2,137 results match your criteria Microsporidiosis


Anncaliia algerae Microsporidiosis Diagnosed by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing, China.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 Jul;28(7):1466-1470

We report a case of Anncaliia algerae microsporidia infection in an immunosuppressed kidney transplant recipient in China. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy initially failed to identify A. algerae, which eventually was detected by metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Read More

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Prevalence and genetic characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in children in Northeast Egypt.

Parasitol Res 2022 Jul 17;121(7):2087-2092. Epub 2022 May 17.

Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidia in humans worldwide, in addition to infecting a wide range of animals. However, there is limited information about this pathogen in children in Egypt. Here, we carried out a molecular epidemiological study of E. Read More

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A Perspective on the Molecular Identification, Classification, and Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi of Animals.

Exp Suppl 2022 ;114:389-415

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

The microsporidian Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes enteric disease (microsporidiosis) in humans and has been recorded in a wide range of animal species worldwide. The transmission of E. bieneusi is direct and likely occurs from person to person and from animal to person via the ingestion of spores in water, food, or the environment. Read More

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Immune Response to Microsporidia.

Exp Suppl 2022 ;114:373-388

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Tropical Medicine, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.

Microsporidia are a group of pathogens, which can pose severe risks to the immunocompromised population, such as HIV-infected individuals or organ transplant recipients. Adaptive immunity has been reported to be critical for protection, and mice depleted of T cells are unable to control these infections. In a mouse model of infection, CD8 T cells have been found to be the primary effector cells and are responsible for protecting the infected host. Read More

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Chronic Infections in Mammals Due to Microsporidia.

Exp Suppl 2022 ;114:319-371

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Microsporidia are pathogenic organism related to fungi. They cause infections in a wide variety of mammals as well as in avian, amphibian, and reptilian hosts. Many microsporidia species play an important role in the development of serious diseases that have significant implications in human and veterinary medicine. Read More

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Recent Advances with Fish Microsporidia.

Exp Suppl 2022 ;114:285-317

Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

There have been several significant new findings regarding Microsporidia of fishes over the last decade. Here we provide an update on new taxa, new hosts and new diseases in captive and wild fishes since 2013. The importance of microsporidiosis continues to increase with the rapid growth of finfish aquaculture and the dramatic increase in the use of zebrafish as a model in biomedical research. Read More

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The Function and Structure of the Microsporidia Polar Tube.

Exp Suppl 2022 ;114:179-213

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, USA.

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens that were initially identified about 160 years ago. Current phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are grouped with Cryptomycota as a basal branch or sister group to the fungi. Microsporidia are found worldwide and can infect a wide range of animals from invertebrates to vertebrates, including humans. Read More

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Factors That Determine Microsporidia Infection and Host Specificity.

Exp Suppl 2022 ;114:91-114

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Microsporidia are a large phylum of obligate intracellular parasites that infect an extremely diverse range of animals and protists. In this chapter, we review what is currently known about microsporidia host specificity and what factors influence microsporidia infection. Extensive sampling in nature from related hosts has provided insight into the host range of many microsporidia species. Read More

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Comparison of the Concentration of Genotypes I and III in Inflammatory Foci Under Experimental Conditions.

J Inflamm Res 2022 26;15:2721-2730. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Science, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.

Background: Microsporidia of the genus are usually associated with severe infections in immunodeficient hosts while, in immunocompetent ones, microsporidiosis produces minimal clinically apparent disease. Despite their microscopic size, microsporidia are capable of causing systemic infection within a few days. However, the mechanisms by which microsporidia reach target tissues during acute infection remain unclear. Read More

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Phagocytosis Is the Sole Arm of Known Host Defenses That Provides Some Protection Against Microsporidia Infection.

Front Immunol 2022 13;13:858360. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

UPR9022, University of Strasbourg, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IBMC), Modèles Insectes D'Immunité Innée (M3I) Unité Propre Recherche (UPR) 9022 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Strasbourg, France.

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites able to infest specifically a large range of species, including insects. The knowledge about the biology of microsporidial infections remains confined to mostly descriptive studies, including molecular approaches such as transcriptomics or proteomics. Thus, functional data to understand insect host defenses are currently lacking. Read More

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Molecular diagnosis of intestinal microsporidia infection in HIV/AIDS-patients in Zahedan city, Southeast of Iran.

Ann Parasitol 2022 ;68(1):87-92

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Microsporidia belong to the intracellular spore-like pathogen, that can cause infection in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans. Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, are important causes of chronic diarrhea, especially in patients with HIV/AIDS. Read More

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Serological survey for antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii in pet rabbits in eastern coastal areas of China.

J Vet Med Sci 2022 Jun 29;84(6):777-783. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Research Center for Animal Disease Control Engineering Shandong, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai`an, China.

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) is a microsporidian parasite commonly detected in rabbits and can infect humans and cause encephalitozoonosis. And Toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent parasite distributed worldwide and can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Read More

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Successful use of albendazole and fenbendazole therapy in a cat with persistent diarrhea due Enterocytozoon bieneusi.

J Vet Med Sci 2022 Jun 28;84(6):869-871. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Ambiental e Experimental, Universidade Paulista-UNIP, São Paulo, Brazil.

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, also known as microsporidia, is an obligate, opportunistic, and neglected intracellular pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. Although identified in the cat feces by epidemiological studies, no association with diarrhea has been demonstrated. We demonstrated a case of chronic enteritis by E. Read More

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The plot thickens: Ovipleistophora diplostomuri infects two additional species of Florida crayfish.

J Invertebr Pathol 2022 06 25;191:107766. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, UK; National Horizons Centre, Teesside University, Darlington DL1 1HG, UK.

Ovipleistophora (Microsporidia) is a globally distributed genus of obligate parasites that infect fish, Crustacea, and trematodes. We report on two additional crayfish hosts, Procambarus pictus (Simms Creek, Florida) and Procambarus fallax (Santa Fe River, Florida), that exhibited signs of high-intensity microsporidian infection in the musculature. Sequence data (SSU) for the isolates were 99. Read More

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Studying Inherited Immunity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Microsporidia Infection.

J Vis Exp 2022 04 6(182). Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto;

Inherited immunity describes how some animals can pass on the "memory" of a previous infection to their offspring. This can boost pathogen resistance in their progeny and promote survival. While inherited immunity has been reported in many invertebrates, the mechanisms underlying this epigenetic phenomenon are largely unknown. Read More

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Chlorhexidine in the treatment of microsporidial stromal keratitis and the effect of host immunity: A case series and literature review.

J Chin Med Assoc 2022 04;85(4):532-536

Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Microsporidial stromal keratitis is an increasingly well-known vision-threatening disease. A large proportion of cases are initially misdiagnosed as herpes simplex keratitis and treated with topical steroids. In most of such cases, medical treatment failed, and corneal transplantation was required. Read More

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Current Therapy and Therapeutic Targets for Microsporidiosis.

Front Microbiol 2022 9;13:835390. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.

Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming parasitic fungi which are grouped with the Cryptomycota. They are both opportunistic pathogens in humans and emerging veterinary pathogens. In humans, they cause chronic diarrhea in immune-compromised patients and infection is associated with increased mortality. Read More

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First detection and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pet golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) and Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) in China.

Parasite 2022 22;29:15. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan University of Science and Technology, No. 263 Kaiyuan Road, Luoyang 471003, China.

Enterocytozoon bieneusi, a common opportunistic pathogen, has been detected in humans and a wide range of animals worldwide. However, no information on the prevalence and molecular characterization of E. bieneusi in hamsters is available worldwide. Read More

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Hepatic microsporidiosis of mudskipper, Valenciennes, 1837 (Perciformes: Gobiidae), due to sp.

J Parasit Dis 2022 Mar 28;46(1):72-79. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Panch Marg, Off Yari Road, Versova, Mumbai , Maharashtra 400061 India.

The present study reports a case of hepatic microsporidiosis caused by sp. in brackishwater fish, (Valenciennes, 1837) (n = 60), from the west coast of India. An eight-month study from September 2017 to April 2018 revealed a prevalence of 11. Read More

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High zoonotic potential of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild nonhuman primates from Yunnan Province, China.

Parasit Vectors 2022 Mar 12;15(1):85. Epub 2022 Mar 12.

Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, China.

Background: Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important zoonotic protists in humans and animals around the world, including nonhuman primates (NHPs). However, the prevalence, genetic identity and zoonotic potential of these pathogens in wild NHPs remain largely unclear. Read More

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Opportunistic pneumonia caused by E. cuniculi in mice immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide.

Immunobiology 2022 05 6;227(3):152194. Epub 2022 Mar 6.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Ambiental e Experimental, Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Rua Dr. Bacelar 902, CEP 04057-000, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Opportunistic fungal pneumonia is a cause of concern in immunocompromised patients due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. One such opportunistic agent affecting immunocompromised patients is the microsporidia called Encephalitozoon cuniculi. This study aimed to evaluate pneumonia caused by E. Read More

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First report of and in China provides new insights into the intraspecific genetic variation and extends their distribution.

Parasitology 2022 03 28;149(3):314-324. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

The Laboratory of Aquatic Parasitology, School of Marine Science and Engineering, Qingdao Agricultural University, 266237Qingdao, China.

Microsporidia of the genus Ovipleistophora are generally parasites of fishes and aquatic crustaceans. In the current study, Ovipleistophora diplostomuri and O. ovariae were firstly reported from Culter alburnus and Xenocypris argentea and Parabramis pekinensis, respectively. Read More

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Early responses in Penaeus vannamei during experimental infection with Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) spores by injection and oral routes.

J Invertebr Pathol 2022 05 4;190:107740. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Aquatic Animal Health Management, Dr. M.G.R. Fisheries College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Ponneri 601204, Tamil Nadu, India.

Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is associated with severe production losses in Penaeus vannamei farming. Early responses in P. vannamei experimentally infected with EHP was assessed in this study by feeding infected hepatopancreatic tissue and by injecting purified EHP spores (∼1 × 10 Spores/shrimp). Read More

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Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Extraintestinal Microsporidiosis in Bird Owners.

Emerg Infect Dis 2022 03;28(3):705-708

We identified Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II parasites as a cause of extraintestinal microsporidiosis in 2 owners of birds also infected with E. cuniculi. Patients experienced long-lasting nonspecific symptoms; the disease course was more progressive in a patient with diabetes. Read More

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A case of stromal microsporidiosis: medical strategies employed for successful resolution.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Feb 14;15(2). Epub 2022 Feb 14.

Aravind Eye Hospital and Post-Graduate Institute of Ophthalmology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

We describe the diagnosis and successful management of a case of stromal microsporidiosis, an important emerging ocular disease. Stromal microsporidiosis is recalcitrant and very often requires therapeutic keratoplasty for effective eradication. We successfully managed a steroid-treated case diagnosed only after 9 months, with a combination of polyhexamethyl biguanide 0. Read More

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February 2022

Global molecular epidemiology of microsporidia in pigs and wild boars with emphasis on Enterocytozoon bieneusi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vet Med Sci 2022 05 3;8(3):1126-1136. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Background: Microsporidia are spore-forming intracellular pathogens with worldwide prevalence, causing emerging infections in humans and animals. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a zoonotic species of microsporidia and is responsible for more than 90% of cases of microsporidiosis in humans and animals. Pigs and wild boars are important animal reservoirs of microsporidia. Read More

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Seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and risk-factor assessment for Encephalitozoon cuniculi seroprevalence in Finnish pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Acta Vet Scand 2022 Feb 2;64(1). Epub 2022 Feb 2.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Neurological signs, such as head tilt, torticollis, paralysis, and seizures, are common in rabbits. Differential diagnoses include two zoonotic infections caused by the microsporidial fungi Encephalitozoon cuniculi and the apicomplexan protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. Both infections are mainly latent in rabbits but may cause severe or even fatal disease. Read More

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February 2022

Mice with genetic and induced B-cell deficiency as a model for disseminated encephalitozoonosis.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2022 Feb 31;81:101742. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Patologia Ambiental e Experimental, Universidade Paulista - Unip, Rua José Maria Whitaker 290, CEP 05622-001 São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an intracellular pathogen, lives in a balanced relationship with immunocompetent individuals based on the activity of T lymphocytes. We previously highlighted the greater susceptibility of B-1 cell-deficient mice (XID mice) to encephalitozoonosis. This study aimed to develop a model of disseminated and severe encephalitozoonosis in mice with combined immunodeficiency to elucidate the role of B cells. Read More

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February 2022

A systematic review and meta-analysis on the global prevalence of cattle microsporidiosis with focus on Enterocytozoon bieneusi: An emerging zoonotic pathogen.

Prev Vet Med 2022 Mar 15;200:105581. Epub 2022 Jan 15.

Zoonoses Research Center, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran.

Microsporidiosis, caused by the zoonotic eukaryote microsporidia spp. have serious health threat in high-risk groups, including immunocompromised individuals. Cattle plays a major role as reservoirs of microsporidia among the animals because of close-contact with humans. Read More

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Prevalence and genotypes/subtypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Blastocystis sp. in different breeds of cattle in Jiangxi Province, southeastern China.

Infect Genet Evol 2022 03 21;98:105216. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Animal Health, College of Animal Science and Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province 330045, PR China. Electronic address:

Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Blastocystis sp. are common zoonotic pathogens that parasitize in the small intestine of humans and animals, posing a threat to public health. However, little information is available on the prevalence and genotypes/subtypes of E. Read More

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