13,145 results match your criteria Milker's Nodules


Sporadic cases of lumpy skin disease among cattle in Sharkia province, Egypt: Genetic characterization of lumpy skin disease virus isolates and pathological findings.

Vet World 2018 Aug 23;11(8):1150-1158. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Virology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, 44511-Zagazig, Sharkia Province, Egypt.

Background And Aim: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious viral disease upsetting cattle, caused by LSD virus (LSDV) within the family . Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle previously vaccinated with the Romanian sheep poxvirus (SPPV) vaccine during the summer of 2016 in Sharkia province, Egypt. The present study was undertaken to perform molecular characterization of LSDV strains which circulated in this period as well as investigate their phylogenetic relatedness with published reference capripoxvirus genome sequences

Materials And Methods: A total of 82 skin nodules, as well as 5 lymph nodes, were collected from suspect LSD cases, and the virus was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Suitability of group-level oral fluid sampling in ruminant populations for lumpy skin disease virus detection.

Vet Microbiol 2018 Jul 31;221:44-48. Epub 2018 May 31.

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Südufer 10, 17493, Greifswald, Insel Riems, Germany.

The geographic expansion of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) from the near East into the European Union highlighted again the need for appropriate disease detection tools applicable to animal host populations where access to individual animals is difficult. This is of particular importance considering that the clinical manifestation of LSD is often mild making early disease detection challenging under the above-mentioned conditions. Building on positive experiences of group-level oral fluid sampling for pathogen detection as it is known to work for swine herds and wild boar, the concept was transferred to ruminants. Read More

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July 2018
3 Reads

Never Mind the Science, Here's the Convention on Biological Diversity: Viral Sovereignty in the Smallpox Destruction Debate.

J Law Med 2018 Feb;25(2):429-447

Griffith Law School, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland.

Since the eradication of smallpox was declared in 1980, debate has ensued over what to do with the remaining stocks of the causative agent, variola virus. For more than three decades the World Health Organization has resolved to destroy the virus isolates, now maintained in high-security laboratories in the Russian Federation and the United States, and each time the deadline has been deferred. The legal facets of this debate have been largely overlooked. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Oral Tecovirimat for the Treatment of Smallpox.

N Engl J Med 2018 07;379(1):44-53

From SIGA Technologies, Corvallis, OR.

Background: Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980, but variola virus (VARV), which causes smallpox, still exists. There is no known effective treatment for smallpox; therefore, tecovirimat is being developed as an oral smallpox therapy. Because clinical trials in a context of natural disease are not possible, an alternative developmental path to evaluate efficacy and safety was needed. Read More

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July 2018
2 Reads

Molluscum contagiosum arising in a melanocytic congenital nevus.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Sep 4;35(5):e310-e311. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

Molluscum contagiosum within a congenital melanocytic nevus has rarely been reported. We report a 6-year-old child with molluscum contagiosum infection arising within an intermediate melanocytic congenital nevus of the thigh, associated with itching and occasional bleeding. Dermoscopy lead to the correct diagnosis, but histologic confirmation with shave biopsy was performed to reassure the parents and allow mechanical removal of the lesions using curettage. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Characterisation of putative immunomodulatory gene knockouts of lumpy skin disease virus in cattle towards an improved vaccine.

Vaccine 2018 07 22;36(31):4708-4715. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary Research, Private Bag X5, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa; Department Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is responsible for causing severe economic losses to cattle farmers throughout Africa, the Middle East, and more recently, South-Eastern Europe and Russia. It belongs to the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae family, with closely related sheeppox and goatpox viruses. Like other poxviruses, the viral genome codes for a number of genes with putative immunomodulatory capabilities. Read More

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July 2018
19 Reads
3.62 Impact Factor

A many probes-one spot hybridization oligonucleotide microarray.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2018 Sep 22;410(23):5817-5823. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Lavrentieva 8, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.

A variant of the hybridization oligonucleotide microarray, utilizing the principle of many probes-one spot (MPOS-microarrays), is proposed. A case study based on Orthopoxviruses (Variola, Monkeypox, and Ectromelia viruses) demonstrates a considerable increase in the fluorescence signal (up to 100-fold) when several oligonucleotide probes are printed to one spot. Moreover, the specificity of detection also increases (almost 1000-fold), allowing the use of probes that individually lack such high specificity. Read More

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September 2018
7 Reads

Intranasal monkeypox marmoset model: Prophylactic antibody treatment provides benefit against severe monkeypox virus disease.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 21;12(6):e0006581. Epub 2018 Jun 21.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Virology Division, Fort Detrick Maryland, United States of America.

Concerns regarding outbreaks of human monkeypox or the potential reintroduction of smallpox into an immunological naïve population have prompted the development of animal models and countermeasures. Here we present a marmoset model of monkeypox and smallpox disease utilizing a relevant poxvirus via a natural exposure route. We found that 1000 plaque forming units (PFU) of Monkeypox virus was sufficient to recapitulate smallpox disease, to include an incubation period of approximately 13 days, followed by the onset of rash, and death between 15 and 17 days. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Novel and highly sensitive SYBR® Green real-time pcr for poxvirus detection in odontocete cetaceans.

J Virol Methods 2018 09 8;259:45-49. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (INIA-CISA), Ctra Algete el Casar s/n, Valdeolmos, Madrid, 28130, Spain. Electronic address:

Poxviruses are emerging pathogens in cetaceans, temporarily named 'Cetaceanpoxvirus' (CePV, family Poxviridae), classified into two main lineages: CePV-1 in odontocetes and CePV-2 in mysticetes. Only a few studies performed the molecular detection of CePVs, based on DNA-polymerase gene and/or DNA-topoisomerase I gene amplification. Herein we describe a new real-time PCR assay based on SYBR Green and a new primer set to detect a 150 bp fragment of CePV DNA-polymerase gene, also effective for conventional PCR detection. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Batf3-Dependent Dendritic Cells Promote Optimal CD8 T Cell Responses against Respiratory Poxvirus Infection.

J Virol 2018 08 31;92(16). Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Pathology, Immunology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA

Respiratory infection with vaccinia virus (VacV) elicits robust CD8 T cell responses that play an important role in host resistance. In the lung, VacV encounters multiple tissue-resident antigen-presenting cell (APC) populations, but which cell plays a dominant role in priming of virus-specific CD8 effector T cell responses remains poorly defined. We used Batf3 mice to investigate the impact of CD103 and CD8α dendritic cell (DC) deficiency on anti-VacV CD8 T cell responses. Read More

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Molecular characterization of lumpy skin disease virus in Namibia, 2017.

Arch Virol 2018 Sep 4;163(9):2525-2529. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400, Vienna, Austria.

Between January and July 2017, lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks were reported in cattle in Namibia. DNA was extracted from skin biopsies taken from 32 cattle, and the RNA polymerase 30 kDa subunit (RPO30) gene of the LSD virus (LSDV) was successfully amplified by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the newly sequenced LSDV isolates from Namibia were identical to LSDV isolates identified previously in Burkina Faso, Egypt, Greece, Niger, Serbia and South Africa. Read More

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September 2018
5 Reads

Spatial and temporal distribution of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Uganda (2002-2016).

BMC Vet Res 2018 Jun 1;14(1):174. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal resources and Biosecurity, Makerere University, P.O.BOX 7062, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating transboundary viral disease of cattle which causes significant loss in production. Although this disease has been reported in Uganda and throughout East Africa, there is almost no information about its epidemiology, spatial or spatio-temporal distribution. We carried out a retrospective study on the epidemiology of LSD in Uganda between the years 2002 and 2016, using data on reported outbreaks collected monthly by the central government veterinary administration. Read More

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June 2018
20 Reads
1.78 Impact Factor

Periocular molluscum contagiosum: six different clinical presentations.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Aug 31;96(5):e600-e605. Epub 2018 May 31.

Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Purpose: To describe the different clinical presentations of periocular molluscum contagiosum (MC) lesions and their epidemiological, clinical and histopathological features.

Methods: Medical records and histopathological sections of all cases of periocular MC treated at the oculoplastic clinic of the Goldschleger Eye Institute, Sheba Medical Center, Israel, between 1995 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The following data were extracted: gender, age at the time of MC diagnosis, immune competency, location of the periocular lesions, number of lesions, dimensions of the lesions, clinical presentation, histopathological features, suspected clinical diagnosis before histopathological diagnosis and treatment. Read More

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August 2018
6 Reads

Vaccinia-based vaccines to biothreat and emerging viruses.

Biotechnol Genet Eng Rev 2018 Apr 21;34(1):107-121. Epub 2018 May 21.

b Medical Microbiology and Immunology , University of Alberta , Edmonton , Canada.

The past few years have seen a rash of emerging viral diseases, including the Ebola crisis in West Africa, the pandemic spread of chikungunya, and the recent explosion of Zika in South America. Vaccination is the most reliable and cost-effective method of control of infectious diseases, however, there is often a long delay in production and approval in getting new vaccines to market. Vaccinia was the first vaccine developed for the successful eradication of smallpox and has properties that make it attractive as a universal vaccine vector. Read More

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Novel Poxvirus in Proliferative Lesions of Wild Rodents in East Central Texas, USA.

Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Jun;24(6):1069-1072

Northern pygmy mice from 2 localities in East Central Texas, USA, had proliferative epidermal lesions on the tail and feet. Electron microscopy of lesion tissue revealed poxvirus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the virus differed 35% from its closest relatives, the Chordopoxvirinae. Read More

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June 2018
3 Reads

The Role of Brincidofovir in Preparation for a Potential Smallpox Outbreak.

Viruses 2017 10 30;9(11). Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Chimerix, Durham, NC 27713, USA.

Smallpox (variola) virus is considered a Category A bioterrorism agent due to its ability to spread rapidly and the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with infection. Current recommendations recognize the importance of oral antivirals and call for having at least two smallpox antivirals with different mechanisms of action available in the event of a smallpox outbreak. Multiple antivirals are recommended due in large part to the propensity of viruses to become resistant to antiviral therapy, especially monotherapy. Read More

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October 2017
1 Read

Erythema multiforme after orf virus infection.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 Jul 15;35(4):e237-e238. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital Infantil Universitario Niño Jesús, Madrid, Spain.

The case of a 6-year-old boy with multiple, target-shaped lesions and a crusted nodule on his right index finger is presented. Based on clinical findings and the patient's recent contact with sheep and goats, a diagnosis of orf disease associated with erythema multiforme was suspected. Microscopy studies confirmed the presence of parapoxvirus in the primary lesion. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read
1.52 Impact Factor

Ectromelia virus upregulates the expression of heat shock protein 70 to promote viral replication.

Int J Mol Med 2018 Aug 4;42(2):1044-1053. Epub 2018 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Agriculture Ministry, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, P.R. China.

The ectromelia virus (ECTV) is a mouse specific Orthopoxvirus that causes lethal infection in some mouse strains. ECTV infection of these mouse strains has been used as a valuable model for understanding the interplay between Orthopoxvirus species and their hosts, including variola virus in humans. Although poxviruses encode numerous proteins required for DNA and RNA synthesis, and are less dependent on host functions than other DNA viruses, a detailed understanding of the host factors required for the replication of poxviruses is lacking. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Salmon gill poxvirus disease in Atlantic salmon fry as recognized by improved immunohistochemistry also demonstrates infected cells in non-respiratory epithelial cells.

J Fish Dis 2018 Jul 10;41(7):1103-1110. Epub 2018 May 10.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.

Gill diseases cause serious losses in farming of Atlantic salmon and the number of agents involved increases. Salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) and the gill disease in causes where SGPV apparently was the only disease-causing agent were initially characterized. Recently, it was further shown that SGPV can be a common denominator in widely different multifactorial gill diseases. Read More

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July 2018
1 Read

Molecular characterization of avipoxviruses circulating in Mozambique, 2016-2018.

Arch Virol 2018 Aug 8;163(8):2245-2251. Epub 2018 May 8.

Central Veterinary Laboratory, Directorate of Animal Science, Agrarian Research Institute of Mozambique, Maputo, Mozambique.

Samples from 45 chickens, two turkeys, one peacock and one quail with symptoms of fowlpox were collected in Mozambique between November 2016 and January 2018. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the samples contained avipoxviruses belonging to both clade A1 and clade A2. In addition, all of the Clade A1 viruses were positive by PCR for the integration of reticuloendotheliosis virus, while the clade A2 avipoxvirus samples were negative. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Weak vaccinia virus-induced NK cell regulation of CD4 T cells is associated with reduced NK cell differentiation and cytolytic activity.

Virology 2018 06 30;519:131-144. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 368 Plantation Street, ASC9-2014E, Worcester, MA 01605, USA. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells control antiviral adaptive immune responses in mice during some virus infections, but the universality of this phenomenon remains unknown. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection of mice triggered potent cytotoxic activity of NK cells (NK) against activated CD4 T cells, tumor cells, and allogeneic lymphocytes. In contrast, NK cells activated by vaccinia virus (VACV) infection (NK) exhibited weaker cytolytic activity against each of these target cells. Read More

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June 2018
7 Reads

The geography of smallpox in England before vaccination: A conundrum resolved.

Soc Sci Med 2018 06 16;206:75-85. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure, Faculty of History, West Road, Cambridge, CB3 9EF, UK. Electronic address:

Smallpox is regarded as an ancient and lethal disease of humans, however very little is known about the prevalence and impact of smallpox before the advent of vaccination (c.1800). Here we use evidence from English burial records covering the period 1650-1799 to confirm a striking geography to smallpox patterns. Read More

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A gel-based PCR method to differentiate sheeppox virus field isolates from vaccine strains.

Virol J 2018 04 2;15(1):59. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology laboratory, Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A1400, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Sheeppox (SPP) and goatpox (GTP) caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, are severely afflicting small ruminants' production systems in Africa and Asia. In endemic areas, SPP and GTP are controlled using vaccination with live attenuated vaccines derived from SPPV, GTPV or Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Sometimes outbreaks occur following vaccination. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads
2.18 Impact Factor

Ectromelia virus lacking the E3L ortholog is replication-defective and nonpathogenic but does induce protective immunity in a mouse strain susceptible to lethal mousepox.

Virology 2018 05 27;518:335-348. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Biology, Albright College, Reading, PA, USA. Electronic address:

All known orthopoxviruses, including ectromelia virus (ECTV), contain a gene in the E3L family. The protein product of this gene, E3, is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein. It can impact host range and is used by orthopoxviruses to combat cellular defense pathways, such as PKR and RNase L. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

A single vaccination with non-replicating MVA at birth induces both immediate and long-term protective immune responses.

Vaccine 2018 04 27;36(18):2427-2434. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Bavarian Nordic GmbH, Fraunhoferstrasse 13, D-82152 Martinsried, Germany. Electronic address:

Newborns are considered difficult to protect against infections shortly after birth, due to their ineffective immune system that shows quantitative and qualitative differences compared to adults. However, here we show that a single vaccination of mice at birth with a replication-deficient live vaccine Modified Vaccinia Ankara [MVA] efficiently induces antigen-specific B- and T-cells that fully protect against a lethal Ectromelia virus challenge. Protection was induced within 2 weeks and using genetically modified mice we show that this protection was mainly T-cell dependent. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Use of a disposable ear speculum: An alternative technique for molluscum contagiosum curettage.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 May 25;35(3):418-419. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Molluscum contagiosum is a common contagious disease in children characterized by small skin-colored umbilicated papules. Although spontaneous resolution is common, many parents and patients seek treatment. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been described. Read More

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May 2018
6 Reads

Comment on "Molluscum contagiosum: Review and update on management".

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 03;35(2):280-281

Dermatology Service, Hospital Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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March 2018
8 Reads

Investigation of an outbreak of monkeypox in an area occupied by armed groups, Central African Republic.

Med Mal Infect 2018 Jun 21;48(4):263-268. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Institut Pasteur de Bangui, Central African Republic.

Background: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem.

Patients And Method: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. Read More

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June 2018
1 Read

Squirrelpox virus antibodies detected in red squirrels.

Vet Rec 2018 03;182(12):355

School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL.

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Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?

Viruses 2018 03 22;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.

(ret) University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Burnfoot, Stocksfield, Northumberland, NE43 7TN, UK.

Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

The Host Factor Early Growth Response Gene (EGR-1) Regulates Vaccinia virus Infectivity during Infection of Starved Mouse Cells.

Viruses 2018 03 21;10(4). Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Grupo de Transdução de Sinal, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas, Brazil.

Evolution has equipped poxvirus genomes with the coding capacity for several virus-host interaction products which interfere with host cell gene expression and protein function, creating an adequate intracellular environment for a productive infection. We show here that (VACV) induces the expression of the cellular transcription factor EGR-1 (early growth response-1) in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs) through the MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK)/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) pathway, from 3 to 12 h post infection (h.p. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Characterization of murine antibody responses to vaccinia virus envelope protein A14 reveals an immunodominant antigen lacking of effective neutralization targets.

Virology 2018 05 17;518:284-292. Epub 2018 Mar 17.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Long School of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Vaccinia virus (VACV) A14 is a major envelope protein and a dominant antibody target in the smallpox vaccine. However, the role of anti-A14 antibodies in immunity against orthopoxviruses is unclear. Here, we characterized 22 A14 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from two mice immunized with VACV. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Smallpox vaccine complications: the dermatologist's role in diagnosis and management.

Cutis 2018 Feb;101(2):87-90

University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, USA.

In 2002, the United States implemented a new program for smallpox vaccinations among military personnel using a live vaccinia virus product. Approximately 2.4 million US military service members and health care workers have since been inoculated, with considerable numbers experiencing adverse reactions. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

Molluscum contagiosum in immunocompromised patients: AIDS presenting as molluscum contagiosum in a patient with psoriasis on biologic therapy.

Cutis 2018 Feb;101(2):136-140

Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited cutaneous infection in immunocompetent individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals the infection often has an atypical presentation and can be difficult to eradicate, making both the diagnosis and treatment challenging. Due to advancements in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, there is a growing population of immunosuppressed individuals, signaling the need for dermatologists to recognize and manage related skin diseases. Read More

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February 2018
5 Reads

Rare necrotic lesion in a pregnant woman.

J Clin Pathol 2018 May 16;71(5):472. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

Department of Histopathology, South Warwickshire NHS Foundation Trust, Warwick, UK.

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May 2018
2 Reads

Emergence of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa, 1970–2017.

Authors:

Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2018 Mar 16;93(11):125-32. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

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March 2018
1 Read

Emergence of Monkeypox - West and Central Africa, 1970-2017.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 16;67(10):306-310. Epub 2018 Mar 16.

The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement. Endemic human monkeypox has been reported from more countries in the past decade than during the previous 40 years. Read More

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March 2018
4 Reads

[Clinical presentation of cowpox virus infection in South American camelids - A review].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2018 Feb 21;46(1):50-56. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Cowpox virus (CPXV) infection is a reportable and potentially zoonotic disease that occurs sporadically in a variety of animals. During the past six decades, CPXV infection has been extensively researched and described in both domestic (cat, dog, horse, cattle) and zoo animals (e. g. Read More

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February 2018
2 Reads

[Inappropriate lactation syndrome in a Holstein heifer].

Tierarztl Prax Ausg G Grosstiere Nutztiere 2018 Feb 21;46(1):44-49. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

The present case describes an unusual lactation of a 15-month-old,unbred Holstein-Friesian heifer, which had four swollen, ampouleshaped udder quarters with milk secretion. Examination of the heifer using rectal palpation and transrectal ultrasonography revealed enlargement of the right ovary and partial replacement of original tissue by multiple cysts of variable size. Treatment of the assumed follicularcystic ovary disease was unsuccessful. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Characterization of the immune response elicited by the vaccinia virus L3 protein delivered as naked DNA.

Vaccine 2018 04 7;36(15):2049-2055. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Department of Microbiology, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA. Electronic address:

Poxviruses are complex dsDNA viruses with over 200 genes, many of them with unknown role in the stimulation of immune responses. Among these, the vaccinia virus (VACV) L3L ORF encodes an essential protein for the transcription of the VACV early genes. To the best of our knowledge, the immune response elicited by L3 has not been characterized. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Bovine Vaccinia: Insights into the Disease in Cattle.

Viruses 2018 03 9;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Laboratório de Pesquisa em Virologia Animal, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil.

Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions in the teats of dairy cows and the hands of milkers and is an important public health issue. Severe VACV-induced lesions in the teats and udder of cows and buffaloes could lead to mastitis and other secondary infections, thereby reducing productivity and resulting in economic losses to the dairy industry. In Brazil, BV re-emerged in the late 1990s and is now endemic in most of the Brazilian territory. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Occupational transmission of an Orthopoxvirus infection during an outbreak in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in Lazio Region, Italy, 2015.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 08 7;65(5):578-583. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Scietific Direction, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani", Rome, Italy.

Orthopoxviruses spill over from animal reservoirs to accidental hosts, sometimes causing human infections. We describe the surveillance and infection control measures undertaken during an outbreak due to an Orthopoxvirus occurred in January 2015 in a colony of Macaca tonkeana in the province of Rieti, Latio, Italy, which caused a human asymptomatic infection. According to the epidemiological investigation, the human transmission occurred after an unprotected exposure. Read More

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August 2018
3 Reads

Loss of Actin-Based Motility Impairs Ectromelia Virus Release In Vitro but Is Not Critical to Spread In Vivo.

Viruses 2018 03 5;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 5.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox. Like other poxviruses such as variola virus (agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (the live vaccine for smallpox), ECTV promotes actin-nucleation at the surface of infected cells during virus release. Homologs of the viral protein A36 mediate this function through phosphorylation of one or two tyrosine residues that ultimately recruit the cellular Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. Read More

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March 2018
5 Reads

Modulating Vaccinia Virus Immunomodulators to Improve Immunological Memory.

Viruses 2018 02 28;10(3). Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QP, UK.

The increasing frequency of monkeypox virus infections, new outbreaks of other zoonotic orthopoxviruses and concern about the re-emergence of smallpox have prompted research into developing antiviral drugs and better vaccines against these viruses. This article considers the genetic engineering of vaccinia virus (VACV) to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VACV strains engineered to lack specific immunomodulatory or host range proteins are described. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

[Orf virus in human, confirmation in case report from Chile].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2017 Dec;34(6):607-609

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.

Infection with the orf virus, also known as contagious ecthyma, is recognized as an occupational zoonosis worldwide. It is diagnosed by cutaneous lesions that progress rapidly from macules to papules, vesicles and pustules. The clinical case of a student of veterinary medicine who had had contact with goats, clinically healthy and without apparent lesions, which occured 19 days ago, is reported. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

Efficacy and safety of topical application of 15% and 10% potassium hydroxide for the treatment of Molluscum contagiosum.

Pediatr Dermatol 2018 May 26;35(3):336-342. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Institut Universitari d'Investigació en Atenció Primària Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Spain.

Background/objectives: Molluscum contagiosum is the most common skin infection in children. One topical treatment used for Molluscum contagiosum is potassium hydroxide. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of potassium hydroxide topical treatment at different concentrations with that of placebo in terms of complete clearing of Molluscum contagiosum lesions and to assess the safety and tolerance of potassium hydroxide topical treatment. Read More

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May 2018
5 Reads

The protein-protein interactions between Amsacta moorei entomopoxvirus (AMEV) protein kinases (PKs) and all viral proteins.

Virus Res 2018 03 19;248:31-38. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Trabzon, Turkey.

Entomopoxviruses are an important group of viruses infecting only insects. They belong to Poxviridae which infect both invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Protein kinases are known to have roles at virus morphogenesis, host selectivity, the regulation of cell division and apoptosis in some vertebrate poxviruses. Read More

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March 2018
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Orf virus infection in Alaskan mountain goats, Dall's sheep, muskoxen, caribou and Sitka black-tailed deer.

Acta Vet Scand 2018 Feb 21;60(1):12. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Nursing and Health Sciences-Vestfold, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, University College of Southeast Norway, 3603, Kongsberg, Norway.

Background: The zoonotic Orf virus (ORFV; genus Parapoxvirus, Poxviridae family) occurs worldwide and is transmitted between sheep and goats, wildlife and man. Archived tissue samples from 16 Alaskan wildlife cases, representing mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus, n = 8), Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli dalli, n = 3), muskox (Ovibos moschatus, n = 3), Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis, n = 1) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti, n = 1), were analyzed.

Results: Clinical signs and pathology were most severe in mountain goats, affecting most mucocutaneous regions, including palpebrae, nares, lips, anus, prepuce or vulva, as well as coronary bands. Read More

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February 2018
6 Reads

A paralogous pair of mammalian host restriction factors form a critical host barrier against poxvirus infection.

PLoS Pathog 2018 02 15;14(2):e1006884. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, United States of America.

Host restriction factors constitute a formidable barrier for viral replication to which many viruses have evolved counter-measures. Human SAMD9, a tumor suppressor and a restriction factor for poxviruses in cell lines, is antagonized by two classes of poxvirus proteins, represented by vaccinia virus (VACV) K1 and C7. A paralog of SAMD9, SAMD9L, is also encoded by some mammals, while only one of two paralogs is retained by others. Read More

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February 2018
8 Reads

First Diagnosed Case of Camelpox Virus in Israel.

Viruses 2018 02 13;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, IIBR P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100, Israel.

An outbreak of a disease in camels with skin lesions was reported in Israel during 2016. To identify the etiological agent of this illness, we employed a multidisciplinary diagnostic approach. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of lesion material revealed the presence of an orthopox-like virus, based on its characteristic brick shape. Read More

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February 2018
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