59,116 results match your criteria Mild Cognitive Impairment


Complex Gait Is Related to Cognitive Functioning in Older People: A Cross-Sectional Study Providing an Innovative Test.

Gerontology 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Didactic of Music, Plastic and Body Expression, University of Jaén, Jaén, Spain.

Background: Many studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between gait performance and cognitive impairment. The main purposes of this study were: (1) to design and validate a complex gait test (CGT) in older people, (2) to analyze the effects of age and sex on CGT, and (3) to analyze the association between CGT performance and physical functioning and cognitive measures.

Methods: A total of 279 older people (60-97 years) were analyzed in 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508245DOI Listing

Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve in Improving Cognitive Functions of Older Adults with Suspected Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Tokyo Skytree Station Medical Clinic, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Probiotics use has been associated with modulation of inflammation and considered as a possible intervention for CNS diseases such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia.

Objective: We aimed to test the effect of the probiotic strain, Bifidobacterium breve A1 (MCC1274), to restore cognition in a physically healthy, suspected MCI population.

Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 healthy older adults suffering from MCI were divided into two even groups to receive once daily either probiotic (B. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200488DOI Listing

Pro-Neurotensin/Neuromedin N and Risk of Cognitive Impairment in a Prospective Study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Departments of Medicine and Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Vermont Larner College of Medicine, Burlington, VT, USA.

Background: The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) has been linked to cardiometabolic disease. Cardiovascular risk factors are being recognized as risk factors for cognitive impairment.

Objective: To examine the association of the stable precursor of NT, pro-neurotensin/neuromedin N (pro-NT/NMN), with incident cognitive impairment (ICI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200456DOI Listing

Intranasal Dantrolene as a Disease-Modifying Drug in Alzheimer 5XFAD Mice.

J Alzheimers Dis 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background/objective: This study compares the effectiveness and safety of intranasal versus subcutaneous administration of dantrolene in 5XFAD Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice.

Methods: 5XFAD and wild type (WT) B6SJLF1/J mice were treated with intranasal or subcutaneous dantrolene (5 mg/kg, 3×/wk), or vehicle. The early (ETG) and late (LTG) treatment groups began treatment at 2 or 6 months of age, respectively, and both treatment groups finished at12 months of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200227DOI Listing

Degree of cognitive impairment does not signify early versus late mild cognitive impairment: confirmation based on Alzheimer's disease polygenic risk.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 Jun 11;94:149-153. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center for Behavior Genetics of Aging, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, VA San Diego Healthcare System, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Degree of memory impairment is often used to infer early versus late amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Previously, 318 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants with aMCI-determined by a single memory test-were divided based on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task (AVLT) delayed recall: AVLT-impaired (n = 225) and AVLT-normal (n = 93). Equally consistent with differential progression or differential diagnosis, the AVLT-impaired group had more abnormal Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, more neurodegeneration over time, and was more likely to develop AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.05.015DOI Listing

Optical coherence tomography in mild cognitive impairment - Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 Jun 22;196:106036. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Anaesthesia and Critical Care, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

Thinning of retinal layers, measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT), is associated with some neurodegenerative disorders such as established Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis. The evidence for retinal layer thinning in both mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a precursor of dementia, and delirium, a potential pre-clinical stage of neurodegenerative disorder, is unclear. We performed a systematic review of the associations, in older people, between retinal layer thickness changes (measured using OCT) and delirium or MCI compared to controls (Protocol registration ID (Prospero) CRD42019122165). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106036DOI Listing

How to do things with (thousands of) words: Computational approaches to discourse analysis in Alzheimer's disease.

Cortex 2020 May 19;129:446-463. Epub 2020 May 19.

Neurosciences Research Centre, Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK. Electronic address:

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is an ever-growing field of computational science that aims to model natural human language. Combined with advances in machine learning, which learns patterns in data, it offers practical capabilities including automated language analysis. These approaches have garnered interest from clinical researchers seeking to understand the breakdown of language due to pathological changes in the brain, offering fast, replicable and objective methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2020.05.001DOI Listing

Neural and behavioral correlates of episodic memory are associated with temporal discounting in older adults.

Neuropsychologia 2020 Jul 1:107549. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA. Electronic address:

When facing decisions involving trade-offs between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards, people tend to discount the value of future rewards. There are substantial individual differences in this tendency toward temporal discounting, however. One neurocognitive system that may underlie these individual differences is episodic memory, given the overlap in the neural circuitry involved in imagining the future and remembering the past. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2020.107549DOI Listing

[Comparative characteristic of cognitive impairment at alcoholic and discirculatory encephalopathy].

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2020 ;120(5):16-23

East-Siberian Institute of Medical and Ecological Research, Angarsk, Russia.

Objective: Identification of features of cognitive impairment at patients with alcoholic and discirculatory encephalopathy.

Material And Methods: 30 patients with the alcoholic encephalopathy (AE) and 32 - with discirculatory encephalopathy (DE) participated in research. To patients conducted clinical examination, a computer electroencephalography with determination of cognitive evoked potentials, neuropsychological testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/jnevro202012005116DOI Listing
January 2020

Preliminary Assessment of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-Weighted MRI (IVIM-DWI) Metrics in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2020 Jul 4:e27272. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Division of Neuroimaging Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects aging populations. Current MRI techniques are often limited in their sensitivity to underlying neuropathological changes.

Purpose: To characterize differences in voxel-based morphometry (VBM), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) metrics in aging populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27272DOI Listing

Early-stage dysfunction of hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations and its modulation of neural network in a transgenic 5xFAD mouse model.

Neurobiol Aging 2020 May 12;94:121-129. Epub 2020 May 12.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, Nankai University, Tianjin, PR China. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is pathologically characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, which induces Aβ-dependent neuronal dysfunctions. We focused on the early-stage disease progression and examined the neuronal network functioning in the 5xFAD mice. The simultaneous intracranial recordings were obtained from the hippocampal perforant path (PP) and the dentate gyrus (DG). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2020.05.002DOI Listing

Allocentric coordinate spatial representations are impaired in aMCI and Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

Behav Brain Res 2020 Jun 30:112793. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Cognitive Science and Immersive Virtual Reality, CS-IVR, Department of Psychology, University of Campania L. Vanvitelli, Caserta, Italy.

Research has reported deficits in egocentric (subject-to-object) and mainly allocentric (object-to-object) spatial representations in the early stages of the Alzheimer's disease (eAD). To identify early cognitive signs of neurodegenerative conversion, several studies have shown alterations in both reference frames, especially the allocentric ones in amnestic-Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) and eAD patients. However, egocentric and allocentric spatial frames of reference are intrinsically connected with coordinate (metric/variant) and categorical (non-metric/invariant) spatial relations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2020.112793DOI Listing

ATR-IR and EPR spectroscopy for following the membrane restoration of isolated cortical synaptosomes in aluminium-induced Alzheimer's disease - Like rat model.

Chem Phys Lipids 2020 Jun 30:104931. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Center for Aging and Associated Diseases, Helmy Institute of Medical Sciences, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, Egypt; Children's Cancer Hospital 57357, Cair, Egypt. Electronic address:

Synaptosomal membrane peroxidation and alteration in its biophysical properties are associated with Aluminium (Al) toxicity that may lead to cognitive dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) like pathogenesis. Here we investigated the therapeutic potential of Lepedium sativum (LS) as a natural anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and as acetyl cholinesterase inhibitor in treating Al induced AD-like in rat model. We utilized ATR-IR spectroscopy to follow the restoration in the damaged membrane structure of isolated rat cortical synaptosomes and its biophysical properties, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping to follow NADPH oxidase activity (NOX), and EPR spin labelling in response to LS treatment after Al intoxication. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemphyslip.2020.104931DOI Listing

Is the Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test sensitive to frontal dysfunction? Evidence from patients with frontal and posterior lesions.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2020 Jul 3:1-13. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Neuropsychology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery , London, UK.

Introduction: The Brixton Spatial Anticipation Test is a widely used neuropsychological test, thought to assess executive functions and to be sensitive to frontal lobe lesions. Our aim was to investigate Brixton performance in patients with focal frontal or posterior lesions and healthy controls.

Method: We compared performance on the Brixton in a sample of 24 frontal patients, 18 posterior patients and 22 healthy controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13803395.2020.1776223DOI Listing

Endothelial Activation, Acute Kidney Injury, and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Severe Malaria.

Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Ryan White Center for Pediatric Infectious Disease and Global Health, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Objectives: Evaluate the relationship between endothelial activation, malaria complications, and long-term cognitive outcomes in severe malaria survivors.

Design: Prospectively cohort study of children with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, or community children.

Setting: Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004469DOI Listing

Prevalence and Course of Frailty in Survivors of Critical Illness.

Crit Care Med 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Critical Illness, Brain Dysfunction, and Survivorship (CIBS) Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

Objectives: Little is known about frailty that develops following critical illness. We sought to describe the prevalence of newly acquired frailty, its clinical course, and the co-occurrence of frailty with disability and cognitive impairment in survivors of critical illness.

Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004444DOI Listing

Cognitive function has a stronger correlation with perceived age than with chronological age.

Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Aim: The perceived age of older adults, as measured by their facial appearance, has been shown to be a robust biomarker of aging predictive of survival, telomere length and DNA methylation, and reportedly correlates with carotid atherosclerosis and bone status. This study aimed to determine whether metrics of dementia, including general cognition, vitality, depressive state and self-supportability, have stronger correlations with perceived age than with chronological age.

Methods: This study included 124 patients who were admitted to the Department of Geriatric Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, on account of being suspected of cognitive decline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ggi.13972DOI Listing

Intra-gastrointestinal amyloid-β1-42 oligomers perturb enteric function and induce Alzheimer's disease pathology.

J Physiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Biomedical Sciences.

Key Points: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and transgenic mice have beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It is possible that Aβ from the periphery contributes to the load of Aβ in the brain, as Aβ has prion-like properties. The present investigations demonstrate that Aβ injected into the GI tract of ICR mice is internalised into enteric cholinergic neurons; at 1 month, administration of Aβ into the body of the stomach and the proximal colon was observed to partly redistribute to the fundus and jejunum; at 1 year, vagal and cerebral β-amyloidosis was present, and mice exhibited GI dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/JP279919DOI Listing

Associations of truncal body composition with cognitive status in patients with dementia.

Neurol Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Neurology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Konkuk University Medical Center, 120-1 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 05030, South Korea.

Backgound: Central obesity in midlife is a risk factor of cognitive decline and dementia, and also one of the factors that make cognitive functions deteriorate rapidly.

Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between truncal body composition (fat and muscle) and cognitive impairment in patients with dementia.

Methods: A total of 81 female over 60 years of age with probable Alzheimer's disease were recruited between November 2014 and September 2015. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04503-5DOI Listing

Astrocytic histone deacetylase 2 facilitates delayed depression and memory impairment after subarachnoid hemorrhage by negatively regulating glutamate transporter-1.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Jun;8(11):691

Department of Neurosurgery and Institute for Functional Brain Disorders, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Delayed cognitive impairment (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most common sequelae in patients. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the course and glutamatergic pathogenesis of DCI after SAH in mice.

Methods: A SAH mouse model of internal carotid puncture was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-4330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327310PMC

A pilot study of brain morphometry following donepezil treatment in mild cognitive impairment: volume changes of cortical/subcortical regions and hippocampal subfields.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10912. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, 42 Jebong-Ro, Donggu, Gwangju, 61469, Republic of Korea.

The efficacy of donepezil is well known for improving the cognitive performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of the recent neuroimaging studies focusing on the brain morphometry have dealt with the targeted brain structures, and thus it remains unknown how donepezil treatment influences the volume change over the whole brain areas including the cortical and subcortical regions and hippocampal subfields in particular. This study aimed to evaluate overall gray matter (GM) volume changes after donepezil treatment in MCI, which is a prodromal phase of AD, using voxel-based morphometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67873-yDOI Listing

[F]THK5317 imaging as a tool for predicting prospective cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Nordberg Translational Molecular Imaging Lab, Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Cross-sectional studies have indicated potential for positron emission tomography (PET) in imaging tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, its prognostic utility remains unproven. In a longitudinal, multi-modal, prognostic study of cognitive decline, 20 patients with a clinical biomarker-based diagnosis in the AD spectrum (mild cognitive impairment or dementia and a positive amyloid-beta PET scan) were recruited from the Cognitive Clinic at Karolinska University Hospital. The participants underwent baseline neuropsychological assessment, PET imaging with [F]THK5317, [C]PIB and [F]FDG, magnetic resonance imaging, and in a subgroup cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sampling, with clinical follow-up after a median 48 months (interquartile range = 32:56). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0815-4DOI Listing

[Cryptococcal Encephalitis Complicating Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Encephalitis in an Immunosuppressed Patient].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2020 Jun;42(3):417-420

Department of Geriatric Neurology,Xiangya Hospital,Central South University,Changsha 410008,China.

Cryptococcal encephalitis is a fatal central nervous system infectious disease,whereas anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate(NMDA)receptor encephalitis(NMDARE)is an autoimmune syndrome associated with psychological symptoms,behavioural abnormalities,seizures,and dyskinesias.Despite their distinct pathologies and pathogenic mechanisms,both of them can lead to cognitive dysfunction and abnormal behaviors,although anti-NMDARE can also have mood and mental disorders as its core manifestations.A patient with nephrotic syndrome accompanied by both cryptococcal encephalitis and anti-NMDARE was treated in our center,which for the first confirmed that these two conditions could coexist in one patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.11472DOI Listing

Effects of virtual reality-based spatial cognitive training on hippocampal function of older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Authors:
Jin-Hyuck Park

Int Psychogeriatr 2020 Jul 3:1-7. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan-si, Republic of Korea.

Background: To date, there is a controversy on effects of cognitive intervention to maintain or improve hippocampal function for older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Objective: The main objective of this study was to exam effects of virtual reality-based spatial cognitive training (VR-SCT) using VR on hippocampal function of older adults with MCI.

Method: Fifty-six older adults with MCI were randomly allocated to the experimental group (EG) that received the VR-SCT or the waitlist control group (CG) for a total of 24 sessions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220001131DOI Listing

Zerumbone augments cognitive enhancement potentials of EPA+DHA: Insight from a hyperlipidemic rat model.

Br J Nutr 2020 Jul 3:1-23. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Dept. of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore570020, Karnataka, India.

Hyperlipidemia and cognitive dysfunction (CD) are the two public health concerns. Though hyperlipidemia has been comprehensively studied in respect of cardiovascular diseases, its role on CD needs to be explored. Hence, we evaluated hyperlipidemia as a risk factor for CD, and the efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), and zerumbone (Z) in modulating CD under hyperlipidemic conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520002445DOI Listing

Regional hyperperfusion in older adults with objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2020 Jul 2:271678X20935171. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Research Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA.

Although cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), CBF patterns across prodromal stages of AD remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated patterns of regional CBF in 162 Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants characterized as cognitively unimpaired (CU;  = 80), objectively-defined subtle cognitive decline (Obj-SCD;  = 31), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI;  = 51). Arterial spin labeling MRI quantified regional CBF in a priori regions of interest: hippocampus, inferior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobe, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0271678X20935171DOI Listing

The Changes of ADC Value, DCE-MRI Parameters and Their Influence on Neuropsychology in Prostate Cancer Patients after Endocrine Therapy Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Neurosci Lett 2020 Jun 29:135221. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huaian, 223300, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

This study was to explore the changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) quantitative parameters before and after endocrine therapy in patients with prostate cancer (PCa), and the effect of endocrine therapy on the neuropsychological cognitive function of patients. By using the IoT technology based on radio frequency identification (RFID), the clinical and imaging data of 80 patients confirmed AP+ PCa pathology were analyzed. Patients included had no history of PCa treatment, and routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), and DCE-MRI tests were performed before and after endocrinology and anti-infection therapy to measure the ADC value and DCE-MRI quantitative parameters, volume transport constants (K), rate constants ( K ) and extravascular extracellular space volume fraction (Ve) and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels in PCa areas and non-cancer areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2020.135221DOI Listing

Neural Oscillations and Brain Stimulation in Alzheimer's Disease.

Prog Neurobiol 2020 Jun 29:101878. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Canadian Centre for Behavioural Neuroscience, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, T1K 3M4, Canada. Electronic address:

Aging is associated with alterations in cognitive processing and brain neurophysiology. Whereas the primary symptom of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is memory problems greater than normal for age and education, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show impairments in other cognitive domains in addition to memory dysfunction. Resting-state electroencephalography (rsEEG) studies in physiological aging indicate a global increase in low-frequency oscillations' power and the reduction and slowing of alpha activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2020.101878DOI Listing

Investigating the gene expression profiles of rehabilitated Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) following red tide exposure.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(7):e0234150. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental & Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

To investigate a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) mortality event following a red tide bloom in Southwest Florida, an RNA sequencing experiment was conducted. Gene expression changes in white blood cells were assessed in manatees rescued from a red tide affected area (n = 4) and a control group (n = 7) using RNA sequencing. The genes with the largest fold changes were compared between the two groups to identify molecular pathways related to cellular and disease processes. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234150PLOS

Steady-State Cerebral Autoregulation in Older Adults with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Linear Mixed Model Analysis.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas, United States.

We examined whether steady-state cerebral autoregulation (CA) is impaired in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a prodromal stage of clinical Alzheimer disease (AD). Forty-two patients with aMCI and 27 cognitively normal older adults (NC) of similar age, sex, and education underwent stepwise decreases and increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) induced by intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine, respectively. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in the internal carotid and vertebral artery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00193.2020DOI Listing

Using machine learning to quantify structural MRI neurodegeneration patterns of Alzheimer's disease into dementia score: Independent validation on 8,834 images from ADNI, AIBL, OASIS, and MIRIAD databases.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 2:e25115. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Barnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

Biomarkers for dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT) are sought to facilitate accurate prediction of the disease onset, ideally predating the onset of cognitive deterioration. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a commonly used neuroimaging modality for measuring brain structure in vivo, potentially providing information enabling the design of biomarkers for DAT. We propose a novel biomarker using structural MRI volume-based features to compute a similarity score for the individual's structural patterns relative to those observed in the DAT group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25115DOI Listing

Omega-3 fatty acids increase OXPHOS energy for immune therapy of Alzheimer disease patients.

FASEB J 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Oral Biology and Oral Medicine, UCLA School of Dentistry and Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) preceded by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the most common type of dementia. Long-term studies of immunity to pathogenic amyloid-β (Aβ) in LOAD are lacking. Innate immunity of LOAD patients is malfunctioning in phagocytosis and degradation of Aβ and LOAD patients' macrophage transcriptome and metabolome are deregulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202000669RRDOI Listing

Prophylaxis with a multicomponent nutraceutical abates transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

J Food Biochem 2020 Jul 2:e13351. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biochemistry, The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.

The effect of a multicomponent nutraceutical on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in male Wistar rats was investigated. Animals were administered with the nutraceutical, Trévo™, for 7 days before 30 min of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion-induced cerebral ischemia and 24 hr of reperfusion. Behavioral assessment, biochemical estimations in the brain cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, and hippocampal histopathological evaluation were carried out after treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13351DOI Listing

Mitochondrial Transplantation Attenuates Brain Dysfunction in Sepsis by Driving Microglial M2 Polarization.

Mol Neurobiol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Departments of Anesthesiology & Center for Brain Science, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi Province, China.

Activation of microglia and mitochondrial dysfunction are two major contributors to the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated brain dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can alter the immunological profile of microglia favoring to a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Mitochondrial transplantation, as an emerging mitochondria-targeted therapy, possesses considerable therapeutic potential in various central nervous system injuries or diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-01994-3DOI Listing

Cognitive dysfunction and serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (PAPS).

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Rheumatology, University of Sâo Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is a poorly understood non-stroke central neurological manifestation in anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays an important role in neural plasticity and could potentially be a biomarker of CD in primary APS (PAPS). The aim of the study is to assess CD in PAPS patients and to evaluate its association with clinical data, anti-phospholipid antibodies and serum BDNF levels. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keaa252DOI Listing

The relationship of cognitive change over time to the self-reported Ascertain Dementia 8-item Questionnaire in a general population.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between longitudinally assessed cognitive functioning and self-reported dementia status using the Ascertain Dementia 8-item questionnaire (AD8) in a national population-based sample.

Methods: The analysis included 14,453 participants from the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study. A validated cutoff of ≥2 symptoms endorsed on the AD8 (administered 10 years after enrollment) represented positive AD8 status. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acz045DOI Listing

Role of Neuroinflammation in Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Emergence of Brain Histaminergic System. Lessons Also for BPSD?

Front Pharmacol 2020 16;11:886. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Many behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) share similarities in executive functioning and communication deficits with those described in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), epilepsy, schizophrenia (SCH), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Numerous studies over the last four decades have documented altered neuroinflammation among individuals diagnosed with ASD. The purpose of this review is to examine the hypothesis that central histamine (HA) plays a significant role in the regulation of neuroinflammatory processes of microglia functions in numerous neuropsychiatric diseases, i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309953PMC

Aberrant Brain Spontaneous Activity and Synchronization in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 16;12:181. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Medical Imaging, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital, Chongqing, China.

The study aimed to investigate the aberration of brain spontaneous activity and synchronization in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients homozygous for the apolipoprotein E (APOE)-ε3 allele. In the APOE-ε3 homozygotes, 37 T2DM patients and 37 well-matched healthy controls (HC) were included to acquire blood sample measurements, neuropsychological tests, and brain functional MRI data. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis was conducted to identify the brain areas with abnormal spontaneous activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308457PMC

SMR/Theta Neurofeedback Training Improves Cognitive Performance and EEG Activity in Elderly With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 16;12:147. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Raymond Poincaré Hôspital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), INSERM U1173, University of Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Garches, France.

: Neurofeedback (NF) training, as a method of self-regulation of brain activity, may be beneficial in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In this pilot study, we investigated whether a sensorimotor (SMR)/theta NF training could improve cognitive performance and brain electrical activity in elderly patients with MCI. : Twenty elderly patients with MCI were assigned to 20 consecutive sessions of sensorimotor (SMR)/theta NF training, during 10 weeks, on a basis of two sessions each week. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308493PMC

Dynamic neural and glial responses of a head-specific model for traumatic brain injury in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104;

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the strongest environmental risk factor for the accelerated development of neurodegenerative diseases. There are currently no therapeutics to address this due to lack of insight into mechanisms of injury progression, which are challenging to study in mammalian models. Here, we have developed and extensively characterized a head-specific approach to TBI in , a powerful genetic system that shares many conserved genes and pathways with humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2003909117DOI Listing

White Matter Atrophy in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.

Neurology 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Hemorrhagic Stroke Research Program, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Stroke Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Objective: We postulated that Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy (CAA) is associated with white matter atrophy (WMA) and that WMA can be related to cognitive changes in CAA.

Methods: White matter volume expressed as percent of intracranial volume (pWMV) of prospectively enrolled non-demented patients diagnosed with probable CAA was compared to age-matched healthy controls (HC) and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cognitive scores were also sought to understand the potential effects of WMA on cognitive function. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010017DOI Listing

A1 astrocytes contribute to murine depression-like behavior and cognitive dysfunction, which can be alleviated by IL-10 or fluorocitrate treatment.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jul 1;17(1):200. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Neural Engineering and Biological Interdisciplinary Studies, Institute of Military Cognition and Brain Sciences, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 27 Taiping Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100850, China.

Background: Astrocytes are crucial regulators in the central nervous system. Abnormal activation of astrocytes contributes to some behavior deficits. However, mechanisms underlying the effects remain unclear. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-01871-9DOI Listing

Development of a model on factors affecting instrumental activities of daily living in people with mild cognitive impairment - a Delphi study.

BMC Neurol 2020 Jul 1;20(1):264. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

School of Helath Professions, Institute of Physiotherapy, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur, Switzerland.

Introduction: The level of function of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is crucial for a person's autonomy. A clear understanding of the nature of IADL and its limitations in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is lacking. Literature suggests numerous possible influencing factors, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-020-01843-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329426PMC

Dysphagia in Parkinsonism: Prevalence, Predictors and Correlation with Severity of Illness Fasting).

J Assoc Physicians India 2020 May;68(5):22-25

Associate Professor, Department of Medicine, LTMMC and GH, Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Introduction: Dysphagia is frequently present in Parkinsonian syndromes and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Early identification of swallowing dysfunction is critical to minimize complications like aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Published prevalence rates for dysphagia in Parkinsonian syndromes vary widely with a very few studies from India. Read More

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Reduced Reelin Expression in the Hippocampus after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Biomolecules 2020 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a relatively common occurrence following accidents or violence, and often results in long-term cognitive or motor disability. Despite the high health cost associated with this type of injury, presently there are no effective treatments for many neurological symptoms resulting from TBI. This is due in part to our limited understanding of the mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction after injury. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10070975DOI Listing

Semantic Priming in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Subjects: Effect of Different Time of Presentation of Word-Pairs.

J Pers Med 2020 Jun 29;10(3). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Neuroscience, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Introduction: Semantic memory is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Twomain hypotheses about this finding are debated and refer to the degradation of stored knowledgeversus the impairment of semantic access mechanisms. The aim of our study is to evaluate semanticimpairment in MCI versus healthy subjects (HS) by an experiment evaluating semantic priming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jpm10030057DOI Listing

[Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on the Potential to Detect Posttraumatic Neurodegeneration].

Neurodegener Dis 2020 07 1:1-10. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Psychiatric Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland,

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the most relevant external risk factor for dementia and a major global health burden. Mild TBI (mTBI) contributes to up to 90% of all TBIs, and the classification "mild" often misrepresents the patient's burden who suffer from neuropsychiatric long-term sequelae. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows in vivo detection of compromised brain metabolism although it is not routinely used after TBI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508098DOI Listing