13,087 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules
N Engl J Med 2018 07;379(1):44-53
From SIGA Technologies, Corvallis, OR.
Background: Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, but variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox, still exists. There is no known effective treatment for smallpox; therefore, tecovirimat is being developed as an oral smallpox therapy. Because clinical trials in a context of natural disease are not possible, an alternative developmental path to evaluate efficacy and safety was needed. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 21;12(6):e0006581. Epub 2018 Jun 21.
United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Virology Division, Fort Detrick Maryland, United States of America.
Concerns regarding outbreaks of human monkeypox or the potential reintroduction of smallpox into an immunological naïve population have prompted the development of animal models and countermeasures. Here we present a marmoset model of monkeypox and smallpox disease utilizing a relevant poxvirus via a natural exposure route. We found that 1000 plaque forming units (PFU) of Monkeypox virus was sufficient to recapitulate smallpox disease, to include an incubation period of approximately 13 days, followed by the onset of rash, and death between 15 and 17 days. Read More
J Virol Methods 2018 09 8;259:45-49. Epub 2018 Jun 8.
Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (INIA-CISA), Ctra Algete el Casar s/n, Valdeolmos, Madrid, 28130, Spain. Electronic address:
Poxviruses are emerging pathogens in cetaceans, temporarily named 'Cetaceanpoxvirus' (CePV, family Poxviridae), classified into two main lineages: CePV-1 in odontocetes and CePV-2 in mysticetes. Only a few studies performed the molecular detection of CePVs, based on DNA-polymerase gene and/or DNA-topoisomerase I gene amplification. Herein we describe a new real-time PCR assay based on SYBR Green and a new primer set to detect a 150 bp fragment of CePV DNA-polymerase gene, also effective for conventional PCR detection. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jun;24(6):1069-1072
Northern pygmy mice from 2 localities in East Central Texas, USA, had proliferative epidermal lesions on the tail and feet. Electron microscopy of lesion tissue revealed poxvirus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Read More
Virology 2018 06 30;519:131-144. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, ASC9-2014E, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Electronic address:
Natural killer (NK) cells control antiviral adaptive immune responses in mice during some virus infections, but the universality of this phenomenon remains unknown. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice triggered potent cytotoxic activity of NK cells (NK) against activated CD4 T cells, tumor cells, and allogeneic lymphocytes. In contrast, NK cells activated by vaccinia virus (VACV) infection (NK) exhibited weaker cytolytic activity against each of these target cells. Read More
Virology 2018 05 27;518:335-348. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
Department of Biology, Albright College, Reading, PA, USA. Electronic address:
All known orthopoxviruses, including ectromelia virus (ECTV), contain a gene in the E3L family. The protein product of this gene, E3, is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein. It can impact host range and is used by orthopoxviruses to combat cellular defense pathways, such as PKR and RNase L. Read More
Pediatr Dermatol 2018 03;35(2):280-281
Dermatology Service, Hospital Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Med Mal Infect 2018 Jun 21;48(4):263-268. Epub 2018 Mar 21.
Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic.
Background: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem.
Patients And Method: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. Read More
Vet Rec 2018 03;182(12):355
School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL.
Virology 2018 05 17;518:284-292. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address:
Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Read More
Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2018 Mar 16;93(11):125-32. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 16;67(10):306-310. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement. Endemic human monkeypox has been reported from more countries in the past decade than during the previous 40 years. Read More
Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Dec;34(6):607-609
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.
Infection with the orf virus, also known as contagious ecthyma, is recognized as an occupational zoonosis worldwide. It is diagnosed by cutaneous lesions that progress rapidly from macules to papules, vesicles and pustules. The clinical case of a student of veterinary medicine who had had contact with goats, clinically healthy and without apparent lesions, which occured 19 days ago, is reported. Read More
Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 21;60(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
Department of Nursing and Health Sciences-Vestfold, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway.
Background: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed.
Results: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 02 15;14(2):e1006884. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.
Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Read More
Antiviral Res 2018 Apr 7;152:36-44. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:
The Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus of the Poxviridae family contains several human pathogens, including Vaccinia virus (VACV), which have been implicating in outbreaks of a zoonotic disease called Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil. So far, no approved treatment exists for OPV infections, but ST-246 and Cidofovir (CDV) are now in clinical development. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of five strains of Brazilian VACV (Br-VACV) to ST-246 and Cidofovir. Read More
Acta Med Hist Adriat 2017 Dec;15(2):283-290
Pharmacy Department, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens - Aretaieio University Hospital, Athens, Greece.
In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. In 1816 plague struck the Ionian and Aegean Islands, mainland Greece, Constantinople and Smyrna. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions. Read More
N Engl J Med 2018 Feb;378(5):414-415
From the Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences-Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
PLoS One 2018 31;13(1):e0190869. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, Milan, Italy.
A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. Read More
Science 2018 Jan;359(6374):375-376
Arch Virol 2018 May 24;163(5):1285-1291. Epub 2018 Jan 24.
Sección Virología, Facultad de Ciencias, UdelaR, Iguá 4225, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.
Orf virus (ORFV) is the etiological agent of contagious ecthyma, a disease widely spread in the world that occasionally causes zoonotic infections. This work is the first molecular characterization of ORFV in Uruguay, where we analyzed twenty-one sheep samples, eighteen of which were recovered from thirteen ORFV outbreaks that occurred during 2004 to 2011 as well as three strains from a national vaccine. Phylogenetic analysis and the derived amino acid sequences from the B2L gene suggest that the Uruguayan virus do not form a unique cluster, with most of them displaying similarities with worldwide ORFV isolates as well as our vaccine strains. Read More
An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840
Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.
Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More
Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Jun 23;65(3):916-920. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
Federal Research Center for Virology and Microbiology, Pokrov, Russia.
The first notifications of the unknown disease of cattle appeared in September-October 2015 in North Caucasus region of Russia (Republic of North Ossetia-Alania). The clinical signs included watery discharge from eyes, apathy, loss of appetite, salivation, lameness and nodular skin lesions. Capripoxvirus genome was detected by real-time PCR in the tissue samples of sick animals. Read More
N Engl J Med 2018 Jan;378(2):181
Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:2539. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) belongs to the genus of the family and is a natural pathogen of mice. Certain strains of mice are highly susceptible to ECTV infection and develop mousepox, a lethal disease similar to smallpox of humans caused by variola virus. Currently, the mousepox model is one of the available small animal models for investigating pathogenesis of generalized viral infections. Read More
Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Mar 5;50(3):459-467. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
Ecole Supérieure en Sciences de l'Aliment et des Industries Agro-alimentaire, Algiers, Algeria.
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) defined transboundary animal diseases (TADs) as those that are of significant economic, trade, and food security importance for a considerable number of countries. TADs can easily spread to other countries, reach epidemic proportions, and where control, management, or exclusion is required cooperation between several countries. The North African countries are vulnerable to several TADs by virtue of its geographical location, its borders with the Sahel region, and peculiar control constraints on the budgets of the national veterinary services of each country and on the livelihoods of livestock owners across the region. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2018 01;24(1):161-162
We studied a clinical case of vaccinia virus that caused an ocular manifestation in a dairy worker in Brazil. Biologic and molecular analyses identified a co-infection with 2 isolates from different Brazilian vaccinia virus phylogenetic groups. Read More
Viruses 2017 12 19;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 19.
Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, 17493 Greifswald-Insel Riems, Germany.
Cowpox virus (CPXV) is a zoonotic virus and endemic in wild rodent populations in Eurasia. Serological surveys in Europe have reported high prevalence in different vole and mouse species. Here, we report on experimental CPXV infections of bank voles () from different evolutionary lineages with a spectrum of CPXV strains. Read More
Prev Vet Med 2017 Nov 27;147:34-41. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
The current study was carried out in central and North-western parts of Ethiopia to assess the efficacy of Kenyan sheep pox virus strain vaccine (KS1 O-180) against natural lumpy skin disease (LSD) infection under field conditions by estimating its effect on the transmission and severity of the disease. For this study, an LSD outbreak was defined as the occurrence of at least one LSD case in a specified geographical area. An observational study was conducted on a total of 2053 (1304 vaccinated and 749 unvaccinated) cattle in 339 infected herds located in 10 sub-kebeles and a questionnaire survey was administered to 224 herd owners. Read More
Prev Vet Med 2017 Nov 8;147:100-107. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology, Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an infectious viral disease of cattle, causes considerable financial losses in livestock industry of affected countries. A questionnaire survey with the objectives of determining direct economic losses of LSD (mortality loss, milk loss, draft loss) and treatment costs (medication and labour cost) per affected herd, and assessing the cost effectiveness of vaccination as a means for LSD control was carried out in the central and north-western parts of Ethiopia. From a total of 4430 cattle (in 243 herds) surveyed, 941 animals (in 200 herds) were reported to be infected. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2017 12 15;13(12):e1006779. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States of America.
Poxviruses have evolved multiple strategies to subvert signaling by Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB), a crucial regulator of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe an orf virus (ORFV) virion-associated protein, ORFV119, which inhibits NF-κB signaling very early in infection (≤ 30 min post infection). ORFV119 NF-κB inhibitory activity was found unimpaired upon translation inhibition, suggesting that virion ORFV119 alone is responsible for early interference in signaling. Read More
J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 01;78(1):198-200
Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.
Viruses 2017 12 9;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 9.
Chemical, Biological & Radiological Division, Dstl Porton Down, Salisbury SP4 0JQ, UK.
Smallpox vaccination carries a high risk of adverse events in recipients with a variety of contra-indications for live vaccines. Although alternative non-replicating vaccines have been described in the form of replication-deficient vaccine viruses, DNA vaccines, and subunit vaccines, these are less efficacious than replicating vaccines in animal models. DNA and subunit vaccines in particular have not been shown to give equivalent protection to the traditional replicating smallpox vaccine. Read More
Viruses 2017 12 12;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 12.
US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.
Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Read More
BMC Vet Res 2017 Dec 11;13(1):385. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, P. O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.
Background: Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Read More
Biochemistry 2018 02 6;57(7):1096-1107. Epub 2018 Feb 6.
Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiovascular Medicine and Rheumatology, University of Florida , Gainesville, Florida 32610-0277, United States.
The Myxomavirus-derived protein Serp-1 has potent anti-inflammatory activity in models of vasculitis, lupus, viral sepsis, and transplant. Serp-1 has also been tested successfully in a Phase IIa clinical trial in unstable angina, representing a "first-in-class" therapeutic. Recently, peptides derived from the reactive center loop (RCL) have been developed as stand-alone therapeutics for reducing vasculitis and improving survival in MHV68-infected mice. Read More
Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Apr 10;65(2):315-320. Epub 2017 Dec 10.
Laboratory of Aquatic Biomedicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
Twenty-five koi (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) bought from a wholesale fish market in Korea, showed lethargic behaviour and 100% mortality within 20 days. Carp oedema virus (CEV) was detected by PCR in all 25 koi. Results of detailed histopathological and clinical examinations of 17 koi indicated loss of body balance, severe infiltration of inflammatory cells into the inter-lamellar spaces of the gills and vacuolization and inclusion bodies in gill epithelial cells. Read More
Viruses 2017 12 7;9(12). Epub 2017 Dec 7.
Department of Viruses and Intracellular Agents, Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, 80937 Munich, Germany.
Here we present two cases of human infection with cowpox virus with distinct clinical courses. A series of clinical photographs documents lesion progression over time. In the first case-an unvaccinated young veterinary assistant-a pustule was treated locally with cortisone. Read More
BMC Genomics 2017 Dec 6;18(1):947. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
Division of Medical Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
Background: Avian poxviruses are important pathogens of both wild and domestic birds. To date, seven isolates from subclades A and B and one from proposed subclade E, have had their genomes completely sequenced. The genomes of these isolates have been shown to exhibit typical poxvirus genome characteristics with conserved central regions and more variable terminal regions. Read More
Virology 2018 01 1;514:211-215. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
Research and Development, MCI Santé Animale, Lot. 157, Z. I., Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P: 278, Mohammedia 28810, Morocco. Electronic address:
Sheep and goat pox (SGP) with peste des petits ruminants (PPR) are transboundary viral diseases of small ruminants that cause huge economic losses. Recombinant vaccines that can protect from both infections have been reported as a promising solution for the future. SGP was used as a vector to express two structural proteins hemagglutinin or the fusion protein of PPRV. Read More
J Virol 2017 12 30;91(24). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
Department of Nephrology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
J Virol 2017 12 30;91(24). Epub 2017 Nov 30.
Molecular Cell Biology, Taiwan International Graduate Program, Graduate Institute of Life Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China
Viruses 2017 11 28;9(12). Epub 2017 Nov 28.
Pathology Unit, German Primate Center (DPZ), Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
Experimental intranasal infection of marmosets () with calpox virus results in fatal disease. Route and dose used for viral inoculation of the test animals mimics the natural transmission of smallpox, thus representing a suitable model to study pathogenesis and to evaluate new vaccines against orthopoxvirus infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms leading to death are still unclear. Read More
Health Secur 2017 Nov/Dec;15(6):582-586. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
This article explores how advances in synthetic biology, and the potential threat of deliberately recreating and spreading smallpox, are affecting the multilateral debate on the remaining variola virus stocks. It draws on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 high-profile, European-based experts in biosecurity and synthetic biology. Four overarching themes affecting the retention or destruction debate are discussed, relating to biosecurity, dangerous knowledge, accidental releases, and eradication. Read More
N Engl J Med 2017 Nov;377(21):e30
Saints Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia
Viruses 2017 11 18;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 18.
Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, Centre for Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 1, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
Four cowpox virus (CPXV) outbreaks occurred in unrelated alpaca herds in Eastern Germany during 2012-2017. All incidents were initially noticed due to severe, generalized, and finally lethal CPXV infections, which were confirmed by testing of tissue and serum samples. As CPXV-infection has been described in South American camelids (SACs) only three times, all four herds were investigated to gain a deeper understanding of CPXV epidemiology in alpacas. Read More
Arch Pediatr 2017 Dec 16;24(12):1241-1243. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
Service d'accueil des urgences, American Memorial Hospital, CHU de Reims, 47, rue Cognacq-Jay, 51100 Reims, France.
Ecthyma contagiosum, or Orf, is a specific infection of small ruminants accidentally reaching humans. Few cases have been reported in the literature to date. We report here a case of ecthyma contagiosum occurred in a 9-year-old girl after contact with a flock of ecthyma sheep. Read More
J Vet Diagn Invest 2018 Mar 20;30(2):256-259. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
Departments of Microbiology (Blomqvist, Ullman, Renström, Leijon), National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
Species Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV; family Poxviridae) is known to cause pustular cutaneous disease in cattle. We describe an outbreak of pseudocowpox with an unusual clinical picture in a free-stall dairy herd of ~80 cows. Approximately 90% of the cows had vesicles, erosions, papules, and scabs on the vulva and vaginal mucosa. Read More
Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Apr 17;65(2):e494-e500. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
Department of Animal Resources, Ministry of Environment, Water and Agriculture, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious disease of cattle caused by a virus of the Capripoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. The disease is a major concern for the dairy industry in Saudi Arabia. In this study, an outbreak of LSD in cattle herds was detected in Saudi Arabia in 2016. Read More
Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Feb 18;65(1):32-36. Epub 2017 Nov 18.
Animal Resource Department, Veterinary Pathological Laboratory, Bishnupur, India.
Goat pox disease outbreaks were observed in different places affecting Black Bengal Goats in West Bengal (WB) and Tellicherry, Vembur and non-descriptive breeds in Tamil Nadu (TN) causing severe lesions and mortality up to 30%. Clinical specimens from all the outbreaks were screened by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed the diseases as Goat Pox. Virus isolation in Vero cell line was done with randomly selected ten samples, cytopathic effects (CPE) characterized by syncytia and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed after several blind passages. Read More