131 results match your criteria Middle Ear Eustachian Tube Inflammation Infection


Contribution of a Novel Pertussis Toxin-Like Factor in Mediating Persistent Otitis Media.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2022 11;12:795230. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Chronic otitis media (COM) is the long-term infection and inflammation of the middle ears typically caused by upper respiratory tract pathogens that are able to ascend the Eustachian tube. Our understanding of contributing factors is limited because human otopathogens cannot naturally colonize or persist in the middle ears of mice. We recently described a natural COM in mice caused by and proposed this as an experimental system to study bacterial mechanisms of immune evasion that allow persistent infection of the middle ear. Read More

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Effects of cigarette smoke on Haemophilus influenzae-induced otitis media in a rat model.

Sci Rep 2021 10 5;11(1):19729. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Pusan National University School of Medicine, Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Gudeok-ro 179, Seo-Gu, Busan, 49241, Republic of Korea.

Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is a factor that could delay or worsen the recovery of otitis media (OM) by causing inflammatory swelling of the Eustachian tube (ET). However, despite the suggested relationship, little is known about the association between OM and CS. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of CS on the development, progression, and recovery of OM, as well as the histological and molecular changes caused by CS exposure, by using a rat model of OM infected with non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Read More

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October 2021

Endoscopic sinus surgery improves Eustachian tube function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis: a multicenter prospective study.

Rhinology 2021 Dec;59(6):560-566

Department of Otolaryngology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China 2 Institute of Hearing and Speech-Language Science, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

Background: Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) often have Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) symptoms. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the effect of endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) on improvement of Eustachian tube function in CRS patients with ETD from a Chinese population and determine factors associated with improvement.

Methods: A prospective study was performed in CRS patients with ETD who underwent ESS from 3 tertiary medical centers in south China. Read More

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December 2021

Role of Allergy in Eustachian Tube Dysfunction.

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2020 07 9;20(10):54. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) presents with symptoms of aural fullness and pressure, muffled hearing, tinnitus, and otalgia. When severe, it can lead to many common ear disorders such as otitis media with effusion, tympanic membrane retraction/perforation, and cholesteatoma. These diseases are prevalent in both the pediatric and adult population and significantly impact quality of life. Read More

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Long-term status of middle-ear aeration post canal wall down mastoidectomy.

J Laryngol Otol 2019 Aug 3;133(8):662-667. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, KPJ Tawakkal Specialist Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Background: Retraction pocket theory is the most acceptable theory for cholesteatoma formation. Canal wall down mastoidectomy is widely performed for cholesteatoma removal. Post-operatively, each patient with canal wall down mastoidectomy has an exteriorised mastoid cavity, exteriorised attic, neo-tympanic membrane and shallow neo-middle ear. Read More

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A model of chronic, transmissible Otitis Media in mice.

PLoS Pathog 2019 04 10;15(4):e1007696. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, United States of America.

Infection and inflammation of the middle ears that characterizes acute and chronic otitis media (OM), is a major reason for doctor visits and antibiotic prescription, particularly among children. Nasopharyngeal pathogens that are commonly associated with OM in humans do not naturally colonize the middle ears of rodents, and experimental models in most cases involve directly injecting large numbers of human pathogens into the middle ear bullae of rodents, where they induce a short-lived acute inflammation but fail to persist. Here we report that Bordetella pseudohinzii, a respiratory pathogen of mice, naturally, efficiently and rapidly ascends the eustachian tubes to colonize the middle ears, causing acute and chronic histopathological changes with progressive decrease in hearing acuity that closely mimics otitis media in humans. Read More

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Towards an optical diagnostic system for otitis media using a combination of otoscopy and spectroscopy.

J Biophotonics 2019 06 28;12(6):e201800305. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Center of Optical and Electromagnetic Research, South China Academy of Advanced Optoelectronics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

An improved method, where conventional otoscope investigation of human suspicious otitis media is combined with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) is being developed. Otitis media is one of the most common infectious diseases in children, whose Eustachian tube connecting the middle ear with the nasal cavity is more horizontal than for adults, which leads to impaired fluid drainage. At present, the use of an otoscope to visually observe possible changes in the tympanic membrane appearance is the main diagnostics method for otitis media. Read More

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Comparison of two techniques for transpharyngeal endoscopic auditory tube diverticulotomy in the horse.

J Vet Sci 2018 Nov;19(6):835-839

Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Auditory tube diverticula, also known as guttural pouches, are naturally occurring dilations of the auditory tube in horses that communicate with the nasopharynx through a small ostium. Infection and select other conditions can result in inflammation and narrowing of the nasopharyngeal ostium, which prevents drainage of fluid or egress of air and can lead to persistent infection or guttural pouch tympany. Auditory tube diverticulotomy allows continuous egress from the auditory tube diverticula and is a feature of disease treatment in horses, in which medical treatment alone is not successful. Read More

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November 2018

Radiological differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jul 14;110:6-11. Epub 2018 Apr 14.

Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Introduction: HIV-positive children are possibly more prone to developing cholesteatoma. Chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft may be more common in patients with HIV and this may predispose HIV-positive children to developing cholesteatoma. There are no studies that describe the radiological morphology of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. Read More

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Expression, Distribution, and Role of C-Type Lectin Receptors in the Human and Animal Middle Ear and Eustachian Tube: A Review.

Molecules 2018 Mar 22;23(4). Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Otitis media (OM) is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear (ME), regardless of cause or pathological mechanism. Among the molecular biological studies assessing the pathology of OM are investigations into the expression of C-type lectin receptors (CLR) in the ME and Eustachian tube (ET). To date, nine studies have evaluated CLR expression in the ME and ET. Read More

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Atypical presentation of aural tuberculosis with complication.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Mar 9;2018. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Tuberculosis involving mastoid and ear is an uncommon entity presenting with myriads of non-specific features and difficult to diagnose, being a paucibacillary condition. The involvement of otomastoid compartment is hypothesised to be of haematogenous origin. Rarely it can spread directly via tympanic membrane perforation or via reflux through eustachian tube. Read More

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Cilia distribution and polarity in the epithelial lining of the mouse middle ear cavity.

Sci Rep 2017 03 30;7:45870. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Cell Biology Emory University, Atlanta, USA.

The middle ear conducts sound to the cochlea for hearing. Otitis media (OM) is the most common illness in childhood. Moreover, chronic OM with effusion (COME) is the leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Read More

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Otitis media.

Nat Rev Dis Primers 2016 09 8;2:16063. Epub 2016 Sep 8.

Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is a spectrum of diseases, including acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME; 'glue ear') and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OM is among the most common diseases in young children worldwide. Although OM may resolve spontaneously without complications, it can be associated with hearing loss and life-long sequelae. Read More

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September 2016

Nasal nitric oxide in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 2016 Jan-Mar;30(1):285-90

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Fondazione IRCCS, Ca` Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Recently, reduced Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) nNO levels have been reported in children with adenoidal hypertrophy predisposing to chronic nasosinusal inflammation. Given the strict anatomic and physiopathologic link between the nasopharyngeal and middle ear compartments, and considering the high prevalence of otitis prone children among those affected with chronic adenoiditis, we designed a study aimed to test any possible difference in nNO levels between non-allergic children with and without recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) associated with chronic adenoiditis. The study involved 54 children with RAOM (44. Read More

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Accumulation of Regulatory T Cells and Chronic Inflammation in the Middle Ear in a Mouse Model of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Induced by Combined Eustachian Tube Blockage and Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Infection.

Infect Immun 2016 01 9;84(1):356-64. Epub 2015 Nov 9.

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Oita University, Oita, Japan

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is associated with chronic otitis media (COM). In this study, we generated a murine model of COM by using eustachian tube (ET) obstruction and NTHi (10(7) CFU) inoculation into the tympanic bulla, and we investigated the relationship between regulatory T cells (Treg) and chronic inflammation in the middle ear. Middle ear effusions (MEEs) and middle ear mucosae (MEM) were collected at days 3 and 14 and at 1 and 2 months after inoculation. Read More

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January 2016

Middle ear function in sinonasal polyposis.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Oct 31;273(10):2911-6. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Ghaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Nasal airway patency has long been considered a major factor in ear health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sinonasal polyposis on middle ear and eustachian tube (ET) functionality. Forty-four individuals with polyposis, 23 with non-polyposis nasal obstruction, and 23 healthy controls were enrolled. Read More

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October 2016

Associations between peripheral vertigo and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Med Hypotheses 2015 Sep 20;85(3):333-5. Epub 2015 Jun 20.

Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Academy of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Lithuania.

We hypothesize that peripheral vertigo is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Two mechanisms could be considered – gastric acids may directly irritate the respiratory mucosa and cause inflammation, or Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) could be present and cause local infection. Read More

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September 2015

Does the type of rhinitis influence development of otitis media with effusion in children?

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2014 Nov;14(11):472

Otolaryngology Unit; Department of Basic Medical Science, Neuroscience and Sensory Organ, University of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124, Bari, Italy,

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is characterized by the presence of fluid in the middle ear cavity behind an intact eardrum and is considered a multifactorial condition with Eustachian tube dysfunction as the underlying pathophysiologic condition. One of the most debated causes of OME is allergy, in particular allergic rhinitis. The aim of this paper is to review the role of rhinitis in the development of OME and in particular the role of both allergic (AR) and non-allergic rhinitis (NAR). Read More

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November 2014

Molecular biology of cholesteatoma.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2014 ;55(1):7-13

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, "Iuliu Hatieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania;

Cholesteatoma is a non-neoplastic, keratinizing lesion, characterized by the proliferation of epithelium with aberrant micro-architecture into the middle ear and mastoid cavity. The exact pathogenic molecular mechanisms behind the formation and propagation of cholesteatoma remain unclear. Immunohistochemical examinations of the matrix and perimatrix have considerably improved the knowledge of cholesteatoma pathogenesis. Read More

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Development of animal models of otitis media.

Korean J Audiol 2013 Apr 16;17(1):9-12. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Otitis media is defined as inflammation of the middle ear, including the auditory ossicles and the Eustachian tube. Otitis media is a major health problem in many societies. The causes of otitis media includes infection and anatomic/physiologic, host, and environmental factors. Read More

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Otitis media: diagnosis and treatment.

Am Fam Physician 2013 Oct;88(7):435-40

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Acute otitis media is diagnosed in patients with acute onset, presence of middle ear effusion, physical evidence of middle ear inflammation, and symptoms such as pain, irritability, or fever. Acute otitis media is usually a complication of eustachian tube dysfunction that occurs during a viral upper respiratory tract infection. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common organisms isolated from middle ear fluid. Read More

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October 2013

Autoinflation for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 May 31(5):CD006285. Epub 2013 May 31.

Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, UK, OX2 6GG.

Background: This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2006.Otitis media with effusion (OME) or 'glue ear' is an accumulation of fluid in the middle ear, in the absence of acute inflammation or infection. It is the commonest cause of acquired hearing loss in childhood and the usual reason for insertion of 'grommets'. Read More

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Lower nasopharyngeal epithelial cell repair and diminished innate inflammation responses contribute to the onset of acute otitis media in otitis-prone children.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2013 Aug 11;202(4):295-302. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Rochester General Hospital Research Institute, Rochester General Hospital, 1425 Portland Ave., Rochester, NY 14621, USA.

About 30 % of young children experience excessive, frequent episodes of middle ear infection and are classified as acute otitis media prone (OP). Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) is a predominant otopathogen in OP and non-OP (NOP) children. The pathogenesis of middle ear infection involves otopathogen nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization followed by an upper respiratory viral infection that modifies the NP environment to allow a sufficient inoculum of bacteria to reflux via the Eustachian tube into the middle ear space. Read More

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Novel rat model of tympanostomy tube otorrhea.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Feb 22;76(2):179-82. Epub 2011 Dec 22.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Objective: Tympanostomy tube otorrhea (TTO), caused by the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the middle ear, is the most common complication of TT insertion. No studies have described a reproducible animal model of TTO. We aimed to develop a rat model of TTO which, in turn, could be used to assay the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β through the course of the infection. Read More

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February 2012

Long-term results with the Rion E-type semi-implantable hearing aid.

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2010 Sep;143(3):422-8

Department of Otolaryngology, Takanoko Hospital, Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan.

Objective: The Rion implantable hearing aid (IHA) Ehime (E)-type was developed for ears with middle ear diseases. This study focused on the current status of the patients, device problems, postoperative difficulties, and preventive measures against them.

Study Design: Case series with chart review. Read More

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September 2010

Eustachian tube function in adults with intact tympanic membrane.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2010 May-Jun;76(3):340-6

Federal University of São Paulo - UNIFESP, Brazil.

Unlabelled: The Eustachian tube has the function of equilibrating the environmental pressure with inner pressure, protecting the middle ear from abrupt pressure changes.

Aim: To compare the Eustachian tube function in adults with and without history of otitis media and/or respiratory tract inflammation without tympanic membrane perforation.

Materials And Methods: The Eustachian tube function was evaluated in forty-two females and males of 18 to 55 years of age with intact tympanic membrane, tympanometric A curves and without historic of otological surgery. Read More

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January 2011

Recent advances in otitis media.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009 Oct;28(10 Suppl):S133-7

Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Otitis media (OM) is a pervasive illness in infants and children, and many children suffer multiple episodes during the first years of life. High rates of acute otitis media (AOM) are reported in developed and emerging countries. Early onset is common in both settings. Read More

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October 2009

Theories of otitis media pathogenesis, with a focus on Indigenous children.

Med J Aust 2009 11;191(S9):S50-4

School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.

Otitis media is a common childhood illness associated with hearing loss, social disadvantage and medical costs. Prevalence and severity are high among Indigenous children. Respiratory bacterial and viral pathogens ascend the eustachian tube from the nasopharynx to the middle ear, causing inflammation, fluid accumulation, and bulging of the tympanic membrane, with or without pain. Read More

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November 2009