettage of molluscum contagiosum lesions in a 3. Read More

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in skin lesions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2016 Sep 2;308(7):487-92. Epub 2016 Jul 2.
    Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El Solh St, P.O.Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), which allows them to provide anti-viral resistance and to link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. pDCs are involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious [especially viral, such as Molluscum contagiosum (MC)], inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, systemic lympho-angioproliferative tumor associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Read More

    Infectious Disease Practice Gaps in Dermatology.
    Dermatol Clin 2016 Jul;34(3):281-9
    Department of Dermatology, Pathology and Infectious Disease, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and VA Medical Center, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Electronic address:
    The article highlights different educational and practice gaps in infectious diseases as they pertain to dermatology. These gaps include the use of antibiotics in relation to atopic dermatitis and acne vulgaris, treatment of skin and soft tissue infection, and diagnosis and treatment of onychomycosis. In addition, practice gaps related to use of imiquimod for molluscum contagiosum, risk of infections related to immunosuppressive medications and rates of vaccination, and the use of bedside diagnostics for diagnosing common infections were discussed. Read More

    Comparative innocuity and efficacy of live and inactivated sheeppox vaccines.
    BMC Vet Res 2016 Jun 29;12(1):133. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Research and Development Virology, Multi-Chemical Industry, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P.: 278, Mohammedia, 28810, Morocco.
    Background: Sheeppox (SPP) is one of the priorities, high-impact animal diseases in many developing countries, where live attenuated vaccines are routinely used against sheeppox virus (SPPV). In an event of an SPP outbreak, historically disease-free countries would hesitate to use of live vaccines against SPPVdue to the safety and trade reasons. Currently no killed SPPV vaccines are commercially available. Read More

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