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    Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005857. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Read More

    Prenylation of viral proteins by enzymes of the host: Virus-driven rationale for therapy with statins and FT/GGT1 inhibitors.
    Bioessays 2017 Sep 8. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria. Read More

    A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 2. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Viruses enter host cells via several mechanisms, including endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. They can also fuse at the plasma membrane and can spread within the host via cell-to-cell fusion or syncytia. The mechanism used by a given viral strain depends on its external topology and proteome and the type of cell being entered. Read More

    Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp. Read More

    A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 14;13(6):e1006435. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States of America.
    The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1) the site of infection, 2) the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3) the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. Read More

    A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy.
    J Immunol Methods 2017 Sep 31;448:112-115. Epub 2017 May 31.
    INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; CIRAD UMR ASTRE, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, France.
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. So far, the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene is the only gene used to generate recombinants. A putative non-essential gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor subfamily homologue (GPCR) was targeted as an additional insertion site. Read More

    Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.
    Virology 2017 Jul;507:267-275
    Signal Transduction Group/Viruses Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP: 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. Read More

    Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 05 17;5:CD004767. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of General Practice, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Room Ff303, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3000 CA.
    Background: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking. Read More

    Deletion of the K1L Gene Results in a Vaccinia Virus That Is Less Pathogenic Due to Muted Innate Immune Responses, yet Still Elicits Protective Immunity.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    All viruses strategically alter the antiviral immune response to their benefit. The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein has multiple immunomodulatory effects in tissue culture models of infection, including NF-κB antagonism. However, the effect of K1 during animal infection is poorly understood. Read More

    IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection.
    J Immunol 2017 Jun 3;198(11):4341-4351. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Pediatric Rheumatology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO 80045
    The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1(-/-)) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. Read More

    Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May;29(3):351-356
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY (Das, Deng, McIntosh).
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. Read More

    Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of the A52R, B15R, and K7R genes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 Apr 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

    Absence of vaccinia virus detection in a remote region of the Northern Amazon forests, 2005-2015.
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 7;162(8):2369-2373. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31270-901, Brazil.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) circulates in Brazil and other South America countries and is responsible for a zoonotic disease that usually affects dairy cattle and humans, causing economic losses and impacting animal and human health. Furthermore, it has been detected in wild areas in the Brazilian Amazon. To better understand the natural history of VACV, we investigated its circulation in wildlife from French Guiana, a remote region in the Northern Amazon forest. Read More

    Monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells regulate T-cell responses against vaccinia virus.
    Eur J Immunol 2017 Jun 2;47(6):1022-1031. Epub 2017 May 2.
    Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.
    Vaccinia virus (VV) can potently activate NK- and T-cell responses, leading to efficient viral control and generation of long-lasting protective immunity. However, immune responses against viral infections are often tightly controlled to avoid collateral damage and systemic inflammation. We have previously shown that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (g-MDSCs) can suppress the NK-cell response to VV infection. Read More

    Genetic characterization of orf virus associated with an outbreak of severe orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka, Zambia (2015).
    Arch Virol 2017 Aug 4;162(8):2363-2367. Epub 2017 Apr 4.
    Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, PO Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Orf or contagious ecthyma is a neglected and economically important zoonotic disease caused by a dermatotropic parapoxvirus that commonly affects domestic small ruminants. Although orf is globally distributed, there is a paucity of information on the disease in many African countries. Here, a suspected severe outbreak of orf in goats at a farm in Lusaka was investigated. Read More

    Cowpox virus infection in a child after contact with a domestic cat: a case report.
    New Microbiol 2017 Apr 3;40(2):148-150. Epub 2017 Apr 3.
    Department of Medical Microbiology, Poznań University of Medical Sciences, Poland.
    Human cowpox represents a seldom diagnosed zoonosis but this diagnosis should be considered more frequently as the number of cases has increased in recent years. We describe a case of cowpox in an 11-yearold boy following regular direct daily contact with a domestic cat. The 11-year-old patient, an otherwise healthy boy, demonstrated skin ulceration located at his chin, with enlargement of regional lymph nodes and fever reaching 39°C. Read More

    Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation.
    J Virol 2017 Jun 12;91(11). Epub 2017 May 12.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. Read More

    Treacle and Smallpox: Two Tests for Multicriteria Decision Analysis Models in Health Technology Assessment.
    Value Health 2017 Mar 20;20(3):512-515. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:
    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is rightly receiving increasing attention in health technology assessment. Nevertheless, a distinguishing feature of the health domain is that technologies must actually improve health, and good performance on other criteria cannot compensate for failure to do so. We argue for two reasonable tests for MCDA models: the treacle test (can a winning intervention be incompletely ineffective?) and the smallpox test (can a winning intervention be for a disease that no one suffers from?). Read More

    Infection with diverse immune-modulating poxviruses elicits different compositional shifts in the mouse gut microbiome.
    PLoS One 2017 10;12(3):e0173697. Epub 2017 Mar 10.
    Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)-Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.
    It is often not possible to demonstrate causality within the context of gut microbiota dysbiosis-linked diseases. Thus, we need a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby an altered host immunophysiology shapes its resident microbiota. In this regard, immune-modulating poxvirus strains and mutants could differentially alter gut mucosal immunity in the context of a natural immune response, providing a controlled natural in vivo setting to deepen our understanding of the immune determinants of microbiome composition. Read More

    Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Mar 2;13(3):e1006252. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. Read More

    The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC163 localizes to the mitochondria and dampens mitochondrial mediated apoptotic responses.
    Virology 2017 May 21;505:91-101. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 S. Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ 07079, United States. Electronic address:
    Apoptosis is a powerful host cell defense to prevent viruses from completing replication. Poxviruses have evolved complex means to dampen cellular apoptotic responses. The poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), encodes numerous host interacting molecules predicted to antagonize immune responses. Read More

    Shope Fibroma in the External Ear Canal of a Domestic Rabbit.
    Comp Med 2017 Feb;67(1):51-55
    Departments of Diagnostic Medicine-Pathobiology, Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas.
    A 5-y-old, intact, 2.5-kg female domestic rabbit was presented because of blood spatter on the wall of its cage and the toenails of its right hind limb. Physical examination revealed a red, gelatinous mass that spanned the width of the right vertical ear canal. Read More

    Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism.
    Nature 2017 03 20;543(7644):252-256. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8(+) TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellular transport, including fatty-acid-binding proteins 4 and 5 (FABP4 and FABP5). Read More

    Virus-Specific CD8(+) T Cells Infiltrate Melanoma Lesions and Retain Function Independently of PD-1 Expression.
    J Immunol 2017 Apr 15;198(7):2979-2988. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107;
    It is well known that CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are correlated with positive prognoses in cancer patients and are used to determine the efficacy of immune therapies. Although it is generally assumed that CD8(+) TILs will be tumor-associated Ag (TAA) specific, it is unknown whether CD8(+) T cells with specificity for common pathogens also infiltrate tumors. If so, the presence of these T cells could alter the interpretation of prognostic and diagnostic TIL assays. Read More

    Presumptive risk factors for monkeypox in rural communities in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    PLoS One 2017 13;12(2):e0168664. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. Read More

    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe from 2000 to 2013.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 4;49(3):509-514. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    School of Agricultural Science and Technology, Department of Animal Production and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe.
    The objective of this study was to determine significant factors affecting spacio-temporal distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe. A retrospective study of LSD from year 2000 to 2013 was undertaken using records from the Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services, Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics was computed on LSD cases, treatments, vaccinations, and deaths. Read More

    Investigating Viruses during the Transformation of Molecular Biology.
    J Biol Chem 2017 Mar 30;292(10):3958-3969. Epub 2017 Jan 30.
    From the Laboratory of Viral Diseases, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892
    This Reflections article describes my early work on viral enzymes and the discovery of mRNA capping, how my training in medicine and biochemistry merged as I evolved into a virologist, the development of viruses as vaccine vectors, and how scientific and technological developments during the 1970s and beyond set the stage for the interrogation of nearly every step in the reproductive cycle of vaccinia virus (VACV), a large DNA virus with about 200 genes. The reader may view this article as a work in progress, because I remain actively engaged in research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) notwithstanding 50 memorable years there. Read More

    Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) in Algeria.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 24;49(3):649-652. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Ecole Superieure en Sciences de l'Aliment et des Industries Agroalimentaires (ESSAIA), Algiers, Algeria.
    A cross-sectional study using a tested questionnaire was carried out across Algeria between January and June 2014. Our investigation demonstrated that of the 150 flocks visited, 21 were positive for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) with an overall flock prevalence of 14% (95% CI 11.08-16. Read More

    Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the rpo147 and DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase Genes.
    J Avian Med Surg 2016 Dec;30(4):378-385
    A juvenile female bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented with emaciation and proliferative periocular lesions. The eagle did not respond to supportive therapy and was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the skin lesions revealed plaques of marked epidermal hyperplasia parakeratosis, marked acanthosis and spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Read More

    Cutaneous Deficiency of Filaggrin and STAT3 Exacerbates Vaccinia Disease In Vivo.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(1):e0170070. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Food and Drug Administration, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Silver Spring, MD, United States of America.
    Rationale: Defects in filaggrin and STAT3 are associated with atopic dermatitis (AD) and susceptibility to severe skin infection.

    Methods: We evaluated skin infection with the current smallpox vaccine, ACAM-2000, in immunosuppressed mice with combined cutaneous deficiency in filaggrin and STAT3. In parallel, early events post-infection with ACAM-2000 were investigated in cultured keratinocytes in which filaggrin expression was knocked down via siRNA. Read More

    Human and Dromedary Camel Infection with Camelpox Virus in Eastern Sudan.
    Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2017 Apr 5;17(4):281-284. Epub 2017 Jan 5.
    3 Department of Virology, Veterinary Research Institute (VRI) , Khartoum, Sudan .
    We provide evidence for the zoonotic nature of camelpox virus by reporting infections that involved dromedary camels and three camel herders in Showak area of eastern Sudan between September and December 2014. The skin lesions in the camel herders consisted of erythema, vesicles, and pustules that involved arms, hands, legs, back, and abdomen and resolved within less than 2 months with no human-to-human transmission. The diagnosis was achieved through molecular technique, virus isolation in cell culture, and partial genome sequencing. Read More

    Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.
    PLoS One 2017 3;12(1):e0169247. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.
    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. Read More

    Capripox outbreak in a mixed flock of sheep and goats in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Feb 27;64(1):27-30. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.
    PLoS One 2016 22;11(12):e0168690. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Departamento de Microbiología III, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013). Overall, 3. Read More

    Concomitant helminth infection downmodulates the Vaccinia virus-specific immune response and potentiates virus-associated pathology.
    Int J Parasitol 2017 Jan 18;47(1):1-10. Epub 2016 Dec 18.
    Department of Parasitology, Biological Sciences Institute, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The aim of this work was to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms of how helminths may influence the course of a viral infection, using a murine model. Severe virulence, a relevant increase in the virus titres in the lung and a higher mortality rate were observed in Ascaris and Vaccinia virus (VACV) co-infected mice, compared with VACV mono-infected mice. Immunopathological analysis suggested that the ablation of CD8(+) T cells, the marked reduction of circulating CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ, and the robust pulmonary inflammation were associated with the increase of morbidity/mortality in co-infection and subsequently with the negative impact of concomitant pulmonary ascariasis and respiratory VACV infection for the host. Read More

    Smallpox as an actual biothreat: lessons learned from its outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 Oct-Dec;52(4):587-597
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.
    Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 19;162(4):953-962. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    Evaluation of the GeneXpert for Human Monkeypox Diagnosis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 19;96(2):405-410. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Enteric and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX), is endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, diagnostic assays for human monkeypox (MPX) focus on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which are typically performed in sophisticated laboratory settings. Herein, we evaluated the accuracy and utility of a multiplex MPX assay using the GeneXpert platform, a portable rapid diagnostic device that may serve as a point-of-care test to diagnose infections in endemic areas. Read More

    [Workers with signs of smallpox in the collection of Regional Office of Labor, Rio Grande do Sul, 1933-1944].
    Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2016 Oct-Dec;23(4):1209-1227
    Professor, Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Rua Alberto Rosa, 154. 90010-770 - Pelotas - RS - Brasil.
    Work Register Booklet was created in Brazil in 1932. Soon, Regional Labor Inspectorates emerged - after renamed as Regional Office of Labor. In Rio Grande do Sul, this office was settled in 1933 in Porto Alegre. Read More

    Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 15;10(12):e0005021. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
    The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]). Read More

    High relative abundance of the stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans is associated with lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Israeli dairy farms.
    Med Vet Entomol 2017 Jun 15;31(2):150-160. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
    The vector of lumpy skin disease (LSD), a viral disease affecting Bovidae, is currently unknown. To evaluate the possible vector of LSD virus (LSDV) under field conditions, a yearlong trapping of dipterans was conducted in dairy farms that had been affected by LSD, 1-2 years previously. This was done in order to calculate monthly relative abundances of each dipteran in each farm throughout the year. Read More

    Serro 2 Virus Highlights the Fundamental Genomic and Biological Features of a Natural Vaccinia Virus Infecting Humans.
    Viruses 2016 Dec 10;8(12). Epub 2016 Dec 10.
    Coordinating Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CCID/CDC), Atlanta, 30329-4027 GA, USA.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been implicated in infections of dairy cattle and humans, and outbreaks have substantially impacted local economies and public health in Brazil. During a 2005 outbreak, a VACV strain designated Serro 2 virus (S2V) was collected from a 30-year old male milker. Our aim was to phenotypically and genetically characterize this VACV Brazilian isolate. Read More

    Genomic identification of human vaccinia virus keratoconjunctivitis and its importance as a laboratory-acquired infection.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2016 Nov;64(11):806-812
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran.
    Context: Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of orthopoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae. VACVs are enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. Several species of this family, for example, molluscum contagiosum, smallpox, deerpox, horsepox, rabbitpox, and VACVs may cause conjunctivitis. Read More

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