13,776 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules


N Engl J Med 2021 Apr 17;384(16):1552. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

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On the Shoulders of Giants - From Jenner's Cowpox to mRNA Covid Vaccines.

N Engl J Med 2021 Mar 20;384(12):1081-1083. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

From the Division of Infectious Diseases at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania - both in Philadelphia.

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[Salting a Newborn Baby as a Prophylactic Against Smallpox].

Harefuah 2021 Mar;160(3):189-190

Faculty of Public Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.

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Analysis of Different Size Fractions Provides a More Complete Perspective of Viral Diversity in a Freshwater Embayment.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 11;87(11). Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Inspired by recent discoveries of the prevalence of large viruses in the environment, we reassessed the longstanding approach of filtering water through small-pore-size filters to separate viruses from cells before metagenomic analysis. We collected samples from three sites in Hamilton Harbour, an embayment of Lake Ontario, and studied 6 data sets derived from <0.45-μm- and >0. Read More

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SARS_CoV2 RBD gene transcription cannot be driven by CMV promoter.

Virology 2021 06 5;558:22-27. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Hubei Engineering Research Center of Viral Vector, Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Wuhan University of Bioengineering, Wuhan, 430415, China. Electronic address:

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter drives various gene expression and yields sufficient protein for further functional investigation. Receptor binding domain (RBD) on spike protein of the SARS_CoV2 is the most critical portal for virus infection. Thus native conformational RBD protein may facilitate biochemical identification of RBD and provide valuable support of drug and vaccine design for curing COVID-19. Read More

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Research Note: Simultaneous detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus, fowlpox virus, and reticuloendotheliosis virus in chicken specimens.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 16;100(4):100986. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Avian Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, GimCheon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), fowlpox (FP), and reticuloendotheliosis are important poultry diseases caused by gallid herpesvirus 1 (ILTV), fowlpox virus (FWPV), and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), respectively. Coinfections with ILTV and FWPV occur naturally in chickens, and FP in its more virulent wet form is characterized by diphtheritic lesions and easily confused with ILT. Moreover, the insertion of only partial REV-LTR or a nearly full-length REV into the FWPV genome, located between the ORF 201 and ORF 203, has increased recently in wild-type field FWPV isolates. Read More

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Discovery of a phylogenetically distinct poxvirus in diseased Crocodilurus amazonicus (family Teiidae).

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 12;166(4):1183-1191. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Pathobiology, Institute of Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210, Vienna, Austria.

A novel poxvirus was discovered in Crocodilurus amazonicus (Teiidae) presenting with a debilitating skin disease. The generated first genome sequence of a reptilian poxvirus revealed the closest phylogenetic relationship to avipoxviruses, highlighting potential virus exchanges between avian and reptilian species. Read More

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Emergence of a Novel Pathogenic Poxvirus Infection in the Endangered Green Sea Turtle () Highlights a Key Threatening Process.

Viruses 2021 01 31;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 31.

School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, UQ Gatton Campus, Gatton, QLD 4343, Australia.

Emerging viral disease is a significant concern, with potential consequences for human, animal and environmental health. Over the past several decades, multiple novel viruses have been found in wildlife species, including reptiles, and often pose a major threat to vulnerable species. However, whilst a large number of viruses have been described in turtles, information on poxvirus in cheloniids remains scarce, with no molecular sequence data available to date. Read More

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January 2021

Quantifying and Modeling the Acquisition and Retention of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus by Hematophagus Insects Reveals Clinically but Not Subclinically Affected Cattle Are Promoters of Viral Transmission and Key Targets for Control of Disease Outbreaks.

J Virol 2021 04 12;95(9). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, United Kingdom

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is a vector-transmitted poxvirus that causes disease in cattle. Vector species involved in LSDV transmission and their ability to acquire and transmit the virus are poorly characterized. Using a highly representative bovine experimental model of lumpy skin disease, we fed four model vector species (, , , and ) on LSDV-inoculated cattle in order to examine their acquisition and retention of LSDV. Read More

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Genomic diversity of vaccinia virus strain Cantagalo isolated in southeastern Brazil during the early years of the outbreak, 1999-2006.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2021 3;115:e200521. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Outbreaks of a vesiculopustular disease in dairy cattle and milkers have been frequently reported in Brazil since 1999 when the vaccinia virus strain Cantagalo was first isolated in the State of Rio de Janeiro. However, the genomic diversity of the viral isolates associated with these outbreaks is not well known, particularly in the southeastern states that represent the focal point of virus spread to other regions. Here, we report the genomic sequences and an analysis of the polymorphic site profiles and genotypic diversity of four clinical isolates of vaccinia virus strain Cantagalo collected from 1999 to 2006 in southeastern Brazil. Read More

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February 2021

First complete genome characterization of swinepox virus directly from a clinical sample indicates divergence of a Eurasian-lineage virus.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 6;166(4):1217-1225. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Pathogenomics Lab, ICAR-National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases, Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal, 462022, India.

In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of swinepox virus from a clinical sample from a naturally occurring infection in India. The sequencing was done on a Nanopore MinION sequencer from Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Two new annotations were added to the genome. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of a Potential Smallpox Therapeutic, Brincidofovir, in a Lethal Monkeypox Virus Animal Model.

mSphere 2021 02 3;6(1). Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Smallpox, caused by (VARV), was eradicated in 1980; however, VARV bioterrorist threats still exist, necessitating readily available therapeutics. Current preparedness activities recognize the importance of oral antivirals and recommend therapeutics with different mechanisms of action. (MPXV) is closely related to VARV, causing a highly similar clinical human disease, and can be used as a surrogate for smallpox antiviral testing. Read More

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February 2021

A case of milker's nodules in Saskatchewan, Canada.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 27;8:2050313X20984118. Epub 2020 Dec 27.

College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK, Canada.

We present a case of milker's nodules in a 41-year-old rancher from Saskatchewan, Canada, with secondary complications consisting of papular erythema and lymphadenopathy. Read More

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December 2020

Orthopoxvirus K3 orthologs show virus- and host-specific inhibition of the antiviral protein kinase PKR.

PLoS Pathog 2021 01 14;17(1):e1009183. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Department of Medial Microbiology and Immunology, Davis, California, United States of America.

The antiviral protein kinase R (PKR) is an important host restriction factor, which poxviruses must overcome to productively infect host cells. To inhibit PKR, many poxviruses encode a pseudosubstrate mimic of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2), designated K3 in vaccinia virus. Although the interaction between PKR and eIF2α is highly conserved, some K3 orthologs from host-restricted poxviruses were previously shown to inhibit PKR in a species-specific manner. Read More

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January 2021

Injection site vaccinology of a recombinant vaccinia-based vector reveals diverse innate immune signatures.

PLoS Pathog 2021 01 13;17(1):e1009215. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Inflammation Biology Group, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia.

Poxvirus systems have been extensively used as vaccine vectors. Herein a RNA-Seq analysis of intramuscular injection sites provided detailed insights into host innate immune responses, as well as expression of vector and recombinant immunogen genes, after vaccination with a new multiplication defective, vaccinia-based vector, Sementis Copenhagen Vector. Chikungunya and Zika virus immunogen mRNA and protein expression was associated with necrosing skeletal muscle cells surrounded by mixed cellular infiltrates. Read More

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January 2021

Triumphs and tribulations of COVID-19 vaccines: Lessons to be learned from smallpox epidemics in the 1700s.

Virchows Arch 2021 05 12;478(5):1033-1035. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Microbiology Unit, University of Padua, Padua, Italy.

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Isolation and characterization of lumpy skin disease virus from cattle in India.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(1):e0241022. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) has devastating economic impact. During the last decade, LSD had spread to climatically new and previously disease-free countries, which also includes its recent emergence in the Indian subcontinent (2019). This study deals with the LSD outbreak(s) from cattle in Ranchi (India). Read More

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Here, There, and Everywhere: The Wide Host Range and Geographic Distribution of Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses.

Viruses 2020 12 30;13(1). Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais: Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil.

The global emergence of zoonotic viruses, including poxviruses, poses one of the greatest threats to human and animal health. Forty years after the eradication of smallpox, emerging zoonotic orthopoxviruses, such as monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses continue to infect humans as well as wild and domestic animals. Currently, the geographical distribution of poxviruses in a broad range of hosts worldwide raises concerns regarding the possibility of outbreaks or viral dissemination to new geographical regions. Read More

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December 2020

Extensive palpebral molluscum contagiosum in an immunocompetent child.

Indian J Med Res 2020 10;152(4):432-433

Department of Ophthalmology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi 110 001, India.

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October 2020

Cowpox: How dangerous could it be for humans? Case report.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Mar 24;104:239-241. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Warsaw, Ophthalmic University Hospital (SPKSO), Marszałkowska 24/26, 00-576 Warsaw, Poland.

Cowpox is a rare zoonosis transmitted to humans mainly from cats. The disease usually causes skin lesions; however, the ocular form may lead to other serious complications. We describe a case of cowpox in a rare location of the upper eyelid of an immunocompetent male, which lead to necrosis of the upper eyelid, keratitis and leucomatous opacity, and the neovascularization of the cornea. Read More

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Orf (Ecthyma Contagiosum) Transmitted from a Camel to a Human: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2020 Dec 23;21:e927579. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

BACKGROUND Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum, is a zoonotic disease caused by a parapox virus, which is endemic in goats and sheep but rare in camels. Orf is usually transmitted to humans who are in contact with infected animals. The clinical manifestation of the disease and a personal history of contact with an infected animal are sufficient to diagnose orf virus infection. Read More

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December 2020

Patterns of smallpox mortality in London, England, over three centuries.

PLoS Biol 2020 12 21;18(12):e3000506. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Smallpox is unique among infectious diseases in the degree to which it devastated human populations, its long history of control interventions, and the fact that it has been successfully eradicated. Mortality from smallpox in London, England was carefully documented, weekly, for nearly 300 years, providing a rare and valuable source for the study of ecology and evolution of infectious disease. We describe and analyze smallpox mortality in London from 1664 to 1930. Read More

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December 2020

A multi-pronged scoping review approach to understanding the evolving implementation of the Smallpox and Polio eradication programs: what can other Global Health initiatives learn?

BMC Public Health 2020 Dec 18;20(Suppl 4):1698. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

International Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Background: Previous initiatives have aimed to document the history and legacy of the Smallpox Eradication Program (SEP) and the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI). In this multi-pronged scoping review, we explored the evolution and learning from SEP and GPEI implementation over time at global and country levels to inform other global health programs.

Methods: Three related reviews of literature were conducted; we searched for documents on 1) the SEP and 2) GPEI via online database searches and also conducted global and national-level grey literature searches for documents related to the GPEI in seven purposively selected countries under the Synthesis and Translation of Research and Innovations from Polio Eradication (STRIPE) project. Read More

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December 2020

Establishment of a Challenge Model for Sheeppox Virus Infection.

Microorganisms 2020 Dec 15;8(12). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute of Diagnostic Virology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, Insel Riems, D-17493 Greifswald, Germany.

Sheeppox virus (SPPV) together with goatpox virus and lumpy skin disease virus form the genus of the family. Due to their great economic importance and major impact on livelihood of small-scale farmers, OIE guidelines classify capripox viruses as notifiable diseases. In the present study, we examined pathogenesis of an Indian SPPV isolate and an Egyptian SPPV isolate in sheep. Read More

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December 2020

Modelling the impact of a smallpox attack in India and influence of disease control measures.

BMJ Open 2020 12 13;10(12):e038480. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Biosecurity Program, The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: To estimate the impact of a smallpox attack in Mumbai, India, examine the impact of case isolation and ring vaccination for epidemic containment and test the health system capacity under different scenarios with available interventions.

Setting: The research is based on Mumbai, India population.

Interventions: We tested 50%, 70%, 90% of case isolation and contacts traced and vaccinated (ring vaccination) in the susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered model and varied the start of intervention between 20, 30 and 40 days after the initial attack. Read More

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December 2020

Laboratory Infection of Novel Akhmeta Virus in CAST/EiJ Mice.

Viruses 2020 12 9;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Poxvirus & Rabies Branch, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens & Pathology, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA.

Akhmeta virus is a zoonotic first identified in 2013 in the country of Georgia. Subsequent ecological investigations in Georgia have found evidence that this virus is widespread in its geographic distribution within the country and in its host-range, with rodents likely involved in its circulation in the wild. Yet, little is known about the pathogenicity of this virus in rodents. Read More

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December 2020

Response to Brinkmann et al. "Re-assembly of 19th century smallpox vaccine genomes reveals the contemporaneous use of horsepox and horsepox-related viruses in the United States".

Genome Biol 2020 12 4;21(1):287. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

McMaster Ancient DNA Centre, Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, L8S 4L9, Canada.

We thank Brinkmann and colleagues for their correspondence and their further investigation into these American Civil War Era vaccination strains. Here, we summarize the difficulties and caveats of work with ancient DNA. Read More

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December 2020