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    Viral exploitation of the MEK/ERK pathway - A tale of vaccinia virus and other viruses.
    Virology 2017 Jul;507:267-275
    Signal Transduction Group/Viruses Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, CEP: 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The VACV replication cycle is remarkable in the sense that it is performed entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment of vertebrate cells, due to its capability to encode enzymes required either for regulating the macromolecular precursor pool or the biosynthetic processes. Although remarkable, this gene repertoire is not sufficient to confer the status of a free-living microorganism to the virus, and, consequently, the virus relies heavily on the host to successfully generate its progeny. During the complex virus-host interaction, viruses must deal not only with the host pathways to accomplish their temporal demands but also with pathways that counteract viral infection, including the inflammatory, innate and acquired immune responses. Read More

    Modification of two capripoxvirus quantitative real-time PCR assays to improve diagnostic sensitivity and include beta-actin as an internal positive control.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May;29(3):351-356
    Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, Greenport, NY (Das, Deng, McIntosh).
    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs), consisting of Sheeppox virus (SPV), Goatpox virus (GPV), and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) species, cause economically significant diseases in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are routinely used for rapid detection of CaPVs in surveillance and outbreak management programs. We further modified and optimized 2 previously published CaPV qPCR assays, referred to as the Balinsky and Bowden assays, by changing commercial PCR reagents used in the tests. Read More

    Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response.
    J Virol 2017 Jul 9;91(13). Epub 2017 Jun 9.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Madrid, Spain
    Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of mice, ablation of the A52R, B15R, and K7R genes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as chemokine/cytokine expression. Read More

    Genomic characterization of two novel pathogenic avipoxviruses isolated from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp.).
    BMC Genomics 2017 Apr 13;18(1):298. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia.
    Background: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. Read More

    Treacle and Smallpox: Two Tests for Multicriteria Decision Analysis Models in Health Technology Assessment.
    Value Health 2017 Mar 20;20(3):512-515. Epub 2016 Dec 20.
    Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde Business School, Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:
    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is rightly receiving increasing attention in health technology assessment. Nevertheless, a distinguishing feature of the health domain is that technologies must actually improve health, and good performance on other criteria cannot compensate for failure to do so. We argue for two reasonable tests for MCDA models: the treacle test (can a winning intervention be incompletely ineffective?) and the smallpox test (can a winning intervention be for a disease that no one suffers from?). Read More

    Genomic and phenotypic characterization of myxoma virus from Great Britain reveals multiple evolutionary pathways distinct from those in Australia.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Mar 2;13(3):e1006252. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.
    The co-evolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) and the European rabbit occurred independently in Australia and Europe from different progenitor viruses. Although this is the canonical study of the evolution of virulence, whether the genomic and phenotypic outcomes of MYXV evolution in Europe mirror those observed in Australia is unknown. We addressed this question using viruses isolated in the United Kingdom early in the MYXV epizootic (1954-1955) and between 2008-2013. Read More

    The Molluscum Contagiosum Virus protein MC163 localizes to the mitochondria and dampens mitochondrial mediated apoptotic responses.
    Virology 2017 May 21;505:91-101. Epub 2017 Feb 21.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Seton Hall University, 400 S. Orange Ave, South Orange, NJ 07079, United States. Electronic address:
    Apoptosis is a powerful host cell defense to prevent viruses from completing replication. Poxviruses have evolved complex means to dampen cellular apoptotic responses. The poxvirus, Molluscum Contagiosum Virus (MCV), encodes numerous host interacting molecules predicted to antagonize immune responses. Read More

    Survival of tissue-resident memory T cells requires exogenous lipid uptake and metabolism.
    Nature 2017 03 20;543(7644):252-256. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Dermatology and Harvard Skin Disease Research Center, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells persist indefinitely in epithelial barrier tissues and protect the host against pathogens. However, the biological pathways that enable the long-term survival of TRM cells are obscure. Here we show that mouse CD8(+) TRM cells generated by viral infection of the skin differentially express high levels of several molecules that mediate lipid uptake and intracellular transport, including fatty-acid-binding proteins 4 and 5 (FABP4 and FABP5). Read More

    Comparative analysis estimates the relative frequencies of co-divergence and cross-species transmission within viral families.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Feb 8;13(2):e1006215. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
    The cross-species transmission of viruses from one host species to another is responsible for the majority of emerging infections. However, it is unclear whether some virus families have a greater propensity to jump host species than others. If related viruses have an evolutionary history of co-divergence with their hosts there should be evidence of topological similarities between the virus and host phylogenetic trees, whereas host jumping generates incongruent tree topologies. Read More

    Deletion of the Chemokine Binding Protein Gene from the Parapoxvirus Orf Virus Reduces Virulence and Pathogenesis in Sheep.
    Front Microbiol 2017 24;8:46. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Otago Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Orf virus (ORFV) is the type species of the Parapoxvirus genus of the family Poxviridae and infects sheep and goats, often around the mouth, resulting in acute pustular skin lesions. ORFV encodes several secreted immunomodulators including a broad-spectrum chemokine binding protein (CBP). Chemokines are a large family of secreted chemotactic proteins that activate and regulate inflammation induced leukocyte recruitment to sites of infection. Read More

    Temporal and spatial distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreaks in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe from 2000 to 2013.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 4;49(3):509-514. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
    School of Agricultural Science and Technology, Department of Animal Production and Technology, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe.
    The objective of this study was to determine significant factors affecting spacio-temporal distribution of lumpy skin disease (LSD) in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe. A retrospective study of LSD from year 2000 to 2013 was undertaken using records from the Department of Livestock and Veterinary Services, Mashonaland West Province, Zimbabwe. Descriptive statistics was computed on LSD cases, treatments, vaccinations, and deaths. Read More

    Prevalence, distribution, and risk factor for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) in Algeria.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Mar 24;49(3):649-652. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Ecole Superieure en Sciences de l'Aliment et des Industries Agroalimentaires (ESSAIA), Algiers, Algeria.
    A cross-sectional study using a tested questionnaire was carried out across Algeria between January and June 2014. Our investigation demonstrated that of the 150 flocks visited, 21 were positive for sheep pox and goat pox (SPGP) with an overall flock prevalence of 14% (95% CI 11.08-16. Read More

    Characterization of an Avipoxvirus From a Bald Eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) Using Novel Consensus PCR Protocols for the rpo147 and DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase Genes.
    J Avian Med Surg 2016 Dec;30(4):378-385
    A juvenile female bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus ) was presented with emaciation and proliferative periocular lesions. The eagle did not respond to supportive therapy and was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the skin lesions revealed plaques of marked epidermal hyperplasia parakeratosis, marked acanthosis and spongiosis, and eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Read More

    Capripox outbreak in a mixed flock of sheep and goats in India.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2017 Feb 27;64(1):27-30. Epub 2016 Dec 27.
    Division of Virology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Mukteswar, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India.
    Generally, capripoxvirus infections are host specific in nature and occasionally infect more than one species. In this study, an investigation was carried out from an outbreak of capripox in a mixed flock of sheep and goats which occurred in 2013 in the State of Jammu & Kashmir. The genetic analysis of P32, RPO30 and GPCR genes revealed that both goats and sheep were infected with goatpox virus. Read More

    A New Document on Smallpox Vaccination.
    J Acupunct Meridian Stud 2016 Dec 10;9(6):287-289. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:
    Modern medicine owes much to the invaluable heritage of the practices of past generations and their achievements that have now become medical rules. In the case of vaccination, there is evidence that the nomads of Baluchistan (Southeast Iran) demonstrated natural immunization against cowpox, a practice that was later introduced to the medical community by Edward Jenner. Although the discoveries of scientists cannot be ignored, they are certainly based on the traditional and indigenous experiences that have been transferred from generation to generation until reaching us. Read More

    Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Avipoxvirus in House Sparrows in Spain.
    PLoS One 2016 22;11(12):e0168690. Epub 2016 Dec 22.
    Departamento de Microbiología III, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Avipoxvirus (APV) is a fairly common virus affecting birds that causes morbidity and mortality in wild and captive birds. We studied the prevalence of pox-like lesions and genetic diversity of APV in house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in natural, agricultural and urban areas in southern Spain in 2013 and 2014 and in central Spain for 8 months (2012-2013). Overall, 3. Read More

    Smallpox as an actual biothreat: lessons learned from its outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972.
    Ann Ist Super Sanita 2016 Oct-Dec;52(4):587-597
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro.
    Variola (smallpox) virus is classified as class A of potential biological weapons, due to its microbiological, genetic, antigenic and epidemiological characteristics. The potential danger is more real because vaccination against smallpox has stopped since disease eradication in 1979. That is why we want to share our unique, rich experience and acquired knowledge in the fight against this highly contagious and deadly disease during the smallpox outbreak in ex-Yugoslavia in 1972. Read More

    Functional characterization of recombinant major envelope protein (rB2L) of orf virus.
    Arch Virol 2017 Apr 19;162(4):953-962. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (NIVEDI), Bengaluru, 560 064, Karnataka, India.
    Orf, or contagious ecthyma, a highly contagious transboundary disease of sheep and goats, is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus (ORFV) belonging to the genus Parapoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. The ORFV genome encodes the major envelope proteins B2L and F1L, which have been found to be highly immunogenic and have multiple functional characteristics. In order to investigate the functional properties of the B2L protein, in this study, the B2L gene of ORFV strain 59/05, encoding recombinant mature B2L (aa 1M-D334), was produced as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Read More

    Evaluation of the GeneXpert for Human Monkeypox Diagnosis.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 Feb 19;96(2):405-410. Epub 2016 Dec 19.
    Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Enteric and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX), is endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, diagnostic assays for human monkeypox (MPX) focus on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which are typically performed in sophisticated laboratory settings. Herein, we evaluated the accuracy and utility of a multiplex MPX assay using the GeneXpert platform, a portable rapid diagnostic device that may serve as a point-of-care test to diagnose infections in endemic areas. Read More

    [Workers with signs of smallpox in the collection of Regional Office of Labor, Rio Grande do Sul, 1933-1944].
    Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos 2016 Oct-Dec;23(4):1209-1227
    Professor, Universidade Federal de Pelotas. Rua Alberto Rosa, 154. 90010-770 - Pelotas - RS - Brasil.
    Work Register Booklet was created in Brazil in 1932. Soon, Regional Labor Inspectorates emerged - after renamed as Regional Office of Labor. In Rio Grande do Sul, this office was settled in 1933 in Porto Alegre. Read More

    Tick-Borne Diseases in Turkey: A Review Based on One Health Perspective.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Dec 15;10(12):e0005021. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.
    The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) with zoonotic characteristics. In Turkey, almost 19 TBDs have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acanthocheilonemasis), ten bacterial agents (anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, aegyptianellosis, tick-borne typhus, Candidatus Rickettsia vini, Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne relapsing fever [TBRF], tularaemia, bartonellosis, and hemoplasmosis), and four viral infections (tick-borne encephalitis [TBE], Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever [CCHF], louping-ill [LI], and lumpy skin disease [LSD]). Read More

    Acral manifestations of viral infections.
    Clin Dermatol 2017 Jan - Feb;35(1):40-49. Epub 2016 Sep 10.
    Emeritus Professor of Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Dermatology, Beşevler, Ankara, Turkey.
    Viruses are considered intracellular obligates with a nucleic acid RNA or DNA. They have the ability to encode proteins involved in viral replication and production of the protective coat within the host cells but require host cell ribosomes and mitochondria for translation. The members of the families Herpesviridae, Poxviridae, Papovaviridae, and Picornaviridae are the most commonly known agents for cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin. Read More

    Cowpox in a human, Russia, 2015.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 Mar 5;145(4):755-759. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology 'Vector',Koltsovo,Novosibirsk Region,Russia.
    We investigated the first laboratory-confirmed human case of cowpox virus infection in Russia since 1991. Phylogenetic studies of haemagglutinin, TNF-α receptor-like protein and thymidine kinase regions showed significant differences with known orthopoxviruses, including unique amino-acid substitutions and deletions. The described cowpox virus strain, taking into account differences, is genetically closely related to strains isolated years ago in the same geographical region (European part of Russia and Finland), which suggests circulation of viral strains with common origin in wild rodents without spread over long distances and appearance in other parts of the world. Read More

    Genetic Variability of Myxoma Virus Genomes.
    J Virol 2017 Feb 31;91(4). Epub 2017 Jan 31.
    Department of Animal Sciences, Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany
    Myxomatosis is a recurrent problem on rabbit farms throughout Europe despite the success of vaccines. To identify gene variations of field and vaccine strains that may be responsible for changes in virulence, immunomodulation, and immunoprotection, the genomes of 6 myxoma virus (MYXV) strains were sequenced: German field isolates Munich-1, FLI-H, 2604, and 3207; vaccine strain MAV; and challenge strain ZA. The analyzed genomes ranged from 147. Read More

    Antigen-dependent competition shapes the local repertoire of tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells.
    J Exp Med 2016 Dec 29;213(13):3075-3086. Epub 2016 Nov 29.
    Institute of Virology, Technische Universität München and Helmholtz Zentrum München, 81675 Munich, Germany
    Tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells (TRM) constitute a major component of the immune-surveillance system in nonlymphoid organs. Local, noncognate factors are both necessary and sufficient to support the programming of TRM cell fate in tissue-infiltrating T cells. Recent evidence suggests that TCR signals received in infected nonlymphoid tissues additionally contribute to TRM cell formation. Read More

    A homolog of the variola virus B22 membrane protein contributes to ectromelia virus pathogenicity in the mouse footpad model.
    Virology 2017 Jan 26;501:107-114. Epub 2016 Nov 26.
    Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Most poxviruses encode a homolog of a ~200,000-kDa membrane protein originally identified in variola virus. We investigated the importance of the ectromelia virus (ECTV) homolog C15 in a natural infection model. In cultured mouse cells, the replication of a mutant virus with stop codons near the N-terminus (ECTV-C15Stop) was indistinguishable from a control virus (ECTV-C15Rev). Read More

    [New subtype of molluscipoxvirus detected].
    Lakartidningen 2016 11 28;113. Epub 2016 Nov 28.
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset - Laboratoriemedicin Goteborg, Sweden Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset - Laboratoriemedicin Goteborg, Sweden.
    Molluscum contagiosum is a viral infection of the epidermis characterized by skin-colored papules or nodules frequently with a central depression. Atypical variants may occur, primarily in immunosuppressed individuals. We here report a case of »giant Molluscum contagiosum« in an immunocompetent child. Read More

    Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Dec 1;109:129-134. Epub 2016 Oct 1.
    Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, AméricoVespucio s/n, 41092 Seville, Spain; Wildlife Ecology and Management Team, Landcare Research, PO Box 1930, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; Department of Zoology, Campus de Rabanales, University of Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain. Electronic address:
    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Read More

    Daily ingestion of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ST11 decreases Vaccinia virus dissemination and lethality in a mouse model.
    Benef Microbes 2017 Feb 22;8(1):73-80. Epub 2016 Nov 22.
    1 Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Vaccinia virus (VACV) is an important pathogen. Although studies have shown relationships between probiotics and viruses, the effect of probiotics on VACV infection is unknown. Therefore, this work aims to investigate the probiotics effects on VACV infection. Read More

    Occurrence of Pseudocowpox virus associated to Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1, Brazilian Amazon.
    Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2016 Dec 29;49:70-75. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:
    In 2011, an outbreak of severe vesicular disease occurred in the state of Pará, Amazon region. Besides proliferative or verrucous lesions, cattle showed atypical clinical signs such as diarrhea and leading to death. The animals were submitted to clinical, pathological and molecular diagnosis, and laboratory tests have confirmed the presence of Pseudocowpox virus (PCPV), a Parapoxvirus genus member, and have also found Bovine viral diarrhea virus-1 (BVDV-1), probably causing persistent infection. Read More

    Corpora amylacea and molluscum contagiosum on a cervical pap smear.
    Diagn Cytopathol 2017 Feb 8;45(2):179-181. Epub 2016 Nov 8.
    Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.
    When evaluating a Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, the cytology of the squamous epithelial cells is of utmost importance. This is what cytopathologists use to render a diagnosis, ranging from normal to atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) to high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, or even squamous cell carcinoma. However, occasionally the pathologist will run into microscopic noncellular material as in our case, such as corpora amylacea on the slides, or even uncommon viral inclusions such as Molluscum contagiosum (MCV). Read More

    Vaccinia virus Western Reserve induces rapid surface expression of a host molecule detected by the antibody 4C7 that is distinct from CLEC2D.
    Microbiol Immunol 2016 Nov;60(11):754-769
    Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and Li Ka Shing Institute of Virology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada.
    In this study, the effect of active infection with vaccinia virus Western Reserve (VACV WR) on expression of C-type lectin domain family 2 (CLEC2D), a ligand of the human NK cell inhibitory receptor NKR-P1, was examined. As predicted, VACV infection led to a loss of CLEC2D mRNA in 221 cells, a B cell lymphoma line. Surprisingly, VACV infection of 221 cells caused a dramatic increase in cell surface staining for one CLEC2D-specific antibody, 4C7. Read More

    [Twelve cases of monkeypox virus outbreak in Bangassou District (Central African Republic) in December 2015].
    Bull Soc Pathol Exot 2016 Dec 25;109(5):358-363. Epub 2016 Oct 25.
    Unité des mycobactéries, Service de laboratoire, Hôpital de l'Amitié, Bangui, République centrafricaine.
    An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. Read More

    Investigation of a Possible Link Between Vaccination and the 2010 Sheep Pox Epizootic in Morocco.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 9;63(6):e278-e287. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
    Viral Diseases, Vesicular and Exotic Diseases, CODA-CERVA, Brussels, Belgium.
    Sheep pox is endemic in most parts of Northern Africa and has the potential to cause severe economic problems. Live attenuated vaccines are used in Morocco, and in many other countries, to control the disease. Sheep pox virus (SPPV) re-appeared in 2010 causing a nodular clinical form previously not observed in Morocco. Read More

    Outbreaks of Pox Disease Due to Canarypox-Like and Fowlpox-Like Viruses in Large-Scale Houbara Bustard Captive-Breeding Programmes, in Morocco and the United Arab Emirates.
    Transbound Emerg Dis 2016 Dec 4;63(6):e187-e196. Epub 2015 Feb 4.
    Université de Toulouse, INP, ENVT, UMR1225, IHAP, Toulouse, France.
    Infectious diseases can be serious threats for the success of reinforcement programmes of endangered species. Houbara Bustard species (Chlamydotis undulata and Chlamydotis macqueenii), whose populations declined in the last decades, have been captive-bred for conservation purposes for more than 15 years in North Africa and the Middle East. Field observations show that pox disease, caused by avipoxviruses (APV), regularly emerges in conservation projects of Houbara Bustard, despite a very strict implementation of both vaccination and biosecurity. Read More

    Cross-Neutralizing and Protective Human Antibody Specificities to Poxvirus Infections.
    Cell 2016 Oct;167(3):684-694.e9
    The Vanderbilt Vaccine Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:
    Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses. Read More

    Infectious Angiogenesis-Different Pathways, the Same Goal.
    Am J Dermatopathol 2016 Nov;38(11):793-801
    *Resident, Department of Pathology, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; †Dermatologist, Dermatopathologie Friedrichshafen, Friedrichshafen, Germany; ‡Dermatologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain; and §Pathologist, Department of Pathology, Medical School, Universidad Complutense, Instituto i+12, Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.
    Infectious angiogenesis is the biological response of neoangiogenesis induced by infectious organisms. The authors present 3 exemplary entities which show paradigmatic clinico-pathological settings of infectious angiogenesis: Bacillary angiomatosis, Orf (ecthyma contagiosum), and Kaposi sarcoma. The authors review the literature and elucidate etiopathogenetic pathways leading to the phenomenon of neovascularization stimulated by infectious organisms. Read More

    History of Smallpox and Its Spread in Human Populations.
    Microbiol Spectr 2016 Aug;4(4)
    Smallpox is considered among the most devastating of human diseases. Its spread in populations, initiated for thousands of years following a probable transmission from an animal host, was concomitant with movements of people across regions and continents, trade and wars. Literature permitted to retrace the occurrence of epidemics from ancient times to recent human history, smallpox having affected all levels of past society including famous monarchs. Read More

    Incidence and molecular characterisation of lumpy skin disease virus in Zimbabwe using the P32 gene.
    Trop Anim Health Prod 2017 Jan 26;49(1):47-54. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
    Department of Applied Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Applied Sciences, National University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box AC 939, Ascot, Bulawayo, 00263, Zimbabwe.
    Between January, 2013 and December, 2014, there was a lumpy skin disease (LSD) outbreak that affected cattle in different localities of Zimbabwe. The outbreak resulted in severe economic losses to the livestock industry. A retrospective study was conducted by examining stored veterinary records of the LSD outbreak at the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL) in Harare, Zimbabwe. Read More

    A case of low success of blind vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease on survival of adult European wild rabbits.
    Prev Vet Med 2016 Oct 14;133:108-113. Epub 2016 Sep 14.
    Ethology and Biodiversity Conservation Department, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, Américo Vespucio S/N, 41092 Seville, Spain.
    Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. Read More

    Identification and function analysis of the host cell protein that interacted with Orf virus Bcl-2-like protein ORFV125.
    Res Vet Sci 2016 Oct 24;108:93-7. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture/State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology/Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730046, China. Electronic address:
    Orf virus (ORFV) causes contagious ecthyma, a non-systemic skin disease in sheep and goat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that ORFV125 has Bcl-2-like homologous domain and 3D structurally, it is generally known that Bcl-2 protein is known to be a key protein to control cell apoptosis. Maybe ORFV125 act as a Bcl-2-like manner to control cell apoptosis, but its exact function isn't very clear. Read More

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