119 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC22-MRSA-IV as an agent of dairy cow intramammary infections.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Dec 27;227:29-33. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Milan, Via Celoria 10, 20133, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) lineages have become major responsible of healthcare- and community-associated infections in human population. Bovine MRSA are sporadically detected in the dairy herd, but its presence enhances the risk of zoonosis. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

An epidemiological investigation on occurrence of enterohemorrhagic in raw milk.

Vet World 2018 Aug 25;11(8):1164-1170. Epub 2018 Aug 25.

Department of Veterinary Public Health, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Thrissur - 680 651, Kerala, India.

Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to study the epidemiology of enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) in raw milk and molecular characterization of isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Materials And Methods: A total of 125 raw milk samples were subjected to isolation, identification, and confirmation of virulence-associated genes by multiplex PCR (mPCR). The samples were collected from a milk cooperative society of Thrissur district, Kerala. Read More

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Milker's nodules: classic histological findings.

An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840

Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.

Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Emerging discrepancies in conventional and molecular epidemiology of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk.

Microb Pathog 2018 Mar 9;116:38-43. Epub 2018 Jan 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an emerging public health concern from dairy milk, and its diagnosis by phenotypic methodology is experiencing higher discrepancies. The present study was planned to estimate discrepancies in phenotypic identification of MRSA and MSSA (Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus) in relation to mecA, and prevalent risk factors from various localities. In-vitro oxacilline antibiotic disks were used for phenotypic identification of MRSA, whereas mecA gene was used as MRSA marker in Staph aureus by PCR. Read More

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March 2018
12 Reads

Milker's nodule: an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Apr 5;32(4):537-541. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.

Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus, is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle by-products or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers and agricultural tourists. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Dermoscopic features and types of orf and milker's nodule.

Postepy Dermatol Alergol 2017 Aug 2;34(4):357-362. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Dermatology, Diyarbakır Ergani State Hospital, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

Introduction: Orf and milker's nodule are zoonotic cutaneous diseases generated by parapoxviruses. Contribution of dermoscopy to the diagnosis of these diseases has not been studied in the medical literature as to our knowledge.

Aim: To investigate whether dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in orf and milker's nodule diagnosis or not. Read More

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August 2017
3 Reads

Acral manifestations of viral infections.

Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.

Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.

Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

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June 2017
6 Reads

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Brazilian Dairy Farms and Identification of Novel Sequence Types.

Zoonoses Public Health 2016 Mar 14;63(2):97-105. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Veterinary Public Health and Biotechnology Global Consortium (VPH-Biotec), The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The aim of this study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic diversity and anti-microbial resistance among staphylococci of dairy herds that originated from Paraiba State, north-eastern Brazil, a region where such studies are rare. Milk samples (n = 552) were collected from 15 dairy farms. Isolates were evaluated for anti-microbial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Read More

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Milker's nodule--Case report.

An Bras Dermatol 2015 May-Jun;90(3):407-10. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

aff02, Brazil.

Milker's nodule is an occupational viral skin disease of universal distribution, caused by the Paravaccinia virus and that occurs in individuals who deal with dairy cattle herds. We describe a case acquired due to lack of use of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) and perform a literature review. Read More

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March 2016
2 Reads

Improving ergonomics in milking parlors: empirical findings for optimal working heights in five milking parlor types.

J Dairy Sci 2015 Feb 12;98(2):966-74. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany.

Milking postures have shifted from seated milking in tethered stalls to milking in a standing position in parlors. However, the musculoskeletal workload of dairy farmers remains high. Previous studies have shown that different working heights affect ergonomics, but they could not objectively evaluate and quantify the workload. Read More

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February 2015

Further evidence for the existence of environmental and host-associated species of coagulase-negative staphylococci in dairy cattle.

Vet Microbiol 2014 Aug 21;172(3-4):466-74. Epub 2014 Jun 21.

M-team and Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are abundantly present in the dairy farm environment and on bovine skin and mucosae. They are also the most prevalent bacteria causing bovine intramammary infections (IMI). Reservoirs and transmission routes of CNS are not yet fully unraveled. Read More

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August 2014
6 Reads

Comparative and retrospective molecular analysis of Parapoxvirus (PPV) isolates.

Virus Res 2014 Mar 27;181:11-21. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Oberschleissheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Species members of the genus Parapoxvirus (PPV) within the family Poxviridae cause contagious pustular dermatitis in small ruminants (Orf virus, ORFV) and mostly mild localized inflammation in cattle (bovine papular stomatitis virus, BPSV and pseudocowpox virus, PCPV). All PPVs are known to be zoonotic, leading to circumscribed skin lesions in humans, historically known as milker's nodules. Human PPV isolates are often ill defined concerning their allocation to an animal origin. Read More

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March 2014
22 Reads

[Milker's nodule complicated with erythema multiforme].

Med Clin (Barc) 2013 Aug 4;141(3):e5. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital Álvarez-Buylla, Mieres, Asturias, España.

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August 2013
1 Read

Antimicrobial resistance and genotypes of staphylococci from bovine milk and the cowshed environment.

Pol J Vet Sci 2012 ;15(4):741-9

Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biology, Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Bolesława Prusa 12, 08-110 Siedlce, Poland.

Investigation of antimicrobial resistance and genetic relatedness of staphylococci from milk of cows with mastitis and cowshed environment was the aim of this study. Antimicrobial resistance against 14 antimicrobials were determined by using a disc diffusion method. Genetic similarity between the most frequently isolated species was analysed by PFGE (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). Read More

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March 2013
1 Read

The epidemics of noduli mulgentium in Europe and the largest one in Croatia.

Zdravko Periš

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2012 ;20(4):223-30

Department of Dermatovenereology, Rijeka University Hospital Center, Croatia.

The first part of the paper describes all extensive epidemics of milker's nodules (noduli mulgentium) in Europe until 1967, also presenting the then state-of-the-art on the disease. This is followed by description of the largest recorded epidemic that occurred in Rijeka hinterland from August to November 1967 involving 136 individuals, mostly women. The epidemiological, clinical, immunologic and genetic aspects of the epidemic are analyzed. Read More

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December 2013

The Munich outbreak of cutaneous cowpox infection: transmission by infected pet rats.

Acta Derm Venereol 2012 Mar;92(2):126-31

Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Ludwig-Maximilan University, Munich, Germany.

Cowpox virus infection of humans is an uncommon, potentially fatal, skin disease. It is largely confined to Europe, but is not found in Eire, or in the USA, Australasia, or the Middle or Far East. Patients having contact with infected cows, cats, or small rodents sporadically contract the disease from these animals. Read More

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March 2012
4 Reads

[The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2011 Jun;153(6):263-8

Abteilung Ambulanz und Bestandesmedizin, Departement für Nutztiere der Universität Zürich.

Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Read More

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Molecular diagnostics of parapox virus infections.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2010 Sep 18;8(9):681-4. Epub 2010 May 18.

Department of Dermatology, Zurich University Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: The diagnosis of parapox virus infections relies primarily on a history of contact with infected animals. The clinical presentation is usually a non-specific necrotic ulcer. The histology may also be non-specific, especially with older lesions. Read More

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September 2010
3 Reads

[Histopathology of the more common viral skin infections].

L Requena C Requena

Actas Dermosifiliogr 2010 Apr;101(3):201-16

Servicio de Dermatología, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, España.

We describe the histopathological characteristics of viral skin infections. Herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus produce an intraepidermal vesicle with variable degrees of epithelial necrosis. Typical findings include keratinocytes with ballooned nuclei with a ground-glass appearance and giant multinucleated keratinocytes. Read More

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Human Vaccinia virus and Pseudocowpox virus co-infection: clinical description and phylogenetic characterization.

J Clin Virol 2010 May 5;48(1):69-72. Epub 2010 Mar 5.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: Occupational exanthematic diseases represent an important cause of public health impact and economical losses. Among the viral exanthematic diseases, two caused by poxviruses are noteworthy: the bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV); and the milker's nodule, in which the agent is the Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV). Both agents are zoonotic and have been associated with several cases of bovine infection. Read More

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May 2010
8 Reads

Milker's callus.

Dermatol Online J 2008 Jul 15;14(7):13. Epub 2008 Jul 15.

Department of Dermatology and STD, Aarupadai Veedu Medical College and Hospital, Pondicherry, India.

Calluses are a diffuse area of hyperkeratosis occurring as a normal physiological response to chronic, excessive pressure or friction on the skin. They can be distinctive occupational stigmata when they occur on the hands. Herein we report the occurrence of calluses of the thumb in professional milkers as an occupational dermatosis. Read More

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Large CD30-positive cells in benign, atypical lymphoid infiltrates of the skin.

J Cutan Pathol 2008 Dec 18;35(12):1100-7. Epub 2008 Jun 18.

Hospital de Clínicas, Department of pathology, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brazil.

Background: Cutaneous infectious and inflammatory diseases may contain a significant number of CD30-positive cells, thus mimicking lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) or anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Methods: We reviewed our cases of non-neoplastic skin conditions with large, CD30-positive cells and searched the literature for similar cases.

Results: A total of 28 cases were included in the study: Milker's nodule (n = 8), Herpes simplex virus infection (n = 7), lymphomatoid drug reaction (n = 3), molluscum contagiosum (n = 3), nodular scabies (n = 2), leishmaniasis (n = 1), syphilis (n = 1), pernio (n = 1), ruptured infundibular cyst (n = 1) and pseudolymphoma in a scar (n = 1). Read More

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December 2008
1 Read

Milker's nodule--case report.

Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2007 ;15(2):88-91

University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and School of Medicine, Salata 4 HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia.

Milker's nodule (noduli mulgentium) is a benign viral skin disease caused by parapoxvirus, a poxvirus that is endemic in cattle. The virus is usually transmitted to cattle handlers from infected cows. We present a case of a 25-year-old housewife who milked cows on her family farm and developed itchy, purplish red nodules on her fingers and hands, and lymphangiitis of the right arm. Read More

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November 2007
6 Reads

Exuberant ulcerated lesions of secondary syphilis on the palms--an unusual presentation.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2006 Apr-Jun;18(2):80-1

Department of Dermatology, Combined Military Hospital, Bahawalpur.

Ulcerated lesions in secondary syphilis are rare. Exuberant tissue is seen in condylomas of syphilis, which occur in flexural and occluded areas of the body and not in open areas such as palms. We report a case of secondary syphilis that presented with ulcerated exuberant lesions on palms, which on initial examination gave an impression of lesions of Orf and Milker's Nodule. Read More

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October 2006

Pheno- and genotyping of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk and human skin.

Vet Microbiol 2006 Jun 13;115(1-3):163-72. Epub 2006 Mar 13.

Division of Food Hygiene and Bacteriology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

The purpose of this study was to improve our knowledge concerning the epidemiology and strain diversity of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from bovine milk in commercial dairy herds. A total of 341 S. epidermidis isolates obtained from cows' milk (317), farmers (17) and patients (7) were characterized. Read More

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Milkers' nodules complicated by erythema multiforme and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

Clin Infect Dis 2005 Apr 4;40(7):e63-6. Epub 2005 Mar 4.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

We describe a case of cow-transmitted parapoxvirus infection--also known as milkers' nodules--after a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma. The infection was complicated by erythema multiforme and acute exacerbation of graft-versus-host disease. Parapoxvirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. Read More

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April 2005
2 Reads

Milker's nodule in a healthy young woman.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2003 Nov;49(5):910-1

Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, USA.

Milker's nodules (pseudocowpox) are harmless skin lesions most commonly seen in persons whose occupation regularly brings them into close contact with cattle. They are caused by the paravaccinia virus, a member of the poxvirus family. Awareness of their clinical and histopathologic features is important, especially with today's heightened awareness of the threat of biologic warfare, to distinguish them from more worrisome entities such as tularemia and anthrax. Read More

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November 2003

Comparative evaluation of hydrophobicity measures for virulence determination of Staphylococcus epidermidis from hospitalized patients & healthy individuals.

Indian J Med Res 2001 Nov;114:160-3

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Eastern Regional Station, Kolkata, India.

Background & Objectives: Hydrophobicity is one of the recognized markers for identifying pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis. A number of tests are available for measuring the hydrophobic character but three tests viz., salt aggregation test (SAT), n-hexadecane adherence assay (HAA) and xylene adherence assay (XAA) are in common practice with different degrees of sensitivity. Read More

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November 2001

Ewe milker's hand dermatitis.

Contact Dermatitis 2000 Jun;42(6):361-2

Department of Dermatology, University of Genoa, Italy.

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[Milker's nodes].

P Erard J M Pessina

Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1998 Sep;128(38):1418

Hôpital des Cadolles, Neuchâtel.

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September 1998
2 Reads

[Milker's nodules].

Ugeskr Laeger 1997 Jan;159(4):436-7

Hudklinikken, Vesterbro 99, Aalborg.

Milker's nodule is a parapox virus infection seen mostly on the hands of dairy farmers. We saw 15 cases over a period of two years in the County of North Jutland. Clinically, milker's nodule goes through a papular, a nodular and a crusted stage. Read More

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January 1997
1 Read

Identification of three distinct antigenic sites in parapoxviruses.

Arch Virol 1997 ;142(4):807-21

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Infectious and Epidemic Diseases, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Federal Republic of Germany.

Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were generated in BALB/c mice immunized with gradient-purified particles, envelopes and cores of intracellular mature orf virus D-1701. Three distinct antigenic sites were identified in this virus strain. Their topographical relationships was determined by pairwise epitope specificity studies in competition ELISAs. Read More

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[Jenner's cowpox vaccine in light of current vaccinology].

C Huygelen

Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 1996 ;58(5):479-536; discussion 537-8

Two hundred years ago Edward Jenner inoculated James Phipps with vaccinia and 181 years later smallpox had disappeared from the surface of the earth as a result of generalized vaccination. Compared to the requirements of modern vaccinology, the procedures used by Jenner and his successors, were extremely primitive because of an almost total lack of knowledge in the field of microbiology and immunology. The active principle of smallpox vaccine is vaccinia virus, which in many respects, differs from that of natural cowpox; the term "cowpox" has been used for more than a century and a half to designate the vaccine; it appears itself to be a misnomer, because it is most probably by a virus of rodents, which only occasionally infects bovines or other species, especially cats. Read More

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February 1997
43 Reads

[Milker's hand].

S Lings

Ugeskr Laeger 1994 Nov;156(47):7028-31

Arbejdstilsynet Kreds Fyns Amt, Odense Universitetshospital, arbejds- og miljømedicinsk klinik.

The predominant skin problems in cattle-breeders are toxic and allergic eczemas, with cleansers, water, rubber, disinfectants and fodder being the most frequent provoking factors. The Danish register of occupational diseases yields information based on notifications during the years 1984-1992. Detailed data especially concerning dairy farms are not obtainable, but during the whole period 101 hand-skin diseases in farmers and farming assistants were notified, 12-23 annually in recent years. Read More

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November 1994

Differentiation of parapoxviruses by application of orf virus-specific monoclonal antibodies against cell surface proteins.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1991 Jul;28(3-4):247-58

Division of Anti-Infective Drugs, Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD 20857.

Monoclonal antibodies were produced against orf virus-specified cell surface proteins in an attempt to develop reagents capable of differentiating between members of the Parapoxviridae. Two immunization protocols were used to induce an anti-orf response in BALB/c mice, one of which resulted in virus replication in the recipient. The monoclonal antibodies produced were tested for crossreactivity with bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPS) and milker's node virus (MNV) by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and immunoblotting. Read More

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[Milker's nodes: transmission by fomites and virological identification].

Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 1991 May;9(5):286-8

Servico de Dermatología, Hospital Naval de Ferrol, La Coruña.

We report a case of milker's nodules in a male who was not a professional cattle raiser with indirect and accidental transmission by fomites. A parapoxvirus was demonstrated from cutaneous lesions by electron microscopy with negative stain. Read More

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[Status leptospirosis/milker's fever in The Netherlands unchanged].


Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 1989 Dec;114(24):1252, 1255

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December 1989

[Milker's fever, an occupational disease on the increase].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989 Sep;133(39):1939-41

In order to obtain a better picture of the course of dairy farm fever, a leptospirosis caused by hardjo, an inquiry by means of questionnaires was conducted into its symptomatology and its trade-connected risk factors. The inquiry was performed in 32 seropositive dairy farmers and a matched-pair control group. All persons involved were living or working on contaminated farms. Read More

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September 1989

[Weil's disease, milker's fever and other leptospiroses, 1981-1987].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1989 Jul;133(26):1322-6

In The Netherlands, human leptospirosis is mainly caused by the serovars icterohaemorrhagiae and copenhageni, both of which belong to the Icterohaemorrhagiae group and originate from rats, serovars hardjo from cattle and grippotyphosa from voles. In 1981-1987, 175 cases of leptospirosis were registered. In 17 of these cases the infection was acquired outside The Netherlands. Read More

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[Leptospirosis in cattle; milker's fever in cattle farmers].

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 1989 Feb;114(3):131-5

Gezondheidsdienst voor Dieren in Gelderland, Velp Gld.

In this paper the symptomatology, epidemiology, and diagnosis of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo infections in cattle are reviewed. The possibilities on monitoring and control of this disease in both foreign countries and the Netherlands are discussed. Special attention is paid to the zoonotic aspects of the infection (dairy fever). Read More

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February 1989

Bullous eruption complicating a milker's nodule.

Int J Dermatol 1988 Mar;27(2):115-6

Department of Dermatology, South-Hospital, Amiens, France.

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Milker's Dermatitis.

V Suja J Zachariah

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1987 Sep-Oct;53(5):267-268

Twenty five cases suspected to have milker's dertiatitiswere clinically studied including tests with various self-made antigens. Eight cases showed positive patch tests results. Two cases showed cay saliva and one case showed under shaves as the allergen. Read More

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Sealpox in captive grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and their handlers.

J Wildl Dis 1987 Jan;23(1):1-6

Histopathologic, ultrastructural, and negative-staining studies indicated that nodular lesions on the flippers, head, and necks of recently weaned, captive grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were similar to sealpox lesions reported from several other species of seals. Virions associated with the nodules were characteristic of the parapoxvirus subgroup of pox viruses. Two of the three persons handling the seals developed nodular lesions similar to "milker's nodules," the characteristic lesion in persons infected with parapoxvirus. Read More

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January 1987

Human ORF disease localized in the hand: a "false felon". A study of eight cases.

Ann Chir Main 1986 ;5(2):129-32

The authors report eight cases of human ORF disease localized to the hand and transmitted to man by contact with the sheep. This disease is characterized by typical lesions on exposed cutaneous zones. Those lesions must be distinguished from milker's nodules, botryomycosis and above all felon because ORF disease never require surgery. Read More

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October 1986

[Sero- and immunodiagnosis in parapoxvirus infections in the human. Milker's nodes, ecthyma contagiosum contact infection].

Hautarzt 1985 Dec;36(12):663-9

The currently available methods for the serological and immunological diagnosis of human parapoxvirus infection (milker's nodule, farmyard pox) are demonstrated by the case of a man infected by contact with sheep carrying ecthyma contagiosum lesions. Compared to virus identification by electron microscopy, cell culture and animal experiments, identification of viral antigen in skin biopsies is equally sensitive during the first 2 weeks of the disease, whereas it is far more sensitive afterwards. The diagnosis of a parapoxvirus infection may be confirmed, even after skin lesions have healed, by assays for agglutinating, complement fixing, neutralizing and flocculating antibodies in patients' serum, the most sensitive method currently used being immunofluorescence and enzyme assays (ELISA). Read More

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December 1985

[Mastitis--Leptospira hardjo--milker's fever].

J J Snoep

Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 1985 Feb;110(4):150-1

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February 1985