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    12944 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules

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    In vitro susceptibility to ST-246 and Cidofovir corroborates the phylogenetic separation of Brazilian Vaccinia virus into two clades.
    Antiviral Res 2018 Feb 7;152:36-44. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Laboratório de Microbiologia Clínica, Departamento de Análises Clínicas e Toxicológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Avenida Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The Orthopoxvirus (OPV) genus of the Poxviridae family contains several human pathogens, including Vaccinia virus (VACV), which have been implicating in outbreaks of a zoonotic disease called Bovine Vaccinia in Brazil. So far, no approved treatment exists for OPV infections, but ST-246 and Cidofovir (CDV) are now in clinical development. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of five strains of Brazilian VACV (Br-VACV) to ST-246 and Cidofovir. Read More

    Fowlpoxvirus recombinants coding for the CIITA gene increase the expression of endogenous MHC-II and Fowlpox Gag/Pro and Env SIV transgenes.
    PLoS One 2018 31;13(1):e0190869. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Milan, via Balzaretti 9, Milan, Italy.
    A complete eradication of an HIV infection has never been achieved by vaccination and the search for new immunogens that can induce long-lasting protective responses is ongoing. Avipoxvirus recombinants are host-restricted for replication to avian species and they do not have the undesired side effects induced by vaccinia recombinants. In particular, Fowlpox (FP) recombinants can express transgenes over long periods and can induce protective immunity in mammals, mainly due to CD4-dependent CD8+ T cells. Read More

    Milker's nodules: classic histological findings.
    An Bras Dermatol 2017 Nov-Dec;92(6):838-840
    Department of Dermatology and Radiotherapy of the Botucatu School of Medicine, São Paulo State University "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (FMB-Unesp) - Botucatu, (SP), Brazil.
    Milker's nodule is an occupational dermatovirose caused by Parapoxvirus, which is self-limited and, due to the lack of information of health professionals, may lead to underdiagnosis. We present two cases with exuberant manifestations and classic histopathologic findings. Case 1: Male, 19 years of age, milker, presented nodules and blisters on his palm for 15 days. Read More

    TheInhibitory Effect of Ectromelia Virus Infection on Innate and Adaptive Immune Properties of GM-CSF-Derived Bone Marrow Cells Is Mouse Strain-Independent.
    Front Microbiol 2017 19;8:2539. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) belongs to thegenus of thefamily and is a natural pathogen of mice. Certain strains of mice are highly susceptible to ECTV infection and develop mousepox, a lethal disease similar to smallpox of humans caused by variola virus. Currently, the mousepox model is one of the available small animal models for investigating pathogenesis of generalized viral infections. Read More

    Milker's nodule: an occupational infection and threat to the immunocompromised.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Dermatology Department, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University School of Public Affairs and Administration, Newark, NJ, USA.
    Milker's nodule virus, also called paravaccinia virus, is a DNA virus of the parapoxvirus genus transmitted from infected cows to humans. It results from contact with cattle, cattle by-products or fomites. Classified as an occupational disorder, those at risk of exposure include farmers, butchers and agricultural tourists. Read More

    Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(11):e0187089. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Centre for Biological Threats and Special Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Read More

    ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Oct 27;13(10):e1006651. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Preventive Medicine, Public Health and Microbiology, Universidad Autónoma, Madrid, Spain.
    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) encodes one of the most abundant proteins induced by interferon, and its expression is associated with antiviral immunity. To identify protein components implicated in IFN and ISG15 signaling, we compared the proteomes of ISG15-/- and ISG15+/+ bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) after vaccinia virus (VACV) infection. The results of this analysis revealed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) were pathways altered in ISG15-/- BMDM treated with IFN. Read More

    Transcriptome analysis of sheep oral mucosa response to Orf virus infection.
    PLoS One 2017 26;12(10):e0186681. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
    Contagious ecthyma is a highly contagious disease with worldwide distribution, which is caused by the Orf virus (ORFV) belonging to the Parapoxvirus. To study the alteration of host gene expression in response to ORFV infection at the transcriptional level, several young small-tailed Han sheep were inoculated with ORFV, and their oral mucosa tissue samples (T0, T3, T7 and T15) were collected on day 0, 3, 7 and 15 after ORFV infection respectively. RNA-seq transcriptome comparisons were performed, showing that 1928, 3219 and 2646 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among T3 vs. Read More

    Emergence of carp edema virus (CEV) and its significance to European common carp and koi Cyprinus carpio.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Oct;126(2):155-166
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), Weymouth, DT4 8UB, UK.
    Carp edema virus disease (CEVD), also known as koi sleepy disease, is caused by a poxvirus associated with outbreaks of clinical disease in koi and common carp Cyprinus carpio. Originally characterised in Japan in the 1970s, international trade in koi has led to the spread of CEV, although the first recognised outbreak of the disease outside of Japan was not reported until 1996 in the USA. In Europe, the disease was first recognised in 2009 and, as detection and diagnosis have improved, more EU member states have reported CEV associated with disease outbreaks. Read More

    Maternal and Fetal Outcomes Among Pregnant Women With Human Monkeypox Infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    J Infect Dis 2017 Oct;216(7):824-828
    L'Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale.
    Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet. Read More

    Organism-Level Analysis of Vaccination Reveals Networks of Protection across Tissues.
    Cell 2017 Oct 21;171(2):398-413.e21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Faculty of Arts & Sciences Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Electronic address:
    A fundamental challenge in immunology is to decipher the principles governing immune responses at the whole-organism scale. Here, using a comparative infection model, we observe immune signal propagation within and between organs to obtain a dynamic map of immune processes at the organism level. We uncover two inter-organ mechanisms of protective immunity mediated by soluble and cellular factors. Read More

    Comparison of PCR methods for the detection of genetic variants of carp edema virus.
    Dis Aquat Organ 2017 Sep;126(1):75-81
    Fish Disease Research Unit, Institute for Parasitology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Bünteweg 17, 30559 Hannover, Germany.
    The infection of common carp and its ornamental variety, koi, with the carp edema virus (CEV) is often associated with the occurrence of a clinical disease called 'koi sleepy disease'. The disease may lead to high mortality in both koi and common carp populations. To prevent further spread of the infection and the disease, a reliable detection method for this virus is required. Read More

    Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Sep 11;11(9):e0005857. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.
    Background: Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Read More

    Prenylation of viral proteins by enzymes of the host: Virus-driven rationale for therapy with statins and FT/GGT1 inhibitors.
    Bioessays 2017 Oct 8;39(10). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    School of Systems Biology, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Intracellular bacteria were recently shown to employ eukaryotic prenylation system for modifying activity and ensuring proper intracellular localization of their own proteins. Following the same logic, the proteins of viruses may also serve as prenylation substrates. Using extensively validated high-confidence prenylation predictions by PrePS with a cut-off for experimentally confirmed farnesylation of hepatitis delta virus antigen, we compiled in silico evidence for several new prenylation candidates, including IRL9 (CMV) and few other proteins encoded by Herpesviridae, Nef (HIV-1), E1A (human adenovirus 1), NS5A (HCV), PB2 (influenza), HN (human parainfluenza virus 3), L83L (African swine fever), MC155R (molluscum contagiosum virus), other Poxviridae proteins, and some bacteriophages of human associated bacteria. Read More

    Topical Imiquimod is an Effective and Safe Drug for Molluscum Contagiosum in Children.
    Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2017 Jul;25(2):164-166
    Efstathia Pasmatzi, MD, Department of Dermatology School of Medicine University of Patras, 26504 Rio-Patras, Greece;
    Dear Editor, Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a very common skin infection caused by a molluscipox virus gene of the poxvirus family. It usually occurs in young children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. The typical clinical picture of this infection is characterized by asymptomatic flesh-colored, single or multiple papules, measuring 2-6 mm in diameter with a central umbilication that occur on the skin and the mucous membranes. Read More

    A comparative review of viral entry and attachment during large and giant dsDNA virus infections.
    Arch Virol 2017 Dec 2;162(12):3567-3585. Epub 2017 Sep 2.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Viruses enter host cells via several mechanisms, including endocytosis, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis. They can also fuse at the plasma membrane and can spread within the host via cell-to-cell fusion or syncytia. The mechanism used by a given viral strain depends on its external topology and proteome and the type of cell being entered. Read More

    Filaggrin mutations and Molluscum contagiosum skin infection in patients with atopic dermatitis.
    Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2017 11 31;119(5):446-451. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Pediatric Genetics and Immunology, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.
    Background: Although mutations in the filaggrin (FLG) gene have been reported to predispose patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) skin infection susceptibility, to date, the data reported in the literature are still controversial.

    Objective: To evaluate the role of FLG polymorphisms expression and risk of developing a concomitant Molluscum contagiosum sustained skin infection in the pediatric population with AD.

    Methods: A total of 100 children with AD and 97 healthy children were enrolled. Read More

    The 5'-poly(A) leader of poxvirus mRNA confers a translational advantage that can be achieved in cells with impaired cap-dependent translation.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 30;13(8):e1006602. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, United States of America.
    The poly(A) leader at the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) is an unusually striking feature of all poxvirus mRNAs transcribed after viral DNA replication (post-replicative mRNAs). These poly(A) leaders are non-templated and of heterogeneous lengths; and their function during poxvirus infection remains a long-standing question. Here, we discovered that a 5'-poly(A) leader conferred a selective translational advantage to mRNA in poxvirus-infected cells. Read More

    Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2017 Aug 21;11(8):e0005809. Epub 2017 Aug 21.
    US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp. Read More

    [F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake in Lymphoid Tissue Serves as a Predictor of Disease Outcome in the Nonhuman Primate Model of Monkeypox Virus Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Nov 13;91(21). Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Integrated Research Facility, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, Maryland, USA.
    Real-time bioimaging of infectious disease processes may aid countermeasure development and lead to an improved understanding of pathogenesis. However, few studies have identified biomarkers for monitoring infections usingimaging. Previously, we demonstrated that positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging with [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) can monitor monkeypox disease progressionin nonhuman primates (NHPs). Read More

    A parapoxviral virion protein inhibits NF-κB signaling early in infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006561. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, United States of America.
    Poxviruses have evolved unique proteins and mechanisms to counteract the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is an essential regulatory pathway of host innate immune responses. Here, we describe a NF-κB inhibitory virion protein of orf virus (ORFV), ORFV073, which functions very early in infected cells. Infection with ORFV073 gene deletion virus (OV-IA82Δ073) led to increased accumulation of NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), marked phosphorylation of IκB kinase (IKK) subunits IKKα and IKKβ, IκBα and NF-κB subunit p65 (NF-κB-p65), and to early nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65 in virus-infected cells (≤ 30 min post infection). Read More

    Transmission dynamics of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 10 3;145(13):2856-2863. Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Quantitative Veterinary Epidemiology,Wageningen University & Research,Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708 PB Wageningen,The Netherlands.
    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe disease of cattle caused by a Capripoxvirus and often caused epidemics in Ethiopia and many other countries. This study was undertaken to quantify the transmission between animals and to estimate the infection reproduction ratio in a predominantly mixed crop-livestock system and in intensive commercial herd types. The transmission parameters were based on a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with environmental transmission and estimated using generalized linear models. Read More

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Vector Induces Specific Cellular and Humoral Responses in the Female Reproductive Tract, the Main HIV Portal of Entry.
    J Immunol 2017 09 31;199(5):1923-1932. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Immunologie des Infections Virales et des Maladies Auto-immunes (ImVA)/Infrastructure Nationale pour la Modélisation des Maladies Infectieuses Humaines et les Thérapies Innovantes (IDMIT)/Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)/Direction de la Recherche Fondamentale (DRF)/Institut des Maladies Emergentes et des Traitements Innovants (IMETI), Université Paris-Sud, INSERM U1184, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses, France;
    The female reproductive tract (FRT) is one of the major mucosal invasion sites for HIV-1. This site has been neglected in previous HIV-1 vaccine studies. Immune responses in the FRT after systemic vaccination remain to be characterized. Read More

    Insufficient Innate Immunity Contributes to the Susceptibility of the Castaneous Mouse to Orthopoxvirus Infection.
    J Virol 2017 Oct 12;91(19). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA
    The castaneous (CAST) mouse, a wild-derived inbred strain, is highly susceptible to orthopoxvirus infection by intranasal and systemic routes. The 50% lethal intraperitoneal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) was 3 PFU for CAST mice, whereas BALB/c mice survived 10PFU. At all times and in all organs analyzed, virus titers were higher in CAST than in BALB/c mice. Read More

    The Small Rho GTPase TC10 Modulates B Cell Immune Responses.
    J Immunol 2017 09 26;199(5):1682-1695. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Lymphocyte Interaction Laboratory, Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, United Kingdom.
    Rho family GTPases regulate diverse cellular events, such as cell motility, polarity, and vesicle traffic. Although a wealth of data exists on the canonical Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, several other family members remain poorly studied. In B cells, we recently demonstrated a critical role for Cdc42 in plasma cell differentiation. Read More

    Qualitative differences in cellular immunogenicity elicited by hepatitis C virus T-Cell vaccines employing prime-boost regimens.
    PLoS One 2017 21;12(7):e0181578. Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Laboratory of Hepatitis Viruses, Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD United States of America.
    T-cell based vaccines have been considered as attractive candidates for prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. In this study we compared the magnitude and phenotypic characteristics of CD8+ T-cells induced by three commonly used viral vectors, Adenovirus-5 (Ad5), Vaccinia virus (VV) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) expressing the HCV NS3/4A protein. C57/BL6 mice were primed with DNA expressing NS3/4A and boosted with each of the viral vectors in individual groups of mice. Read More

    Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA.
    PLoS One 2017 20;12(7):e0181459. Epub 2017 Jul 20.
    Departamento de Biotecnología, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (I.N.I.A.), Madrid, Spain.
    MxA protein is expressed in response to type I and type III Interferon and constitute an important antiviral factor with broad antiviral activity to diverse RNA viruses. In addition, some studies expand the range of MxA antiviral activity to include particular DNA viruses like Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and African Swine Fever virus (ASFV). However, a broad profile of activity of MxA to large DNA viruses has not been established to date. Read More

    A systemic macrophage response is required to contain a peripheral poxvirus infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Jun 14;13(6):e1006435. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, United States of America.
    The goal of the innate immune system is to reduce pathogen spread prior to the initiation of an effective adaptive immune response. Following an infection at a peripheral site, virus typically drains through the lymph to the lymph node prior to entering the blood stream and being systemically disseminated. Therefore, there are three distinct spatial checkpoints at which intervention to prevent systemic spread of virus can occur, namely: 1) the site of infection, 2) the draining lymph node via filtration of lymph or 3) the systemic level via organs that filter the blood. Read More

    A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy.
    J Immunol Methods 2017 Sep 31;448:112-115. Epub 2017 May 31.
    INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; CIRAD UMR ASTRE, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, France.
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. So far, the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene is the only gene used to generate recombinants. A putative non-essential gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor subfamily homologue (GPCR) was targeted as an additional insertion site. Read More

    Bovine vaccinia: Inactivated Vaccinia virus vaccine induces protection in murine model.
    Vet Microbiol 2017 May 9;204:84-89. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Laboratório de Pesquisa em Virologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the milkers' hands. Since 1999, due to the occurrence of many BV outbreaks in dairy farms across all Brazilian regions, there is a need to improve the control and prevention measures of the disease. Vaccination is one of the major tools to prevent viral diseases, and it could be an alternative for BV prevention. Read More

    Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.
    Virology 2017 07;507:267-275
    Signal Transduction Group/Viruses Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP: 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. Read More

    Molluscum Contagiosum: An Update.
    Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2017 ;11(1):22-31
    Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin. Hong Kong.
    Background: Molluscum contagiosum is a viral cutaneous infection in childhood that occurs worldwide. Physicians should familiarize themselves with this common condition.

    Objective: To review in depth the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, complications and, in particular, treatment of molluscum contagiosum. Read More

    Spread of poxviruses in livestock in Brazil associated with cases of double and triple infection.
    Arch Virol 2017 Sep 17;162(9):2797-2801. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Laboratório Nacional Agropecuário de Minas Gerais, Avenida Rômulo Joviano, Centro, Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, 33600-000, Brazil.
    The objective of this work is to describe the distribution of outbreaks of vaccinia virus (VACV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BSPV) in Brazil. The Official Laboratory of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture received 89 samples from different locations in Brazil in 2015 and 2016 for diagnosis of vesicular and exanthematous disease. Poxvirus coinfections occurred in 11 out of 33 outbreaks, including the first reported triple infection by BPSV, PCPV, and VACV. Read More

    Interventions for cutaneous molluscum contagiosum.
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 05 17;5:CD004767. Epub 2017 May 17.
    Department of General Practice, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, Room Ff303, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3000 CA.
    Background: Molluscum contagiosum is a common skin infection that is caused by a pox virus and occurs mainly in children. The infection usually resolves within months in people without immune deficiency, but treatment may be preferred for social and cosmetic reasons or to avoid spreading the infection. A clear evidence base supporting the various treatments is lacking. Read More

    Cross-sectional study involving healthcare professionals in a Vaccinia virus endemic area.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 8;35(25):3281-3285. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    Orthopoxviruses (OPV) are emerging viruses with great importance in human and veterinary medicine, such as Vaccinia virus (VACV), which causes outbreaks of bovine vaccinia (BV) in South America. The clinical aspects of BV are similar to other vesicular infections, complicating the clinical diagnosis. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge of Healthcare Professionals about BV and revealed their unpreparedness about BV in a VACV hyper-endemic area in Brazil, highlighting the public health issues associated with VACV infections. Read More

    Deletion of theGene Results in a Vaccinia Virus That Is Less Pathogenic Due to Muted Innate Immune Responses, yet Still Elicits Protective Immunity.
    J Virol 2017 Aug 12;91(15). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA
    All viruses strategically alter the antiviral immune response to their benefit. The vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 protein has multiple immunomodulatory effects in tissue culture models of infection, including NF-κB antagonism. However, the effect of K1 during animal infection is poorly understood. Read More

    Recombinant vaccinia vector-based vaccine (Tiantan) boosting a novel HBV subunit vaccine induced more robust and lasting immunity in rhesus macaques.
    Vaccine 2017 Jun 6;35(25):3347-3353. Epub 2017 May 6.
    Key Laboratory of Medical Virology, Ministry of Health, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:
    This study explored several prime-boost strategies in rhesus macaques using various novel hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines that showed promise as prophylactic and therapeutic approaches in our previous study using in a mouse model. The tested vaccines included an HBV particle subunit (HBSS1) vaccine and the recombinant vaccinia (RVJSS1) or adenoviral (rAdSS1) vector-based vaccines containing S (1-223aa) and PreS1 (21-47aa). The strength and maintenance of humoral activity (IgG and neutralizing antibodies) and cellular immunity (interferon-γ production assessed by IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay) were investigated in a longitudinal study following various vaccination protocols until 79weeks post-vaccination. Read More

    IL-1R Type 1-Deficient Mice Demonstrate an Impaired Host Immune Response against Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Infection.
    J Immunol 2017 06 3;198(11):4341-4351. Epub 2017 May 3.
    Pediatric Rheumatology, University of Colorado-Denver, Aurora, CO 80045
    The IL-1 superfamily of cytokines and receptors has been studied extensively. However, the specific roles of IL-1 elements in host immunity to cutaneous viral infection remain elusive. In this study, we applied vaccinia virus (VACV) by scarification to IL-1R1 knockout mice (IL-1R1) and found that these mice developed markedly larger lesions with higher viral genome copies in skin than did wild-type mice. Read More

    Giant Orf on the Nose.
    J Craniofac Surg 2017 May;28(3):e234-e235
    *Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gaziantep 25 Aralik State Hospital, Gaziantep †National Tularemia Reference Laboratory, Public Health Institution of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey.
    Orf is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by parapoxvirus. Orf lesions are typically seen on the hand, but they have rarely been reported on the nose. Herein, the authors report a rare patient of an orf lesion on the nose of a 52-year-old man after the Muslim celebration of the feast of the sacrifice. Read More

    Innate Immune Gene Transcript Level Associated with the Infection of Macrophages with Ectromelia Virus in Two Different Mouse Strains.
    Viral Immunol 2017 Jun 28;30(5):315-329. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    1 Division of Immunology, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , Warsaw, Poland .
    Poxviruses have evolved numerous mechanisms to avoid the immune response of the infected host, and many of these mechanisms have not been fully described. Here, we studied the transcriptional response of innate immune genes in BALB/c and C57BL/6 peritoneal macrophages following infection with the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-Mos) with the aim of delineating innate immune genes that contribute to the difference between susceptibility and resistance to lethal infection. We show a generalized downregulation of many genes in four categories (toll-like receptor signaling, NOD-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling, and type I interferon signaling) of antiviral innate immune receptors, downstream signaling pathways, and responsive components. Read More

    Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May;29(3):351-356
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY (Das, Deng, McIntosh).
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. Read More

    The molluscum contagiosum virus death effector domain containing protein MC160 RxDL motifs are not required for its known viral immune evasion functions.
    Virus Genes 2017 Aug 20;53(4):522-531. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 South Orange Ave., South Orange, NJ, 07039, USA.
    The molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) uses a variety of immune evasion strategies to antagonize host immune responses. Two MCV proteins, MC159 and MC160, contain tandem death effector domains (DEDs). They are reported to inhibit innate immune signaling events such as NF-κB and IRF3 activation, and apoptosis. Read More

    Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of the,, andgenes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 04 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

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