14,051 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules

Vaccinia Virus Attenuation by Codon Deoptimization of the A24R Gene for Vaccine Development.

Microbiol Spectr 2022 May 18:e0027222. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York, USA.

Poxviruses have large DNA genomes, and they are able to infect multiple vertebrate and invertebrate animals, including humans. Despite the eradication of smallpox, poxvirus infections still remain a significant public health concern. Vaccinia virus (VV) is the prototypic member in the family and it has been used extensively for different prophylactic applications, including the generation of vaccines against multiple infectious diseases and/or for oncolytic treatment. Read More

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Adverse effect of vaccination in xenogeneic animals.

Microb Pathog 2022 May 22;166:105541. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Electron Microscope Research Unit, Health Sciences Research Center, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating, emerging viral disease of cattle. It causes significant economic losses due to trade restrictions that are placed on infected animals and the biological effects of the disease: infertility, dramatic loss in milk production, induction of abortion and mortality. It is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the Poxviridae family. Read More

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Conditions That Simulate the Environment of Atopic Dermatitis Enhance Susceptibility of Human Keratinocytes to Vaccinia Virus.

Cells 2022 Apr 14;11(8). Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Individuals with underlying chronic skin conditions, notably atopic dermatitis (AD), are disproportionately affected by infections from members of the herpesviridae, papovaviridae, and poxviridae families. Many patients with AD experience recurrent, widespread cutaneous viral infections that can lead to viremia, serious organ complications, and even death. Little is known about how the type 2 inflammatory environment observed in the skin of AD patients impacts the susceptibility of epidermal cells (keratinocytes) to viral pathogens. Read More

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Smallpox vaccination induces a substantial increase in commensal skin bacteria that promote pathology and influence the host response.

PLoS Pathog 2022 04 21;18(4):e1009854. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Interactions between pathogens, host microbiota and the immune system influence many physiological and pathological processes. In the 20th century, widespread dermal vaccination with vaccinia virus (VACV) led to the eradication of smallpox but how VACV interacts with the microbiota and whether this influences the efficacy of vaccination are largely unknown. Here we report that intradermal vaccination with VACV induces a large increase in the number of commensal bacteria in infected tissue, which enhance recruitment of inflammatory cells, promote tissue damage and influence the host response. Read More

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[Vaccination, a public health tool].

Denise Antona

Rev Infirm 2022 Mar 25;71(279):16-18. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Direction des maladies infectieuses, Santé publique France, 12 rue du Val-d'Osne, Allée Vacassy, 94410 Saint-Maurice, France. Electronic address:

Vaccination remains a major public health tool, the only one that has enabled the eradication of an infectious disease, smallpox. In this fight, biotechnological innovations point to considerable progress in the development of new vaccines. However, whatever technical progress is made, the impact of a vaccination program will depend on its performance and on the support of the population. Read More

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Monkeypox in a Traveler Returning from Nigeria - Dallas, Texas, July 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2022 Apr 8;71(14):509-516. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Monkeypox is a rare, sometimes life-threatening zoonotic infection that occurs in west and central Africa. It is caused by Monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus similar to Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox) and Vaccinia virus (the live virus component of orthopoxvirus vaccines) and can spread to humans. After 39 years without detection of human disease in Nigeria, an outbreak involving 118 confirmed cases was identified during 2017-2018 (1); sporadic cases continue to occur. Read More

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Lung type II alveolar epithelial cells collaborate with CCR2 inflammatory monocytes in host defense against poxvirus infection.

Nat Commun 2022 03 29;13(1):1671. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The pulmonary immune system consists of a network of tissue-resident cells as well as immune cells that are recruited to the lungs during infection and/or inflammation. How these immune components function during an acute poxvirus infection is not well understood. Intranasal infection of mice with vaccinia virus causes lethal pneumonia and systemic dissemination. Read More

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The first major vaccination campaign against smallpox in Lombardy: the mass vaccination campaign against coronavirus…nothing new…only terminology.

Acta Biomed 2022 03 14;93(1):e2022101. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore di Milano Policlinico Milano Italia.

Terminology, technology, communication and organizational strategies are different but we tried to compare the mass vaccination campaign against smallpox with the one we are doing against coronavirus. Read More

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Modified vaccinia Ankara expressing EEHV1A glycoprotein B elicits humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice.

PLoS One 2022 21;17(3):e0265424. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, United States of America.

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) in Asian elephants and is the largest cause of death in captive juvenile Asian elephants in North America and Europe. EEHV-HD also has been documented in captive and wild elephants in their natural range countries. A safe and effective vaccine to prevent lethal EEHV infection would significantly improve conservation efforts for this endangered species. Read More

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British Association for Sexual Health and HIV national guideline for the management of Genital Molluscum in adults (2021).

Int J STD AIDS 2022 Apr 21;33(5):422-432. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

GUM/HIV Medicine, 4954Central and North West London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

This guideline offers recommendations on diagnosis, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of genital molluscum, including management of the initial presentation and recurrences. The Primary focus of the guideline is on infection which affects the genital area and has a sexual mode of transmission. This is an update to the guideline previously published in this journal in 2014. Read More

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The Swiss Canton of Thurgau - not the Kingdom of Bavaria-was the first state to introduce compulsory vaccination against smallpox.

Public Health 2022 04 17;205:e16-e17. Epub 2022 Mar 17.

FAPAB Research Center, Avola, SR, Sicily, Italy; Archaeology, College of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

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[Isolation of a new strain М-2020 of the camelpox virus () in Republic of Kazakhstan and study of its reproduction in various biological systems].

Vopr Virusol 2022 03 16;67(1):77-86. Epub 2022 Mar 16.

DGE «Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems», Committee of Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

Introduction: This article presents the results of isolation of camel smallpox virus (Poxviridae: Orthopoxvirus: Camelpox virus, CMLPV) and study of its reproductive properties on sensitive biological systems.

Material And Methods: The epizootic strain M-96 of the virus as well as its attenuated variants KM-40 and KM-70 obtained by sequential passivation were used in the study. Isolation of the pathogen from suspension of biopsy specimens was performed on cell culture and in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Read More

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Imported Monkeypox from International Traveler, Maryland, USA, 2021.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 05 9;28(5):1002-1005. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

A case of monkeypox was diagnosed in a returning traveler from Nigeria to Maryland, USA. Prompt infection control measures led to no secondary cases in 40 exposed healthcare workers. Given the global health implications, public health systems should be aware of effective strategies to mitigate the potential spread of monkeypox. Read More

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Molluscum contagiosum in the setting of Fingolimod: The experience at one institution.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Feb 22;58:103419. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Fingolimod treatment has been associated with opportunistic infections, most notably PML and cryptococcal meningitis. There are rare reports of other infections like molluscum contagiosum which are typically associated with impaired cellular immunity as seen in AIDS. Upon review of our multiple sclerosis patient database, we identified eight patients undergoing fingolimod treatment who developed molluscum contagiosum infections. Read More

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February 2022

An Update of Orthopoxvirus Molecular Evolution.

Viruses 2022 02 14;14(2). Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia.

Although variola virus (VARV) has been eradicated through widespread vaccination, other pathogenic for humans circulate in nature. Recently, new , including some able to infect humans, have been found and their complete genomes have been sequenced. Questions about the mutation rate and the emergence of new threats to humankind as a result of the evolution of circulating remain open. Read More

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February 2022

Development and Evaluation of a Combined Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) Live Vaccine.

Viruses 2022 02 11;14(2). Epub 2022 Feb 11.

R&D Virology Laboratory, MCI Santé Animale, Mohammedia 28810, Morocco.

is the causative agent of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP). Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a viral disease of cattle caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). LSD and CBPP are both transboundary diseases spreading in the same areas of Africa and Asia. Read More

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February 2022

DDX50 Is a Viral Restriction Factor That Enhances IRF3 Activation.

Viruses 2022 02 3;14(2). Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.

The transcription factors IRF3 and NF-κB are crucial in innate immune signalling in response to many viral and bacterial pathogens. However, mechanisms leading to their activation remain incompletely understood. Viral RNA can be detected by RLR receptors, such as RIG-I and MDA5, and the dsRNA receptor TLR3. Read More

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February 2022

Small Hero with Great Powers: Vaccinia Virus E3 Protein and Evasion of the Type I IFN Response.

Biomedicines 2022 Jan 22;10(2). Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Biodesign Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA.

Poxviridae have developed a plethora of strategies to evade innate and adaptive immunity. In this review, we focused on the vaccinia virus E3 protein, encoded by the gene. E3 is present within the subfamily (with the exception of the avipoxviruses and molluscum contagiosum virus) and displays pleiotropic effects on the innate immune system. Read More

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January 2022

Molluscum contagiosum of the corneal limbus in an AIDS patient: a clinicopathological case report.

BMC Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 21;22(1):83. Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, 7-chome, Kita 15 West, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638, Japan.

Background: Molluscum contagiosum, a pox virus infection, is likely to occur in the eyelid skin; however, corneal involvements by molluscum lesions are extremely rare. We report a case of molluscum contagiosum arising in the corneal limbus in an untreated AIDS patient, together with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings and histopathology of the excised tumor.

Case Presentation: A 46-year-old man with AIDS was referred to our department for the management of an ocular lesion. Read More

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February 2022

Interferon α/β Decoy Receptor Encoded by a Variant in the Dryvax Smallpox Vaccine Contributes to Virulence and Correlates with Severe Vaccine Side Effects.

mBio 2022 02 22;13(1):e0010222. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Although providing long-lasting immunity, smallpox vaccination was associated with local and systemic reactions and rarely with severe complications, including progressive vaccinia and postvaccinia encephalitis. As the Dryvax smallpox vaccine consists of a population of variants, we investigated a particularly pathogenic isolate called clone 3 (CL3). Virus replication was monitored by inserting the gene encoding firefly luciferase (Luc) into the genomes of CL3 and ACAM2000, the second-generation smallpox vaccine derived from a less virulent clone. Read More

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February 2022

The vaccinia-based Sementis Copenhagen Vector coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine induces broad and durable cellular and humoral immune responses.

Immunol Cell Biol 2022 Apr 13;100(4):250-266. Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Experimental Therapeutics Laboratory, Clinical and Health Science Unit, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic perpetuated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants has highlighted the continued need for broadly protective vaccines that elicit robust and durable protection. Here, the vaccinia virus-based, replication-defective Sementis Copenhagen Vector (SCV) was used to develop a first-generation COVID-19 vaccine encoding the spike glycoprotein (SCV-S). Vaccination of mice rapidly induced polyfunctional CD8 T cells with cytotoxic activity and robust type 1 T helper-biased, spike-specific antibodies, which are significantly increased following a second vaccination, and contained neutralizing activity against the alpha and beta variants of concern. Read More

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Estimation of R(t) based on illness onset data: An analysis of 1907-1908 smallpox epidemic in Tokyo.

Epidemics 2022 03 10;38:100545. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Kyoto University School of Public Health, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan. Electronic address:

R(t), the actual average number of secondary cases per primary case at calendar time t, is epidemiologically useful in assessing transmission dynamics in a population with varying susceptibility levels. However, a technical limitation of existing methods of estimating R(t) is the reliance on the daily number of cases with illness onset and the distribution of the serial interval, although the estimator of R(t) should be calculated as the ratio of newly infected cases at time t to the total number of potentially infectious people at the same time. Using historical data of a smallpox outbreak in Tokyo City, Japan, approximately 100 years ago, we propose a new method to compute R(t) that can be estimated using information on illness onset. Read More

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The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox-A potential threat? A systematic review.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 02 11;16(2):e0010141. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Prevention Institute, WHO Collaborating Center on Travelers' Health, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Monkeypox, a zoonotic disease caused by an orthopoxvirus, results in a smallpox-like disease in humans. Since monkeypox in humans was initially diagnosed in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), it has spread to other regions of Africa (primarily West and Central), and cases outside Africa have emerged in recent years. We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature on how monkeypox epidemiology has evolved, with particular emphasis on the number of confirmed, probable, and/or possible cases, age at presentation, mortality, and geographical spread. Read More

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February 2022

[Orf virus infection in humans].

Rev Prat 2021 Oct;71(8):872

Service de dermatologie, vénérologie et allergologie, CHU Mohammed-VI, Oujda, Maroc - Laboratoire d'épidémiologie, de recherche clinique et de santé publique, faculté de médecine et de pharmacie Oujda, Université Mohammed Premier Oujda, Maroc.

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October 2021

[Expression and refolding of OLA Ⅰ protein with peptides derived from sheeppox virus].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2022 Jan;38(1):139-147

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, China.

The aim of this study was to refold the OvisAries leukocyte antigen (OLA) class Ⅰ protein with peptides derived from sheeppox virus (SPPV) to identify SPPV T cell epitopes. Two pairs of primers were designed based on the published sequence of a sheep major histocompatibility complex Ⅰ to amplify the heavy chain gene of OLA Ⅰ α-BSP and the light chain gene of OLA Ⅰ-βm. Both genes were cloned into a pET-28a(+) expression vector, respectively, and induced with ITPG for protein expression. Read More

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January 2022

Molluscum Contagiosum.

N Engl J Med 2022 Feb;386(6):582

SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY

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February 2022

[Rabbits and leaf-cutting ants: the Brazilian plan to use the myxoma virus (MYXV) against rabbit plagues in Australia, 1896-1952].

Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2021 Dec;28(suppl 1):103-122

Doutorando, Programa de Pós-graduação em História das Ciências e da Saúde/Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz. Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil.

This article analyzes the singularity of historical, scientific, and political processes from the discovery of the disease caused by the myxoma virus (MYXV) that came to be known as infectious myxomatosis to the application of this virus against a plague of rabbits in Australia. This narrative focuses on research by Henrique de Beaurepaire Aragão, a researcher at the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, and later efforts by the scientist Jean Macnamara to promote studies and implement MYXV in Australia. The scientists' research notes were consulted, along with official documents recording the experiments and periodicals. Read More

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December 2021

Molecular detection of parapoxvirus in Ixodidae ticks collected from cattle in Corsica, France.

Vet Med Sci 2022 03 28;8(2):907-916. Epub 2022 Jan 28.

Laboratoire de Virologie, Université de Corse-Inserm, Corte, France.

Background: Several viruses belonging to the family Poxviridae can cause infections in humans and animals. In Corsica, livestock farming (sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) is mainly mixed, leading to important interactions between livestock, wildlife, and human populations. This could facilitate the circulation of zoonotic diseases, and makes Corsica a good example for studies of tick-borne diseases. Read More

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The OH system: A panorama view of the PPV-host interaction.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 03 20;98:105220. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

College of Biological Science and Technology, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319, PR China.

Poxviruses are a family of specialized cytoplasm-parasitic DNA viruses that replicate and assembly in virus factory. In Parapoxvirus (PPV) genus, with the orf virus (ORFV) as a representative species of this genus, their behaviors are significantly different from that of Orthopoxvirus, and the plots of viral practical solutions for evading host immunity are intricate and fascinating, particularly to anti-host and host's antiviral mechanisms. In order to protect the virus factory from immune elimination caused by infection, PPVs attempt to interfere with multiple stress levels of host, mainly by modulating innate immunity response (IIR) and adaptive immunity response (AIR). Read More

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