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    Milker's nodule:an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle byproducts, or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers, and agricultural tourists. Read More

    ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Oct 27;13(10):e1006651. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Public Health and Microbiology, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, Spain.
    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) after vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Read More

    Organism-Level Analysis of Vaccination Reveals Networks of Protection across Tissues.
    Cell 2017 Oct 21;171(2):398-413.e21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Faculty of Arts & Sciences Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:
    A fundamental challenge in immunology is to decipher the principles governing immune responses at the whole-organism scale. Here, using a comparative infection model, we observe immune signal propagation within and between organs to obtain a dynamic map of immune processes at the organism level. We uncover two inter-organ mechanisms of protective immunity mediated by soluble and cellular factors. Read More

    Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005857. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Read More

    Prenylation of viral proteins by enzymes of the host: Virus-driven rationale for therapy with statins and FT/GGT1 inhibitors.
    Bioessays 2017 Oct 8;39(10). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria. Read More

    A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections.
    Arch Virol 2017 Dec 2;162(12):3567-3585. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Viruses enter host cells via several mechanisms, including endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. They can also fuse at the plasma membrane and can spread within the host via cell-to-cell fusion or syncytia. The mechanism used by a given viral strain depends on its external topology and proteome and the type of cell being entered. Read More

    The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 30;13(8):e1006602. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.
    The poly(A) leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. Read More

    Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp. Read More

    [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Lymphoid Tissue Serves as a Predictor of Disease Outcome in the Nonhuman Primate Model of Monkeypox Virus Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Nov 13;91(21). Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
    Real-time bioimaging of infectious disease processes may aid countermeasure development and lead to an improved understanding of pathogenesis. However, few studies have identified biomarkers for monitoring infections using in vivo imaging. Previously, we demonstrated that positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can monitor monkeypox disease progression in vivo in nonhuman primates (NHPs). Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

    Transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Oct 3;145(13):2856-2863. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology,Wageningen University & Research,Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen,The Netherlands.
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe disease of cattle caused by a Capripoxvirus and often caused epidemics in Ethiopia and many other countries. This study was undertaken to quantify the transmission between animals and to estimate the infection reproduction ratio in a predominantly mixed crop-livestock system and in intensive commercial herd types. The transmission parameters were based on a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with environmental transmission and estimated using generalized linear models. Read More

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Induces Specific Cellular and Humoral Responses in the Female Reproductive Tract, the Main HIV Portal of Entry.
    J Immunol 2017 Sep 31;199(5):1923-1932. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Immunologie des Infections Virales et des Maladies Auto-immunes (ImVA)/Infrastructure Nationale pour la Modélisation des Maladies Infectieuses Humaines et les Thérapies Innovantes (IDMIT)/Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)/Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF)/Institut des Maladies Emergentes et des Traitements Innovants (IMETI), Université Paris-Sud, INSERM U1184, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses, France;
    The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Read More

    Insufficient Innate Immunity Contributes to the Susceptibility of the Castaneous Mouse to Orthopoxvirus Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 10(6) PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. Read More

    The Small Rho GTPase TC10 Modulates B Cell Immune Responses.
    J Immunol 2017 Sep 26;199(5):1682-1695. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, United Kingdom.
    Rho family GTPases regulate diverse cellular events, such as cell motility, polarity, and vesicle traffic. Although a wealth of data exists on the canonical Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, several other family members remain poorly studied. In B cells, we recently demonstrated a critical role for Cdc42 in plasma cell differentiation. Read More

    Qualitative differences in cellular immunogenicity elicited by hepatitis C virus T-Cell vaccines employing prime-boost regimens.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(7):e0181578. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Laboratory of Hepatitis Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD United States of America.
    T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. Read More

    Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.
    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

    A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 14;13(6):e1006435. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States of America.
    The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1) the site of infection, 2) the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3) the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. Read More

    A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy.
    J Immunol Methods 2017 Sep 31;448:112-115. Epub 2017 May 31.
    INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; CIRAD UMR ASTRE, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, France.
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. So far, the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene is the only gene used to generate recombinants. A putative non-essential gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor subfamily homologue (GPCR) was targeted as an additional insertion site. Read More

    Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.
    Virology 2017 Jul;507:267-275
    Signal Transduction Group/Viruses Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP: 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. Read More

    Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 05 17;5:CD004767. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of General Practice, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Room Ff303, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3000 CA.
    Background: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking. Read More

    Deletion of the K1L Gene Results in a Vaccinia Virus That Is Less Pathogenic Due to Muted Innate Immune Responses, yet Still Elicits Protective Immunity.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    All viruses strategically alter the antiviral immune response to their benefit. The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein has multiple immunomodulatory effects in tissue culture models of infection, including NF-κB antagonism. However, the effect of K1 during animal infection is poorly understood. Read More

    IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection.
    J Immunol 2017 Jun 3;198(11):4341-4351. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Pediatric Rheumatology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO 80045
    The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1(-/-)) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. Read More

    Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May;29(3):351-356
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY (Das, Deng, McIntosh).
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. Read More

    Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of the A52R, B15R, and K7R genes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 04 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

    Absence of vaccinia virus detection in a remote region of the Northern Amazon forests, 2005-2015.
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 7;162(8):2369-2373. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901, Brazil.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) circulates in Brazil and other South America countries and is responsible for a zoonotic disease that usually affects dairy cattle and humans, causing economic losses and impacting animal and human health. Furthermore, it has been detected in wild areas in the Brazilian Amazon. To better understand the natural history of VACV, we investigated its circulation in wildlife from French Guiana, a remote region in the Northern Amazon forest. Read More

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulate T-cell responses against vaccinia virus.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 Jun 2;47(6):1022-1031. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
    Vaccinia virus (VV) can potently activate NK- and T-cell responses, leading to efficient viral control and generation of long-lasting protective immunity. However, immune responses against viral infections are often tightly controlled to avoid collateral damage and systemic inflammation. We have previously shown that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs) can suppress the NK-cell response to VV infection. Read More

    Genetic characterization of orf virus associated with an outbreak of severe orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka, Zambia (2015).
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 4;162(8):2363-2367. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, PO Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Orf or contagious ecthyma is a neglected and economically important zoonotic disease caused by a dermatotropic parapoxvirus that commonly affects domestic small ruminants. Although orf is globally distributed, there is a paucity of information on the disease in many African countries. Here, a suspected severe outbreak of orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka was investigated. Read More

    Cowpox virus infection in a child after contact with a domestic cat: a case report.
    New Microbiol 2017 Apr 3;40(2):148-150. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-yearold boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. Read More

    Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 12;91(11). Epub 2017 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. Read More

    Treacle and Smallpox: Two Tests for Multicriteria Decision Analysis Models in Health Technology Assessment.
    Value Health 2017 Mar 20;20(3):512-515. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:
    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is rightly receiving increasing attention in health technology assessment. Nevertheless, a distinguishing feature of the health domain is that technologies must actually improve health, and good performance on other criteria cannot compensate for failure to do so. We argue for two reasonable tests for MCDA models: the treacle test (can a winning intervention be incompletely ineffective?) and the smallpox test (can a winning intervention be for a disease that no one suffers from?). Read More

    Lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Greece during 2015-16, implementation of emergency immunization and genetic differentiation between field isolates and vaccine virus strains.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 Mar 29;201:78-84. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    National Reference Laboratory for Capripoxviruses, Department of Molecular Diagnostics, FMD, Virological, Rickettsial & Exotic Diseases, Athens Veterinary Center, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Athens, Greece.
    The objective of this study is to present epizootiological data from the lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Greece during 2015-16, following the implementation of emergency vaccination and total stamping-out, along with laboratory data regarding the genetic differentiation between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine virus strains. Descriptive geographical chronology analysis was conducted to present the progressive shift of the outbreaks westwards, and at the same time, the absence of further outbreaks in previously affected regional units where high vaccination coverage was achieved. Isolation and molecular characterization of LSDV from the first recorded case in Greece (Evros/GR/15 isolate) was performed. Read More

    Infection with diverse immune-modulating poxviruses elicits different compositional shifts in the mouse gut microbiome.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(3):e0173697. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.
    It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition. Read More

    Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Mar 2;13(3):e1006252. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. Read More

    The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC163 localizes to the mitochondria and dampens mitochondrial mediated apoptotic responses.
    Virology 2017 May 21;505:91-101. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 S. Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ 07079, United States. Electronic address:
    Apoptosis is a powerful host cell defense to prevent viruses from completing replication. Poxviruses have evolved complex means to dampen cellular apoptotic responses. The poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), encodes numerous host interacting molecules predicted to antagonize immune responses. Read More

    Shope Fibroma in the External Ear Canal of a Domestic Rabbit.
    Comp Med 2017 Feb;67(1):51-55
    Departments of Diagnostic Medicine-Pathobiology, Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
    A 5-y-old, intact, 2.5-kg female domestic rabbit was presented because of blood spatter on the wall of its cage and the toenails of its right hind limb. Physical examination revealed a red, gelatinous mass that spanned the width of the right vertical ear canal. Read More

    Experimental infections of different carp strains with the carp edema virus (CEV) give insights into the infection biology of the virus and indicate possible solutions to problems caused by koi sleepy disease (KSD) in carp aquaculture.
    Vet Res 2017 Feb 21;48(1):12. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559, Hannover, Germany.
    Outbreaks of koi sleepy disease (KSD) caused by carp edema virus (CEV) may seriously affect populations of farmed common carp, one of the most important fish species for global food production. The present study shows further evidence for the involvement of CEV in outbreaks of KSD among carp and koi populations: in a series of infection experiments, CEV from two different genogroups could be transmitted to several strains of naïve common carp via cohabitation with fish infected with CEV. In recipient fish, clinical signs of KSD were induced. Read More

    Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism.
    Nature 2017 03 20;543(7644):252-256. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8(+) TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellular transport, including fatty-acid-binding proteins 4 and 5 (FABP4 and FABP5). Read More

    Virus-Specific CD8(+) T Cells Infiltrate Melanoma Lesions and Retain Function Independently of PD-1 Expression.
    J Immunol 2017 Apr 15;198(7):2979-2988. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107;
    It is well known that CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are correlated with positive prognoses in cancer patients and are used to determine the efficacy of immune therapies. Although it is generally assumed that CD8(+) TILs will be tumor-associated Ag (TAA) specific, it is unknown whether CD8(+) T cells with specificity for common pathogens also infiltrate tumors. If so, the presence of these T cells could alter the interpretation of prognostic and diagnostic TIL assays. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe from 2000 to 2013.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 4;49(3):509-514. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    School of Agricultural Science and Technology, Department of Animal Production and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe.
    The objective of this study was to determine significant factors affecting spacio-temporal distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe. A retrospective study of LSD from year 2000 to 2013 was undertaken using records from the Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services, Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics was computed on LSD cases, treatments, vaccinations, and deaths. Read More

    Investigating Viruses during the Transformation of Molecular Biology.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Mar 30;292(10):3958-3969. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    From the Laboratory of Viral Diseases, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    This Reflections article describes my early work on viral enzymes and the discovery of mRNA capping, how my training in medicine and biochemistry merged as I evolved into a virologist, the development of viruses as vaccine vectors, and how scientific and technological developments during the 1970s and beyond set the stage for the interrogation of nearly every step in the reproductive cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV), a large DNA virus with about 200 genes. The reader may view this article as a work in progress, because I remain actively engaged in research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) notwithstanding 50 memorable years there. Read More

    Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) in Algeria.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 24;49(3):649-652. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Ecole Superieure en Sciences de l'Aliment et des Industries Agroalimentaires (ESSAIA), Algiers, Algeria.
    A cross-sectional study using a tested questionnaire was carried out across Algeria between January and June 2014. Our investigation demonstrated that of the 150 flocks visited, 21 were positive for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) with an overall flock prevalence of 14% (95% CI 11.08-16. Read More

    Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the rpo147 and DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase Genes.
    J Avian Med Surg 2016 Dec;30(4):378-385
    A juvenile female bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented with emaciation and proliferative periocular lesions. The eagle did not respond to supportive therapy and was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the skin lesions revealed plaques of marked epidermal hyperplasia parakeratosis, marked acanthosis and spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Read More

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