13,535 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules


Myxoma Virus-Encoded Host Range Protein M029: A Multifunctional Antagonist Targeting Multiple Host Antiviral and Innate Immune Pathways.

Vaccines (Basel) 2020 May 23;8(2). Epub 2020 May 23.

Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Myxoma virus (MYXV) is the prototypic member of the genus of the family of viruses. In nature, MYXV is highly restricted to leporids and causes a lethal disease called myxomatosis only in European rabbits (). However, MYXV has been shown to also productively infect various types of nonrabbit transformed and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, whereas their normal somatic cell counterparts undergo abortive infections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8020244DOI Listing

Epitheliotropic Infections in Wildlife Ruminants From the Central Alps and Stelvio National Park.

Front Vet Sci 2020 30;7:229. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The mountain chain of the Alps, represents the habitat of alpine fauna where the red deer () population is the outmost numerous, followed by the chamois () and the alpine ibex () at higher altitudes. Previous reports showed the circulation of epitheliotropic viruses, belonging to the families and , causing skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants of the Stelvio National Park, situated in the area. To deepen our knowledge on the natural dynamics of the infections, a passive surveillance on all the cases of proliferative skin and mucosal lesions in wild ruminants was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203578PMC

Structural insight into tanapoxvirus-mediated inhibition of apoptosis.

FEBS J 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Premature programmed cell death or apoptosis of cells is a strategy utilized by multicellular organisms to counter microbial threats. Tanapoxvirus (TANV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the poxviridae that causes mild monkeypox-like infections in humans and primates. TANV encodes for a putative apoptosis inhibitory protein 16L. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.15365DOI Listing

Comparative sequence and structural analysis of the ORF095 gene, a vaccinia virus A4L homolog of capripoxvirus in sheep and goats.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 19;165(6):1419-1431. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Division of Virology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar 263 138, Nainital District, Uttarakhand, India.

Sheeppox and goatpox are important transboundary animal viral diseases of sheep and goats caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively, of the genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Among the proteins encoded by the capripoxvirus (CaPV) genome, ORF095 (vaccinia virus A4L homolog) is an immunodominant virion core protein that plays a pivotal role in virus assembly and morphogenesis. In the present study, sequence analysis of the ORF095 genes of 27 SPPV and GTPV isolates or field samples from different geographical regions of India was performed, and structure was prediction was done by homology modeling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04623-5DOI Listing
June 2020
2.282 Impact Factor

Emergence of a new lumpy skin disease virus variant in Kurgan Oblast, Russia, in 2018.

Arch Virol 2020 Jun 11;165(6):1343-1356. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Federal Center for Animal Health, Vladimir, Russia.

In this paper, we report the resurgence of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Kurgan Oblast, Russia, in 2018. The majority of the outbreaks were silent with no mortality and congregated within an area with a radius of about 30 km located 1-50 km away from the national border with Kazakhstan. Following primary molecular diagnosis, LSD virus (LSDV) isolates were analyzed using a panel of PCR assays targeting different genetic loci, namely, LSD008 (vaccine), LSDV126 (field), and GPCR (vaccine and field), for differentiation and genotype assignment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04607-5DOI Listing

A Modified Vaccine against Smallpox. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2020 03;382(13):1285-1286

Bavarian Nordic, Kvistgård, Denmark

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001156DOI Listing

A Modified Vaccine against Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2020 03;382(13):1285

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2001156DOI Listing

[Colleges of royal physicians and isolation hospitals to control public hygiene in Chile from 1879 to 1920].

Medwave 2020 03 18;20(2):e7841. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Facultad de Ciencias de la Rehabilitación, Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile.

This article investigates the emergence of two institutions for the control of public hygiene in Chile between 1879 and 1920: colleges of royal physicians and isolation hospitals using the case of smallpox in La Araucanía, a region located in the South of Chile. We cover the characteristics and context of these institutions that allowed the State of Chile to address the problems of public hygiene and to prompt health professionals to professionalize the practice of medicine. The liberal positivist state of the late nineteenth century understood that the issue of hygiene was not only a matter of individual responsibility but had a social, public, and environmental dimension. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5867/medwave.2020.02.7841DOI Listing

Circulation of orf viruses containing the NZ7-like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-E) gene type in India.

Virus Res 2020 May 29;281:197908. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Division of Virology, ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Uttarakhand, India. Electronic address:

Orf, a poxviral skin infection of small ruminants is caused by orf virus (ORFV) of the genus Parapoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important virulence factor that is responsible for proliferative lesions in parapoxviral infections. VEGF gene shows high intra- and inter-species variability. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.197908DOI Listing
May 2020
2.324 Impact Factor

In Vivo Characterization of a Bank Vole-Derived Cowpox Virus Isolate in Natural Hosts and the Rat Model.

Viruses 2020 Feb 20;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) belongs to the genus in the family and is endemic in western Eurasia. Based on seroprevalence studies in different voles from continental Europe and UK, voles are suspected to be the major reservoir host. Recently, a CPXV was isolated from a bank vole () in Germany that showed a high genetic similarity to another isolate originating from a Cotton-top tamarin (). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077282PMC
February 2020

Molluscum contagiosum infection with features of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Dermatol Online J 2019 Nov 15;25(11). Epub 2019 Nov 15.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

CD30+ T cell pseudolymphomas (CD30+ PSL) are a group of benign inflammatory cutaneous disorders that can develop in settings of viral infections or drug reactions. Owing to their histological similarities to malignant lymphomas, these benign infiltrates are occasionally misdiagnosed as malignant, causing significant concerns for patients and physicians. Herein, we report a patient with CD30+ PSL associated with molluscum contagiosum whose initial biopsy revealed atypical large CD30-expressing cells, leading to a misdiagnosis of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma and referral to our cutaneous lymphoma clinic. Read More

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November 2019

Selective reconstitution of IFN‑γ gene function in Ncr1+ NK cells is sufficient to control systemic vaccinia virus infection.

PLoS Pathog 2020 02 5;16(2):e1008279. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

TWINCORE-Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research, Institute for Experimental Infection Research, Hanover, Germany.

IFN-γ is an enigmatic cytokine that shows direct anti-viral effects, confers upregulation of MHC-II and other components relevant for antigen presentation, and that adjusts the composition and balance of complex cytokine responses. It is produced during immune responses by innate as well as adaptive immune cells and can critically affect the course and outcome of infectious diseases, autoimmunity, and cancer. To selectively analyze the function of innate immune cell-derived IFN-γ, we generated conditional IFN-γOFF mice, in which endogenous IFN-γ expression is disrupted by a loxP flanked gene trap cassette inserted into the first intron of the IFN-γ gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028289PMC
February 2020

Assessment of media reportage of monkeypox in southern Nigeria.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jan;99(5):e17985

Department of English and Literary Studies, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Monkeypox is a zoonotic viral disease. Media campaigns are planned to create awareness about the disease. This is because mass media is often the leading source of information and mobilization during important health issues or crisis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004708PMC
January 2020

Smallpox in the Post-Eradication Era.

Viruses 2020 Jan 24;12(2). Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1QP, UK.

Widespread vaccination programmes led to the global eradication of smallpox, which was certified by the World Health Organisation (WHO), and, since 1978, there has been no case of smallpox anywhere in the world. However, the viable variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is still kept in two maximum security laboratories in Russia and the USA. Despite the eradication of the disease smallpox, clandestine stocks of VARV may exist. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12020138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7077202PMC
January 2020

Chemical-Biological Terrorism and Its Impact on Children.

Pediatrics 2020 02;145(2)

Section of Pediatric Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado and School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Colorado.

Children are potential victims of chemical or biological terrorism. In recent years, children have been victims of terrorist acts such as the chemical attacks (2017-2018) in Syria. Consequently, it is necessary to prepare for and respond to the needs of children after a chemical or biological attack. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-3750DOI Listing
February 2020

Human Orf: An Under-recognized Entity.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2019 Dec;27(4):280-281

Luis Santiago, MD, Dermatology Department Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Praceta Prof. Mota Pinto, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal;

Dear Editor, Orf, also called contagious ecthyma, contagious pustular dermatitis, sore mouth, or scabby mouth, is a highly contagious zoonotic disease which is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus, ORFV (Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae) (1). The infection is endemic to sheep and goats, and humans are infected either through direct transmission from active lesions on infected animals or through contact with fomites (2). Orf is an occupational hazard and the population at risk includes shepherds, butchers, farmers, wool shearers, and veterinarians (2,3). Read More

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December 2019

Outbreak of Systemic Avian Pox in Canaries () Associated with the B1 Subgroup of Avian Pox Viruses.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):525-530

Department of Avian Medicine and Poultry Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Production, National Autonomous University of Mexico, University City, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico City, Mexico,

This study reports an outbreak of avian pox in a quarantine of canaries imported from Europe, with a mortality of 30% and clinical signs of dyspnea and blepharoconjunctivitis. During necropsy, beak cyanosis, serous blepharitis, caseous sinusitis, oropharyngitis, tracheitis, pulmonary edema, pneumonia, fibrinous airsacculitis, and splenomegaly were observed. Microscopically, edema, epithelial hyperplasia, hydropic degeneration, and vacuolated eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were found; similar lesions were observed in the thymus, spleen, and other organs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12038-011819-Case.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Bayesian Phylogenetic Analysis of Avipoxviruses from North American Wild Birds Demonstrates New Insights into Host Specificity and Interspecies Transmission.

Avian Dis 2019 09;63(3):427-432

Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602.

Avian pox is commonly diagnosed in a variety of North American wild and domestic birds, yet little is known about the evolutionary relationships among the causative poxviruses. This study aimed to determine the phylogenetic relationships among isolates identified in different avian host species to better characterize the host range of specific viral strains and compare the genetic variability within and between viral clades. Skin lesions grossly and microscopically consistent with poxvirus infection from 82 birds collected in Canada, the United States, and the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1637/12023-010619-Reg.1DOI Listing
September 2019

Identification and characterization of Orf viruses isolated from sheep and goats in Southern Italy.

Vet Ital 2019 12 31;55(4):347-353. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Puglia e della Basilicata, Via Manfredonia 20, 71121 Foggia.

Orf virus (ORFV; Family: Poxviridae) is the causative agent of contagious ecthyma, or Orf disease in sheep, goats and other domestic or wild ruminants with a worldwide distribution. The disease is endemic in Italy, but few data are available about its distribution and epidemiology. In the present study we analysed 32 clinical samples, obtained from crusted scab lesions of 5 goats and 27 sheep, from 19 suspected outbreaks of contagious ecthyma in Apulia and Basilicata regions between 2012 and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12834/VetIt.1025.5477.2DOI Listing
December 2019
0.627 Impact Factor

Re-assessing the Foundations: Worldwide Smallpox Eradication, 1957-67.

Med Hist 2020 01;64(1):71-93

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.

An expansive, worldwide smallpox eradication programme (SEP) was announced by the World Health Assembly in 1958, leading this decision-making body to instruct the World Health Organization Headquarters in Geneva to work with WHO regional offices to engage and draw in national governments to ensure success. Tabled by the Soviet Union's representative and passed by a majority vote by member states, the announcement was subject to intense diplomatic negotiations. This led to the formation, expansion and reshaping of an ambitious and complex campaign that cut across continents and countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2019.77DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945219PMC
January 2020

An Analysis of the United States and United Kingdom Smallpox Epidemics (1901-5) - The Special Relationship that Tested Public Health Strategies for Disease Control.

Authors:
Bernard Brabin

Med Hist 2020 01;64(1):1-31

Clinical Division, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK.

At the end of the nineteenth century, the northern port of Liverpool had become the second largest in the United Kingdom. Fast transatlantic steamers to Boston and other American ports exploited this route, increasing the risk of maritime disease epidemics. The 1901-3 epidemic in Liverpool was the last serious smallpox outbreak in Liverpool and was probably seeded from these maritime contacts, which introduced a milder form of the disease that was more difficult to trace because of its long incubation period and occurrence of undiagnosed cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2019.74DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945217PMC
January 2020

[DISSEMINATED CRYPTOCOCCOSIS IN A LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT DIAGNOSED BY TZANCK SMEAR].

Harefuah 2020 Jan;159(1):14-17

Department of Dermatology, Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Introduction: Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungus which causes severe morbidity and mortality among immune-compromised patients. Cutaneous manifestations of systemic cryptococcosis are rare and may include a papulo-nodular rash, ulcers, cellulitis, molluscum contagiosum-like papules and more. The Tzanck smear is a well-known simple diagnostic test which can be performed bedside, in order to characterize cell cytology. Read More

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January 2020

WHOLE GENOME SEQUENCING OF AN AVIPOXVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH INFECTIONS IN A GROUP OF AVIARY-HOUSED SNOW BUNTINGS ().

J Zoo Wildl Med 2020 Jan;50(4):803-812

Centre québécois sur la santé des animaux sauvages/Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, 3200 rue Sicotte, Québec J2S 2M2, Canada,

Avipoxvirus infections have been reported in both free-ranging and domestic birds worldwide. Fowlpox and canarypox viruses belong to the genus among the virus family . They cause cutaneous lesions with proliferative growths on the unfeathered parts of the skin and/or diphtheritic lesions generally associated with necrosis in the upper respiratory and digestive tracts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2018-0102DOI Listing
January 2020

Pediatric molluscum: an update.

Cutis 2019 Nov;104(5):301-305;E1;E2

Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) is a poxvirus that causes infection in humans that is limited to the cutis and subcutaneous levels of the skin. The virus is transmitted from close associates in settings such as pools, day care, and bathtubs. Pediatric molluscum is common in school-aged children and resolves spontaneously in healthy children. Read More

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November 2019

Resistance to ectromelia virus infection requires cGAS in bone marrow-derived cells which can be bypassed with cGAMP therapy.

PLoS Pathog 2019 12 26;15(12):e1008239. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Cells sensing infection produce Type I interferons (IFN-I) to stimulate Interferon Stimulated Genes (ISGs) that confer resistance to viruses. During lympho-hematogenous spread of the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the adaptor STING and the transcription factor IRF7 are required for IFN-I and ISG induction and resistance to ECTV. However, it is unknown which cells sense ECTV and which pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) upstream of STING is required for IFN-I and ISG induction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974301PMC
December 2019

Development and applications of a monoclonal antibody against caprine interferon-gamma.

BMC Biotechnol 2019 12 23;19(1):102. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is an important mediator of type I immune response and has antiviral, immunoregulatory and anti-tumor properties, plays a wide range of roles in inflammation and autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to obtain monoclonal antibody (mAb) against caprine IFN-γ by immunizing of BALB/c mice with the purified rIFN-γ.

Results: Recombinant caprine IFN-γ was expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) and monoclonal antibodies against caprine IFN-γ were produced by immunizing of BALB/c mice with rIFN-γ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12896-019-0596-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6929374PMC
December 2019
5 Reads

Analysis of MHC Class I Processing Pathways That Generate a Response to Vaccinia Virus Late Proteins.

Immunohorizons 2019 12 2;3(12):559-572. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033; and

Use of recombinant viral vectors encoding nonnative Ags is an attractive mechanism for the generation of protective Ab, CD4 T cell (T), and CD8 T cell (T) responses in vivo following immunization. However, the life cycle and tropism of the viral vector, and its interactions with various components of the immune system, must be fully understood to maximize the efficacy of any vaccination strategies. Ab and T responses typically target native Ags driven by late promoters in vaccinia virus (VACV)-based vectors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/immunohorizons.1900074DOI Listing
December 2019

A case of orf.

N Z Med J 2019 11 8;132(1506):93-95. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Dermatology, Waikato District Health Board, Hamilton.

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November 2019

Secondary syphilis mimicking molluscum contagiosum in the beard area of an AIDS patient.

Cutis 2019 Oct;104(4):E18-E20

Department of Dermatology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA.

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October 2019

Do Monkeypox Exposures Vary by Ethnicity? Comparison of Aka and Bantu Suspected Monkeypox Cases.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 01;102(1):202-205

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

In 2017, a monkeypox outbreak occurred in Likouala Department, Republic of the Congo. Many of the affected individuals were of Aka ethnicity, hunter-gatherers indigenous to Central Africa who have worse health outcomes in comparison with other forest-dwelling peoples. To test the hypothesis that Aka people have different risk factors for monkeypox, we analyzed questionnaire data for 39 suspected cases, comparing Aka and Bantu groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947767PMC
January 2020

Asymptomatic Orthopoxvirus Circulation in Humans in the Wake of a Monkeypox Outbreak among Chimpanzees in Cameroon.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 01;102(1):206-212

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

is a zoonotic (OPXV) that causes smallpox-like illness in humans. In Cameroon, human monkeypox cases were confirmed in 2018, and outbreaks in captive chimpanzees occurred in 2014 and 2016. We investigated the OPXV serological status among staff at a primate sanctuary (where the 2016 chimpanzee outbreak occurred) and residents from nearby villages, and describe contact with possible monkeypox reservoirs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6947779PMC
January 2020

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Possibly Associated with Emerging Zoonotic Vaccinia Virus in a Farming Community, Colombia.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 12;25(12)

In 2014, vaccinia virus (VACV) infections were identified among farmworkers in Caquetá Department, Colombia; additional cases were identified in Cundinamarca Department in 2015. VACV, an orthopoxvirus (OPXV) used in the smallpox vaccine, has caused sporadic bovine and human outbreaks in countries such as Brazil and India. In response to the emergence of this disease in Colombia, we surveyed and collected blood from 134 farmworkers and household members from 56 farms in Cundinamarca Department. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874243PMC
December 2019

Human Infection with Orf Virus and Description of Its Whole Genome, France, 2017.

Emerg Infect Dis 2019 12;25(12):2197-2204

Zoonotic transmission of parapoxvirus from animals to humans has been reported; clinical manifestations are skin lesions on the fingers and hands after contact with infected animals. We report a human infection clinically suspected as being ecthyma contagiosum. The patient, a 65-year-old woman, had 3 nodules on her hands. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2512.181513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874271PMC
December 2019

Umbilicated papules on the face.

BMJ 2019 Nov 14;367:l6013. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Dermatology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l6013DOI Listing
November 2019

On the "Take" as a Biomarker.

N Engl J Med 2019 11;381(20):1962-1963

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta (I.K.D.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMe1913048DOI Listing
November 2019

Phase 3 Efficacy Trial of Modified Vaccinia Ankara as a Vaccine against Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2019 11;381(20):1897-1908

From the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Medical Research and Materiel Command, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (P.R.P., C.K.); Brian Allgood Army Community Hospital, 121st Combat Support Hospital, Yongsan, South Korea (P.R.P., M.H., H.S.L., C.K.); Bavarian Nordic, Martinsried, Germany (N.S., D.S., J.H., H.W., T.P.H.M., G.S., J.M.); Bavarian Nordic, Morrisville NC (C.R.H.); and Bavarian Nordic, Kvistgård, Denmark (P.C.).

Background: Many countries have stockpiled vaccines because of concerns about the reemergence of smallpox. Traditional smallpox vaccines are based on replicating vaccinia viruses; these vaccines have considerable side effects.

Methods: To evaluate the efficacy of modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) as a potential smallpox vaccine, we randomly assigned 440 participants to receive two doses of MVA followed by one dose of the established replicating-vaccinia vaccine ACAM2000 (the MVA group) or to receive one dose of ACAM2000 (the ACAM2000-only group). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1817307DOI Listing
November 2019

The emergence of subclades A1 and A3 avipoxviruses in India.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 23;67(2):510-517. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Discipline of Bioscience and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, India.

During the years 2010-2018, avipoxvirus (APV) outbreaks were observed in the domestic chickens and pigeons present in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. Based on typical pox lesions, followed by molecular techniques, the overall morbidity was found to be 18%-19.23% and 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13413DOI Listing

[Chronicle of a consolidated success: smallpox eradication policies in Brazil (1962-1973)].

Salud Colect 2019;15:e2167. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Estudiante de Doctorado, Programa de Pós-Graduación en Ciências Sociais, Instituto de Filosofia y Ciências Humanas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, San Pablo, Brasil.

The aim of this article is to understand actions taken towards smallpox eradication in Brazil, in the framework of the Smallpox Eradication campaign that took place in the 1960s and 1970s. The article argues that, in addition to the bifurcated needle and the lyophilized vaccine, epidemiological surveillance - based on the construction of instruments and protocols for health surveillance - was the third key element that guaranteed the eradication of the disease. The hypothesis is that the actions taken towards the control and eradication of smallpox contributed to the construction of new health institutions within Brazil. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18294/sc.2019.2167DOI Listing

A case of imported Monkeypox in Singapore.

Lancet Infect Dis 2019 11;19(11):1166

National Centre for Infectious Diseases, Singapore 308422, Singapore; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30537-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7129797PMC
November 2019

Novel Treatment of a Vaccinia Virus Infection from an Occupational Needlestick - San Diego, California, 2019.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019 Oct 25;68(42):943-946. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an orthopoxvirus used in smallpox vaccines, as a vector for novel cancer treatments, and for experimental vaccine research (1). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends smallpox vaccination for laboratory workers who handle replication-competent VACV (1). For bioterrorism preparedness, the U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6842a2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6812835PMC
October 2019

Koi herpesvirus and carp oedema virus: Infections and coinfections during mortality events of wild common carp in the United States.

J Fish Dis 2019 Nov;42(11):1609-1621

Minnesota Aquatic Invasive Species Research Center, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, USA.

Koi herpesvirus (KHV; cyprinid herpesvirus-3) and carp oedema virus (CEV) are important viruses of common and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio); however, the distribution of these viruses in wild common carp in North America is largely unknown. During the summers of 2017 and 2018, 27 mass mortalities of common carp were reported from four states in the USA (Minnesota, Iowa, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin), the majority of which were distributed across eight major watersheds in southern Minnesota. Samples from 22 of these mortality events and from five clinically healthy nearby carp populations were screened for KHV, CEV and SVCV using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13082DOI Listing
November 2019

Genetic studies of terminal regions of vaccine and field isolates of capripoxviruses.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 12 15;76:104071. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Acting Head, Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Uttarakhand 263 138, India. Electronic address:

Sheeppox and goatpox are two of the most important diseases associated with significant economic loss and impact on animal trade. In spite of the use of vaccines, outbreaks are being reported on several occasions. Therefore, deciphering the host specificity and virulence of sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV) is important in developing effective vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.104071DOI Listing
December 2019
3.015 Impact Factor

Estimating the medical capacity required to administer mass prophylaxis: a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox virus infection in Korea.

Epidemiol Health 2019 10;41:e2019044. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of International Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the medical surge capacity required for mass prophylaxis based on a hypothetical outbreak of smallpox.

Methods: We performed a simulation using the Bioterrorism and Epidemic Outbreak Response Model and varied some important parameters, such as the number of core medical personnel and the number of dispensing clinics.

Results: Gaps were identified in the medical surge capacity of the Korean government, especially in the number of medical personnel who could respond to the need for mass prophylaxis against smallpox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883025PMC
November 2019
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Identification of new genogroups in Austrian carp edema virus isolates.

Dis Aquat Organ 2019 Oct;136(2):193-197

Clinical Division of Fish Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna 1210, Austria.

Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease (KSD), is an emerging viral disease caused by the carp edema virus (CEV). It is characterized by lethargic behavior, gill necrosis, and generalized edema, leading to significant morbidity and mortality in common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio. Accurate diagnosis of CEVD relies on amplification of a P4a protein-encoding DNA segment from the CEV genome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao03408DOI Listing
October 2019
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A systematic review of the epidemiology of human monkeypox outbreaks and implications for outbreak strategy.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 10 16;13(10):e0007791. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Manson Unit, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) UK, London, United Kingdom.

Monkeypox is a vesicular-pustular illness that carries a secondary attack rate in the order of 10% in contacts unvaccinated against smallpox. Case fatality rates range from 1 to 11%, but scarring and other sequelae are common in survivors. It continues to cause outbreaks in remote populations in Central and West Africa, in areas with poor access and weakened or disrupted surveillance capacity and information networks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816577PMC
October 2019
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Type I interferon-dependent CCL4 is induced by a cGAS/STING pathway that bypasses viral inhibition and protects infected tissue, independent of viral burden.

PLoS Pathog 2019 10 11;15(10):e1007778. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, United States of America.

Type I interferons (T1-IFN) are critical in the innate immune response, acting upon infected and uninfected cells to initiate an antiviral state by expressing genes that inhibit multiple stages of the lifecycle of many viruses. T1-IFN triggers the production of Interferon-Stimulated Genes (ISGs), activating an antiviral program that reduces virus replication. The importance of the T1-IFN response is highlighted by the evolution of viral evasion strategies to inhibit the production or action of T1-IFN in virus-infected cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6808495PMC
October 2019

Comparative analysis of miRNAs in exosomes released by sheeppox virus-infected ovine testicular cells.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2019 Dec 30;67:101363. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, 830046, China. Electronic address:

Exosomes, secreted by various cells, are nanometer-scale vesicles with the functions in intercellular communication. To understand a role of exosomal miRNAs in the sheeppox virus infection, exosomes were isolated from sheeppox virus-infected sheep testicular cells 0 h, 24 h and 72 h post infection. The results of transmission electron microscopy and size distribution showed that all three exosome samples were spherical particles with negatively-stained membrane, ranging from 39 nm to 127 nm in diameter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2019.101363DOI Listing
December 2019

Cowpox virus encodes a protein that binds B7.1 and B7.2 and subverts T cell costimulation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 10 1;116(42):21113-21119. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63110;

Costimulation is required for optimal T cell activation, yet it is unclear whether poxviruses dedicatedly subvert costimulation during infection. Here, we report that the secreted M2 protein encoded by cowpox virus (CPXV) specifically interacts with human and murine B7.1 (CD80) and B7. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909414116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800355PMC
October 2019
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Exposure of free-ranging capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) to the vaccinia virus.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 17;67(2):481-485. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

UNESP-Universidade Estadual Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of free-ranging animals/hunting dogs as sources of infection in the vaccinia virus (VACV) transmission chain. Serological, cell culture and molecular assays were conducted in 56 free-ranging animals and 22 hunting dogs. ELISA/neutralizing assays showed that two (2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13376DOI Listing

An Uneasy Pleasure: Representing the Dangers of Skin-to-skin Contact in Eighteenth-century London ''.

Authors:
Sara Fernandes

Med Hist 2019 10;63(4):494-511

The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia 2006.

This article considers the social function of contagious disease as moderator of class relationships in England during the first half of the eighteenth century and takes into account the ways in which the 'communicability' of the plague, great pox (syphilis) and smallpox (variola) was used by authors to crystallise social interaction and tension along class lines. The essay begins by examining the representation of the plague, syphilis and smallpox in the medical tradition, before shifting its attention to the practice of maritime quarantine, as laid out by Richard Mead in his (1720). By foregrounding medical writing on contagion through skin contact, I suggest that pornographic texts such as John Cleland's () (1748) had an interventionist function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/mdh.2019.46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733762PMC
October 2019
1 Read