Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2017 Dec 5;46(4):1095-1117. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
Department of General Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital, Waldeyerstr. 22, D-48149 Muenster, Germany.
Vitamin D metabolism involves 3 highly specific cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes (25-hydroxylase, 1α-hydroxylase, and 24-hydroxylase) involved in the activation of vitamin D3 to the hormonal form, 1,25-(OH)2D3, and the inactivation of 1,25-(OH)2D3 to biliary excretory products. Mutations of the activating enzymes CYP2R1 and CYP27B1 cause lack of normal 1,25-(OH)2D3 synthesis and result in rickets whereas mutations of the inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 cause build-up of excess 1,25-(OH)2D3 and result in hypercalcemia, nephrolithiasis, and nephrocalcinosis. This article reviews the literature for 3 clinical conditions. Read More