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    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Capripox outbreak in a mixed flock of sheep and goats in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Feb 27;64(1):27-30. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    Acral manifestations of viral infections.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

    Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Dec 1;109:129-134. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, AméricoVespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; Wildlife Ecology and Management Team, Landcare Research, PO Box 1930, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; Department of Zoology, Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address:
    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Corpora amylacea and molluscum contagiosum on a cervical pap smear.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Feb 8;45(2):179-181. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.
    When evaluating a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, the cytology of the squamous epithelial cells is of utmost importance. This is what cytopathologists use to render a diagnosis, ranging from normal to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, or even squamous cell carcinoma. However, occasionally the pathologist will run into microscopic noncellular material as in our case, such as corpora amylacea on the slides, or even uncommon viral inclusions such as Molluscum contagiosum (MCV). Read More

    Investigation of a Possible Link Between Vaccination and the 2010 Sheep Pox Epizootic in Morocco.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 9;63(6):e278-e287. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
    Viral Diseases, Vesicular and Exotic Diseases, CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Sheep pox is endemic in most parts of Northern Africa and has the potential to cause severe economic problems. Live attenuated vaccines are used in Morocco, and in many other countries, to control the disease. Sheep pox virus (SPPV) re-appeared in 2010 causing a nodular clinical form previously not observed in Morocco. Read More

    Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 4;63(6):e187-e196. Epub 2015 Feb 4.
    Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMR1225, IHAP, Toulouse, France.
    Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of reinforcement programmes of endangered species. Houbara Bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years in North Africa and the Middle East. Field observations show that pox disease, caused by avipoxviruses (APV), regularly emerges in conservation projects of Houbara Bustard, despite a very strict implementation of both vaccination and biosecurity. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

    Identification and function analysis of the host cell protein that interacted with Orf virus Bcl-2-like protein ORFV125.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Oct 24;108:93-7. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. Read More

    Molecular detection and analysis of Sheeppox and Orf viruses isolated from sheep from Qalubia, Egypt.
    Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2016 Jul-Aug;129(7-8):310-7
    In this study an outbreak with Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and Orf virus (ORFV) in one sheep herd in the Qalubia province, Egypt, was investigated. Both, SPPV and ORFV caused clinically manifest infections among sheep. The affected sheep showed skin lesions around the mouth or all over the body. Read More

    Natural Vaccinia Virus Infection: Diagnosis, Isolation, and Characterization.
    Curr Protoc Microbiol 2016 Aug 12;42:14A.5.1-14A.5.43. Epub 2016 Aug 12.
    Laboratório de Vírus, Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Natural infections of Vaccinia virus (VACV)-the prototype species of the Orthopoxvirus genus, from the family Poxviridae and subfamily Chordopoxvirinae-cause an occupational emergent zoonotic disease that is primarily associated with the handling of infected dairy cattle. In humans, VACV infection is characterized by skin lesions, primarily on the hands, and accompanied by systemic symptoms such as fever, myalgia, headache, and lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of VACV is usually performed according to the methods described for other orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Outbreak of sheeppox in farmed sheep in Kyrgystan: Histological, eletron microscopical and molecular characterization.
    Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2016 Jul;158(7):529-32
    PathoVet AG, Tagelswangen, Switzerland.
    Introduction: On a farm in the Kyrgyz Republic, several dead sheep were found without any history of illness. The sheep showed several ulcerations on lips and bare-skinned areas. At necropsy the lungs showed multiple firm nodules, which were defined as pox nodules histologically. Read More

    Vopr Virusol 2016 ;61(2):79-84
    Mice of the ICR outbred population were infected intranasally (i/n) with the variola virus (VARV, strain Ind-3a). Clinical signs of the disease did not appear even at the maximum possible dose of the virus 5.2 lg PFU/head (plaque-forming units per head). Read More

    Vopr Virusol 2016 ;61(2):69-73
    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Read More

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells in skin lesions of classic Kaposi's sarcoma.
    Arch Dermatol Res 2016 Sep 2;308(7):487-92. Epub 2016 Jul 2.
    Dermatology Department, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Riad El Solh St, P.O.Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent producers of type I interferons (IFNs), which allows them to provide anti-viral resistance and to link the innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the function of myeloid DCs, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. pDCs are involved in the pathogenesis of several infectious [especially viral, such as Molluscum contagiosum (MC)], inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic entities. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a multifocal, systemic lympho-angioproliferative tumor associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Read More

    Comparative innocuity and efficacy of live and inactivated sheeppox vaccines.
    BMC Vet Res 2016 Jun 29;12(1):133. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Research and Development Virology, Multi-Chemical Industry, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P.: 278, Mohammedia, 28810, Morocco.
    Background: Sheeppox (SPP) is one of the priorities, high-impact animal diseases in many developing countries, where live attenuated vaccines are routinely used against sheeppox virus (SPPV). In an event of an SPP outbreak, historically disease-free countries would hesitate to use of live vaccines against SPPVdue to the safety and trade reasons. Currently no killed SPPV vaccines are commercially available. Read More

    Serum Biochemistry of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Infected Cattle.
    Biomed Res Int 2016 12;2016:6257984. Epub 2016 May 12.
    Agriculture and Rural Development Support Institution, 03000 Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.
    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important poxvirus disease of cattle. Vaccination is the main method of control but sporadic outbreaks have been reported in Turkey. This study was carried out to determine the changes in serum biochemical values of cattle naturally infected with lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Read More

    Isolation and genetic characterization of swinepox virus from pigs in India.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Jun 4;46:60-5. Epub 2016 Apr 4.
    Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh-243122, India.
    Swinepox virus (SWPV), a member of the genus Suipoxvirus causes generalized pock-like lesions on the body of domestic and wild pigs. Although outbreak has been reported in India since 1987, virus isolation and genetic characterization remained elusive. In September 2013, an outbreak of acute skin infection occurred in piglets in a commercial piggery unit at Rohtak district in Haryana, India. Read More

    The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Jun 15;46:16-9. Epub 2016 Mar 15.
    Laboratório de Vírus do Departamento de Microbiologia do Instituto de Ciências Biológicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Read More

    Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol 2016 Mar-Apr(2):56-62
    Aim: Determination of values of coefficients of thermal stability of TEOVac for prognosis of conservation of the vaccine (specific biological activity) during the process of warranty period storage.

    Materials And Method: TEOVac (masticatory tablets) in primary packaging was kept at increased temperature (accelerated and stress-tests) and at the conditions established by PAP for the preparation (long-term tests). Biological activity of the vaccine was determined by titration on 12-day chicken embryos. Read More

    Concentration of carp edema virus (CEV) DNA in koi tissues affected by koi sleepy disease (KSD).
    Dis Aquat Organ 2016 May;119(3):245-51
    Fish Disease Research Unit, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, 30559 Germany.
    Carp edema virus (CEV), the causative agent of 'koi sleepy disease' (KSD), appears to be spreading worldwide and to be responsible for losses in koi, ornamental varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. Clinical signs of KSD include lethargic behaviour, swollen gills, sunken eyes and skin alterations and can easily be mistaken for other diseases, such as infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3). To improve the future diagnosis of CEV infection and to provide a tool to better explore the relationship between viral load and clinical disease, we developed a specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) for strains of the virus known to infect koi carp. Read More

    Nucleoside Triphosphate Phosphohydrolase I (NPH I) Functions as a 5' to 3' Translocase in Transcription Termination of Vaccinia Early Genes.
    J Biol Chem 2016 Jul 6;291(28):14826-38. Epub 2016 May 6.
    From the Department of Biological Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-4610
    Vaccinia virus early genes are transcribed immediately upon infection. Nucleoside triphosphate phosphohydrolase I (NPH I) is an essential component of the early gene transcription complex. NPH I hydrolyzes ATP to release transcripts during transcription termination. Read More

    Molecular characterization of Orf virus in goats in Gabon, Central Africa.
    Virol J 2016 May 13;13:79. Epub 2016 May 13.
    Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville (CIRMF), BP769, Franceville, Gabon.
    Background: Orf or contagious ecthyma is a zoonotic viral infection with a potential serious health threat for the small ruminants industry as well as humans. It is currently emerging in new territories.

    Results: Eight suspected clinical cases of pustular dermatitis in goats occurred in the rural area of Tebe, in south-eastern Gabon, in January 2013. Read More

    The N Terminus of the Vaccinia Virus Protein F1L Is an Intrinsically Unstructured Region That Is Not Involved in Apoptosis Regulation.
    J Biol Chem 2016 Jul 5;291(28):14600-8. Epub 2016 May 5.
    From the La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086, Australia and
    Subversion of host cell apoptotic responses is a prominent feature of viral immune evasion strategies to prevent premature clearance of infected cells. Numerous poxviruses encode structural and functional homologs of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, and vaccinia virus harbors antiapoptotic F1L that potently inhibits the mitochondrial apoptotic checkpoint. Recently F1L has been assigned a caspase-9 inhibitory function attributed to an N-terminal α helical region of F1L spanning residues 1-15 (1) preceding the domain-swapped Bcl-2-like domains. Read More

    One-Step Multiplex RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Capripoxvirus, Pasteurella multocida and Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies (ssp.) capripneumoniae.
    PLoS One 2016 28;11(4):e0153688. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
    Animal Production and Health Laboratory (APHL), Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria.
    Respiratory infections, although showing common clinical symptoms like pneumonia, are caused by bacterial, viral or parasitic agents. These are often reported in sheep and goats populations and cause huge economic losses to the animal owners in developing countries. Detection of these diseases is routinely done using ELISA or microbiological methods which are being reinforced or replaced by molecular based detection methods including multiplex assays, where detection of different pathogens is carried out in a single reaction. Read More

    Safety and Immunogenicity of Novel Adenovirus Type 26- and Modified Vaccinia Ankara-Vectored Ebola Vaccines: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
    JAMA 2016 Apr;315(15):1610-23
    Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom7National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Importance: Developing effective vaccines against Ebola virus is a global priority.

    Objective: To evaluate an adenovirus type 26 vector vaccine encoding Ebola glycoprotein (Ad26.ZEBOV) and a modified vaccinia Ankara vector vaccine, encoding glycoproteins from Ebola virus, Sudan virus, Marburg virus, and Tai Forest virus nucleoprotein (MVA-BN-Filo). Read More

    An interaction quantitative trait loci tool implicates epistatic functional variants in an apoptosis pathway in smallpox vaccine eQTL data.
    Genes Immun 2016 06 7;17(4):244-50. Epub 2016 Apr 7.
    Department of Mathematics, Tandy School of Computer Science, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK, USA.
    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have functionalized nucleic acid variants through the regulation of gene expression. Although most eQTL studies only examine the effects of single variants on transcription, a more complex process of variant-variant interaction (epistasis) may regulate transcription. Herein, we describe a tool called interaction QTL (iQTL) designed to efficiently detect epistatic interactions that regulate gene expression. Read More

    Detection and quantification of parapoxvirus DNA by use of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay in calves without clinical signs of parapoxvirus infection.
    Am J Vet Res 2016 Apr;77(4):383-7
    Objective: To investigate the presence of parapoxvirus (PPV) in cattle without clinical signs of infection and in farm environments of PPV-infected cattle.

    Animals: 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection on 2 farms and 11 clinically affected calves on 6 farms.

    Procedures: 164 oral swab samples were collected at regular intervals from 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection, and 11 swab samples were collected from 11 clinically affected calves. Read More

    J Zoo Wildl Med 2016 Mar;47(1):161-74
    Avian poxviruses (APV) are very large viruses spread worldwide in a variety of hosts. They are responsible for a disease usually referred to as pox, mainly characterized by nodular lesions on feather-free regions of the body. On May 2010, a young American flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) of the Lisbon Zoo (Portugal) developed a nodular lesion suggestive of poxvirus infection on its right foot. Read More

    Development of an isothermoal amplification-based assay for rapid visual detection of an Orf virus.
    Virol J 2016 Mar 19;13:46. Epub 2016 Mar 19.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Grazing Animal Diseases of Ministry of Agriculture, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
    Background: Orf virus (ORFV) is the causative agent of a severe infectious skin disease (also known as contagious ecthyma) in goats, sheep and other small ruminants. Importantly, ORFV also infect humans which causes a public health concern in the context of changing environment and increase in human populations. The rapid detection is critical in effective control of the disease and urgently needed. Read More

    Emergence of Lumpy Skin Disease in Greece, 2015.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Jun 18;63(3):260-5. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Animal Health Directorate, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Athens, Greece.
    Lumpy skin disease was first reported in the EU, Greece, in August 2015. Until the end of December 2015, six regional units have been affected in northern Greece and the island of Limnos. This article presents the epidemiological situation, the diagnosis, the control measures including emergency vaccination and the preliminary conclusions from the experience gained. Read More

    Locally Produced IL-10 Limits Cutaneous Vaccinia Virus Spread.
    PLoS Pathog 2016 Mar 18;12(3):e1005493. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.
    Skin infection with the poxvirus vaccinia (VV) elicits a powerful, inflammatory cellular response that clears virus infection in a coordinated, spatially organized manner. Given the high concentration of pro-inflammatory effectors at areas of viral infection, it is unclear how tissue pathology is limited while virus-infected cells are being eliminated. To better understand the spatial dynamics of the anti-inflammatory response to a cutaneous viral infection, we first screened cytokine mRNA expression levels after epicutaneous (ec. Read More

    Giant molluscum contagiosum presenting as lid neoplasm in an immunocompetent child.
    Dermatol Online J 2016 Jan 15;22(1). Epub 2016 Jan 15.
    Medical Research Foundation, Sankara Nethralaya, Chennai.
    A three-year-old boy presented to our oculoplastic clinic with complaints of painless gradually increasing right upper lid mass for the last 6 months. On examination a firm mass measuring roughly 1x1 cm was present on the upper lid. The mass was non tender with fine superficial vessels running over it. Read More

    Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.
    MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Mar 18;65(10):257-62. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e. Read More

    Relationship Between Values of Fowlpox ELISA and the Presence of "Takes" After Vaccination.
    Avian Dis 2016 Mar;60(1):67-9
    A Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Values from an ELISA for evaluating the immune response induced by a commercial vaccine against fowlpox virus and the lesion at the site of inoculation (i.e., swelling of the skin or a pox where the vaccine was applied) were compared. Read More

    PKR Transduces MDA5-Dependent Signals for Type I IFN Induction.
    PLoS Pathog 2016 Mar 3;12(3):e1005489. Epub 2016 Mar 3.
    Departments of Pathology and Microbiology and NYU Cancer Institute, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Sensing invading pathogens early in infection is critical for establishing host defense. Two cytosolic RIG-like RNA helicases, RIG-I and MDA5, are key to type I interferon (IFN) induction in response to viral infection. Mounting evidence suggests that another viral RNA sensor, protein kinase R (PKR), may also be critical for IFN induction during infection, although its exact contribution and mechanism of action are not completely understood. Read More

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