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    Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East Central Texas, USA.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jun;24(6):1069-1072
    Northern pygmy mice from 2 localities in East Central Texas, USA, had proliferative epidermal lesions on the tail and feet. Electron microscopy of lesion tissue revealed poxvirus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Read More

    Ectromelia virus lacking the E3L ortholog is replication-defective and nonpathogenic but does induce protective immunity in a mouse strain susceptible to lethal mousepox.
    Virology 2018 05 27;518:335-348. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
    Department of Biology, Albright College, Reading, PA, USA. Electronic address:
    All known orthopoxviruses, including ectromelia virus (ECTV), contain a gene in the E3L family. The protein product of this gene, E3, is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein. It can impact host range and is used by orthopoxviruses to combat cellular defense pathways, such as PKR and RNase L. Read More

    Investigation of an outbreak of monkeypox in an area occupied by armed groups, Central African Republic.
    Med Mal Infect 2018 Mar 21. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
    Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic.
    Background: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem.

    Patients And Method: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. Read More

    Characterization of murine antibody responses to vaccinia virus envelope protein A14 reveals an immunodominant antigen lacking of effective neutralization targets.
    Virology 2018 05 17;518:284-292. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address:
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Read More

    Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 16;67(10):306-310. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement. Endemic human monkeypox has been reported from more countries in the past decade than during the previous 40 years. Read More

    [Orf virus in human, confirmation in case report from Chile].
    Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Dec;34(6):607-609
    Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.
    Infection with the orf virus, also known as contagious ecthyma, is recognized as an occupational zoonosis worldwide. It is diagnosed by cutaneous lesions that progress rapidly from macules to papules, vesicles and pustules. The clinical case of a student of veterinary medicine who had had contact with goats, clinically healthy and without apparent lesions, which occured 19 days ago, is reported. Read More

    Orf virus infection in Alaskan mountain goats, Dall's sheep, muskoxen, caribou and Sitka black-tailed deer.
    Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 21;60(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Nursing and Health Sciences-Vestfold, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway.
    Background: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed.

    Results: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands. Read More

    In vitro susceptibility to ST-246 and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 7;152:36-44. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus of the Poxviridae family contains several human pathogens, including Vaccinia virus (VACV), which have been implicating in outbreaks of a zoonotic disease called Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil. So far, no approved treatment exists for OPV infections, but ST-246 and Cidofovir (CDV) are now in clinical development. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of five strains of Brazilian VACV (Br-VACV) to ST-246 and Cidofovir. Read More

    Fowlpoxvirus recombinants coding for the CIITA gene increase the expression of endogenous MHC-II and Fowlpox Gag/Pro and Env SIV transgenes.
    PLoS One 2018 31;13(1):e0190869. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, Milan, Italy.
    A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. Read More

    Genetic diversity of Orf virus isolated from sheep in Uruguay.
    Arch Virol 2018 May 24;163(5):1285-1291. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a disease widely spread in the world that occasionally causes zoonotic infections. This work is the first molecular characterization of ORFV in Uruguay, where we analyzed twenty-one sheep samples, eighteen of which were recovered from thirteen ORFV outbreaks that occurred during 2004 to 2011 as well as three strains from a national vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis and the derived amino acid sequences from the B2L gene suggest that the Uruguayan virus do not form a unique cluster, with most of them displaying similarities with worldwide ORFV isolates as well as our vaccine strains. Read More

    Milker's nodules: classic histological findings.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840
    Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.
    Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More

    The Inhibitory Effect of Ectromelia Virus Infection on Innate and Adaptive Immune Properties of GM-CSF-Derived Bone Marrow Cells Is Mouse Strain-Independent.
    Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:2539. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) belongs to the genus of the family and is a natural pathogen of mice. Certain strains of mice are highly susceptible to ECTV infection and develop mousepox, a lethal disease similar to smallpox of humans caused by variola virus. Currently, the mousepox model is one of the available small animal models for investigating pathogenesis of generalized viral infections. Read More

    Comparative evaluation of three capripoxvirus-vectored peste des petits ruminants vaccines.
    Virology 2018 01 1;514:211-215. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Research and Development, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. 157, Z. I., Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P: 278, Mohammedia 28810, Morocco. Electronic address:
    Sheep and goat pox (SGP) with peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants that cause huge economic losses. Recombinant vaccines that can protect from both infections have been reported as a promising solution for the future. SGP was used as a vector to express two structural proteins hemagglutinin or the fusion protein of PPRV. Read More

    Reply to "Bioinformatics Analysis of Differential Innate Immune Signaling in Macrophages by Wild-Type Vaccinia Mature Virus and a Mutant Virus with a Deletion of the A26 Protein".
    J Virol 2017 12 30;91(24). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China

    [A case of Orf disease complicated by erythema multiforme].
    Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 16;24(12):1241-1243. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Service d'accueil des urgences, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France.
    Ecthyma contagiosum, or Orf, is a specific infection of small ruminants accidentally reaching humans. Few cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of ecthyma contagiosum occurred in a 9-year-old girl after contact with a flock of ecthyma sheep. Read More

    Milker's nodule: an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 5;32(4):537-541. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus, is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle by-products or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers and agricultural tourists. Read More

    Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(11):e0187089. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Read More

    Isolation and Characterization of vΔI3 Confirm that Vaccinia Virus SSB Plays an Essential Role in Viral Replication.
    J Virol 2018 01 2;92(2). Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA
    Vaccinia virus is unusual among DNA viruses in replicating exclusively in the cytoplasm of infected cells. The single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding protein (SSB) I3 is among the replication machinery encoded by the 195-kb genome, although direct genetic analysis of I3 has been lacking. Herein, we describe a complementing cell line (CV1-I3) that fully supports the replication of a null virus (vΔI3) lacking the I3 open reading frame (ORF). Read More

    Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in skin lesions, blood, nasal swabs and milk following preventive vaccination.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Apr 30;65(2):491-496. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Croatian Veterinary Institute, Zagreb, Croatia.
    Lumpy skin disease caused by Capripoxvirus is at the moment the most important threat to European cattle industry. The only way for successful control of disease is fast and efficient diagnosis and vaccination. According to EU legislation, vaccination against LDS can be conducted only after confirmation of the disease. Read More

    ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Oct 27;13(10):e1006651. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Public Health and Microbiology, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, Spain.
    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) after vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of sheep oral mucosa response to Orf virus infection.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(10):e0186681. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease with worldwide distribution, which is caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) belonging to the Parapoxvirus. To study the alteration of host gene expression in response to ORFV infection at the transcriptional level, several young small-tailed Han sheep were inoculated with ORFV, and their oral mucosa tissue samples (T0, T3, T7 and T15) were collected on day 0, 3, 7 and 15 after ORFV infection respectively. RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons were performed, showing that 1928, 3219 and 2646 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among T3 vs. Read More

    Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Oct;126(2):155-166
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Weymouth, DT4 8UB, UK.
    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Read More

    Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Human Monkeypox Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct;216(7):824-828
    L'Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale.
    Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet. Read More

    Organism-Level Analysis of Vaccination Reveals Networks of Protection across Tissues.
    Cell 2017 Oct 21;171(2):398-413.e21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Faculty of Arts & Sciences Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:
    A fundamental challenge in immunology is to decipher the principles governing immune responses at the whole-organism scale. Here, using a comparative infection model, we observe immune signal propagation within and between organs to obtain a dynamic map of immune processes at the organism level. We uncover two inter-organ mechanisms of protective immunity mediated by soluble and cellular factors. Read More

    Safety and immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost immunization with viral-vectored malaria vaccines adjuvanted with Matrix-M™.
    Vaccine 2017 10 21;35(45):6208-6217. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Jenner Institute, University of Oxford and the NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK.
    The use of viral vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens to induce potent T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity is a promising vaccination strategy in the fight against malaria. We conducted an open-label, first-in-human, controlled Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Matrix-M adjuvanted vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63) prime followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost eight weeks later, both encoding the malaria ME-TRAP antigenic sequence (a multiple epitope string fused to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein). Twenty-two healthy adults were vaccinated intramuscularly with either ChAd63-MVA ME-TRAP alone (n=6) or adjuvanted with 25μg (n=8) or 50μg (n=8) Matrix-M. Read More

    Comparison of PCR methods for the detection of genetic variants of carp edema virus.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Sep;126(1):75-81
    Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
    The infection of common carp and its ornamental variety, koi, with the carp edema virus (CEV) is often associated with the occurrence of a clinical disease called 'koi sleepy disease'. The disease may lead to high mortality in both koi and common carp populations. To prevent further spread of the infection and the disease, a reliable detection method for this virus is required. Read More

    Berlin Squirrelpox Virus, a New Poxvirus in Red Squirrels, Berlin, Germany.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 10;23(10):1726-1729
    Near Berlin, Germany, several juvenile red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) were found with moist, crusty skin lesions. Histology, electron microscopy, and cell culture isolation revealed an orthopoxvirus-like infection. Subsequent PCR and genome analysis identified a new poxvirus (Berlin squirrelpox virus) that could not be assigned to any known poxvirus genera. Read More

    Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005857. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Read More

    Prenylation of viral proteins by enzymes of the host: Virus-driven rationale for therapy with statins and FT/GGT1 inhibitors.
    Bioessays 2017 Oct 8;39(10). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum: Review and Update on Management.
    Pediatr Dermatol 2017 Sep;34(5):504-515
    Dermatological Surgery and Laser Unit, St John's Institute of Dermatology, Guy's Hospital Cancer Centre, Guy's & St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is an infectious dermatosis that commonly presents in children and immunocompromised individuals. Although lesions usually resolve spontaneously after several months, they can be symptomatic and cause psychosocial distress. We review the evidence underlying treatment methods available for MC lesions, including potassium hydroxide, salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, retinoids, cantharidin, cryotherapy, curettage, and pulsed dye laser to aid practicing dermatologists in therapy selection. Read More

    First isolation and genetic characterization of pseudocowpox virus from cattle in Japan.
    Virol J 2017 09 6;14(1):172. Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Laboratory of Food and Environmental Hygiene, Cooperative Department of Veterinary Medicine, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, Gifu, 501-1193, Japan.
    Background: Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) infects cattle worldwide with zoonotic potential but has not been isolated in Japan. Thus, the epidemiological status of PCPV infection in cattle is undetermined.

    Results: In May 2016, a cattle in a farm in Yamaguchi Prefecture showed white vesicles and hyperemia in the mucosa under the tongue surface, but not on the teats and coronary cushions. Read More

    Topical Imiquimod is an Effective and Safe Drug for Molluscum Contagiosum in Children.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2017 Jul;25(2):164-166
    Efstathia Pasmatzi, MD, Department of Dermatology School of Medicine University of Patras, 26504 Rio-Patras, Greece;
    Dear Editor, Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a very common skin infection caused by a molluscipox virus gene of the poxvirus family. It usually occurs in young children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. The typical clinical picture of this infection is characterized by asymptomatic flesh-colored, single or multiple papules, measuring 2-6 mm in diameter with a central umbilication that occur on the skin and the mucous membranes. Read More

    A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections.
    Arch Virol 2017 Dec 2;162(12):3567-3585. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Viruses enter host cells via several mechanisms, including endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. They can also fuse at the plasma membrane and can spread within the host via cell-to-cell fusion or syncytia. The mechanism used by a given viral strain depends on its external topology and proteome and the type of cell being entered. Read More

    Filaggrin mutations and Molluscum contagiosum skin infection in patients with atopic dermatitis.
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 11 31;119(5):446-451. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Genetics and Immunology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Background: Although mutations in the filaggrin (FLG) gene have been reported to predispose patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) skin infection susceptibility, to date, the data reported in the literature are still controversial.

    Objective: To evaluate the role of FLG polymorphisms expression and risk of developing a concomitant Molluscum contagiosum sustained skin infection in the pediatric population with AD.

    Methods: A total of 100 children with AD and 97 healthy children were enrolled. Read More

    Development of duplex PCR for differential detection of goatpox and sheeppox viruses.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 31;13(1):278. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Key Laboratory of Animal virology of the Ministry of Agriculture, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, CAAS, Lanzhou, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Clinically, sheeppox and goatpox have the same symptoms and cannot be distinguished serologically. A cheaper and easy method for differential diagnosis is important in control of this disease in endemic region.

    Methods: A duplex PCR assay was developed for the specific differential detection of Goatpox virus (GTPV) and Sheeppox virus (SPPV), using two sets of primers based on viral E10R gene and RPO132 gene. Read More

    The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 30;13(8):e1006602. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.
    The poly(A) leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. Read More

    Development and validation of a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR method for the differentiation of wild type lumpy skin disease virus from vaccine virus strains.
    J Virol Methods 2017 11 31;249:48-57. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a transboundary viral disease of cattle with severe economic impact. Immunization of cattle with homologous live attenuated vaccines poses a number of diagnostic problems, as it has been associated with adverse reactions resembling disease symptoms. The latter hampers clinical diagnosis and poses challenges in virus identification. Read More

    Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp. Read More

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