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    Visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the rapid diagnosis of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Mar 17. Epub 2018 Mar 17.
    ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, #75 Santhome High Road, Raja Annamalai Puram, Chennai, 600028, India.
    The emerging microsporidian parasite Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), the causative agent of hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis, has been widely reported in shrimp-farming countries. EHP infection can be detected by light microscopy observation of spores (1.7 × 1 μm) in stained hepatopancreas (HP) tissue smears, HP tissue sections, and fecal samples. Read More

    Identification, characterization and heparin binding capacity of a spore-wall, virulence protein from the shrimp microsporidian, Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP).
    Parasit Vectors 2018 Mar 12;11(1):177. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
    Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
    Background: The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) is a spore-forming, intracellular parasite that causes an economically debilitating disease (hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis or HPM) in cultured shrimp. HPM is characterized by growth retardation and wide size variation that can result in economic loss for shrimp farmers. Currently, the infection mechanism of EHP in shrimp is poorly understood, especially at the level of host-parasite interaction. Read More

    A new scope for orlistat: Effect of approved anti-obesity drug against experimental microsporidiosis.
    Med Mycol 2018 Feb 24. Epub 2018 Feb 24.
    Department of Medical Parasitology.
    As the current therapies for intestinal microsporidiosis are either inconsistent in their efficacies or hampered by several adverse effects, alternative antimicrosporidial agents are being sought. The present study is the first that was designed to evaluate the potency of orlistat, an approved anti-obesity drug, against intestinal microsporidiosis caused by both Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis. Results were assessed through studying fecal and intestinal spore load, intestinal histopathological changes, viability, and infectivity of spores from treated animals. Read More

    Prevalence, genotypes, and risk factors of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) in Yunnan Province, Southwestern China.
    Parasitol Res 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    College of Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650201, People's Republic of China.
    Microsporidiosis is an important zoonotic disease, even leading to severe diarrhea. However, no information about prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in Asiatic black bears in southwestern China is available. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of E. Read More

    Wildlife as an environmental reservoir of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (Microsporidia) – analyses of data based on molecular methods
    Ann Parasitol 2017 ;63(4):265-281
    Department of Parasitology, Institute of Genetics and Microbiology, Wrocław University, ul. Przybyszewskiego 63, 51-148 Wrocław, Poland
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most commonly identified Microsporidia in humans and has also been detected worldwide in a large group of wild living and domestic animals. The identification of E. bieneusi in wildlife has raised the question of the importance of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of microsporidiosis and the implications of the infection with this pathogen in hosts. Read More

    Intestinal microsporidiosis in Iran: infection in immune-compromised and immunocompetent patients.
    Curr Med Mycol 2017 Mar;3(1):30-36
    Regional Knowledge Hub and WHO Collaborating Centre for HIV Surveillance, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.
    Background And Purpose: Gastroenteritis and the clinical profile caused by, an opportunistic pathogen, may be severe in immunocompromised individuals, especially in AIDS patients. Conventionally, it is necessary to detect the small infective spores in stained smears. However, due to the limitations of the microscopy-based methods, several DNA-based methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have recently been developed to enhance diagnosis sensitivity. Read More

    First detection and genetic characterisation of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in wild deer in Melbourne's water catchments in Australia.
    Parasit Vectors 2018 01 3;11(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Melbourne Veterinary School, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia.
    Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is reported to be a common microsporidian of humans and animals in various countries. However, E. bieneusi has yet to be recorded in animals in Australia. Read More

    Dominance of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype BEB6 in red deer (Cervus elaphus) and Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) in China and a brief literature review.
    Parasite 2017 21;24:54. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Department of Parasitology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150081, PR China.
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most frequently diagnosed microsporidian species in humans and is also found in a wide range of animals. It is considered to be an important but neglected zoonotic pathogen. With the development of deer bred in captivity, the number of deer has been increasing in recent years in China and there are more people involved in this work. Read More

    Molecular diagnosis of human microsporidian infections.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Sep;111(9):382-383
    Research Service (151), Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, University and Woodland Avenues, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    With the transformation of HIV infection from an acutely life-threatening disease into a chronic condition (as a consequence of the development of effective antiretroviral medication), the perceived clinical importance of diagnosing and treating microsporidian infections diminished, at least in industrialized countries. In locales where effective antiretroviral therapy is not available, as well as in patients with immunodeficiency for reasons other than HIV infection (e.g. Read More

    Ultrastructural and molecular characterization of Vairimorpha austropotamobii sp. nov. (Microsporidia: Burenellidae) and Thelohania contejeani (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae), two parasites of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes complex (Decapoda: Astacidae).
    J Invertebr Pathol 2018 Jan 6;151:59-75. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Adolfo Ferrata 7, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
    The microsporidiosis of the endangered white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes complex has generally been attributed to only one species, Thelohania contejeani, the agent of porcelain disease. Species identification was mostly assessed by macroscopic examination or microscopic evaluation of muscle samples rather than by molecular or ultrastructural analyses. A survey conducted on A. Read More

    Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Encephalitozoon intestinalis and Encephalitozoon sp. spores and their developmental stages.
    Parasit Vectors 2017 Nov 9;10(1):560. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Laboratorio de Parasitología, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid, Spain.
    Background: Microsporidia are intracellular obligate parasites traditionally associated with immunosuppressed patients; their detection in immunocompetent patients has increased, highlighting their possible importance as emerging pathogens. Detection of spores in stools, urine, body fluids and tissues is difficult and immunological techniques such as immunofluorescence have proved to be a useful and reliable tool in the diagnosis of human microsporidiosis. For this reason, we have produced and characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for Encephalitozoon intestinalis (the second most frequent microsporidian infecting humans), and other Encephalitozoon species, that can be used in different diagnostic techniques. Read More

    Diabetes mellitus increases the susceptibility to encephalitozoonosis in mice.
    PLoS One 2017 1;12(11):e0186954. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Programa de Patologia Ambiental e Experimental, Universidade Paulista (UNIP), São Paulo, Brasil.
    Microsporidiosis are diseases caused by opportunistic intracellular fungi in immunosuppressed individuals, as well as in transplanted patients, the elderly and children, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and decreased T cell response, neutrophil function, humoral immunity failure, increasing the susceptibility to infections. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetic and/or immunosuppressed mice to encephalitozoonosis by Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Read More

    Morphology and phylogeny of Ameson portunus n. sp. (Microsporidia) infecting the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus from China.
    Eur J Protistol 2017 Oct 27;61(Pt A):122-136. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Key Laboratory of East China Sea Fishery Resources Exploitation, Ministry of Agriculture; East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, China Academy of Fishery Sciences, Shanghai 200090, China. Electronic address:
    Ameson portunus n. sp. is a new microsporidian species that infects the skeletal muscle of Portunus trituberculatus, a pond-reared swimming crab from China. Read More

    Limited effect of adaptive immune response to control encephalitozoonosis.
    Parasite Immunol 2017 Dec 1;39(12). Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Institute of Parasitology, BC CAS, v.v.i., České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
    This study revises our understanding of the effectiveness of cell-mediated adaptive immunity and treatment against microsporidia using molecular detection and quantification of microsporidia in immunocompetent C57Bl/6 and immunodeficient CD4and CD8mice for the first time. We demonstrate an intense dissemination of microsporidia into most organs within the first weeks post-infection in all strains of mice, followed by a chronic infection characterized by microsporidia persistence in CD4and C57Bl/6 mice and a lethal outcome for CD8mice. Albendazole application reduces microsporidia burden in C57Bl/6 and CD4mice, whereas CD8mice experience only a temporary effect of the treatment. Read More

    Infection by and genotype characteristics of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in HIV/AIDS patients from Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, China.
    BMC Infect Dis 2017 10 13;17(1):684. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, 207 Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.
    Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been increasingly reported to infect humans and various mammals. Microsporidia cause diarrhea in HIV-infected patients worldwide. PCR amplification and sequencing based on the internal transcribed spacer region have been used to describe the genotypes of E. Read More

    First report of fatal disseminated microsporidiosis in two inland bearded dragonsin Japan.
    JMM Case Rep 2017 Apr 12;4(4):e005089. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 1-7-1 Kyonancho, Musashino, Tokyo, Japan.
    is a newly described pathogen belonging to the phylum Microsporidia. In Austria and the USA, this species has been isolated from fatal and disseminated cases of captive-bred inland bearded dragons. Here, we report the case of fatal disseminated microsporidiosis caused by E. Read More

    Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland.
    Vet Parasitol 2017 Nov 13;246:108-111. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre of the AS CR, Branišovská 31, České Budějovice, 37005, Czech Republic.
    This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Read More

    Microsporidia: Obligate Intracellular Pathogens Within the Fungal Kingdom.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Apr;5(2)
    Department of Pathology, Division of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology.
    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens related to Fungi. These organisms have a unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which upon appropriate environmental stimulation rapidly discharges out of the spore, pierces a host cell's membrane, and serves as a conduit for sporoplasm passage into the host cell. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that microsporidia are related to the Fungi, being either a basal branch or sister group. Read More

    The course of infection caused by Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype III in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Nov 21;182:16-21. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, České Budějovice, Czech Republic; Faculty of Agriculture, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is probably the most common microsporidia which infects a wide range of vertebrates, including human. So far, four genotypes of this parasite have been identified based on the rRNA internal transcribed spacer variations. The course of infection caused by E. Read More

    Pragmatic Combination of Available Diagnostic Tools for Optimal Detection of Intestinal Microsporidia.
    Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 Sep 13. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences & Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi, 110095, India.
    Diarrhea is a debilitating condition in HIV infected individuals and with the finding that almost 1/4 cases of diarrhea in HIV are due to microsporidia, there is a dire need to institute measures for its detection on a regular basis. Keeping this in mind the study aims to determine the burden of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV seropositive patients presenting with and without diarrhea and to compare the ability of microscopy and PCR in its detection.The study group consisted of 120 patients divided into four groups HIV seropositive with/without diarrhea, and HIV seronegative with/without diarrhea. Read More

    Microsporidial infection masquerading as graft rejection post-Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Sep;65(9):869-871
    Department of Cornea, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    A 51-year-old immunocompetent male with a history of Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy and immature cataract who underwent Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty with intraocular lens implantation in both eyes presented with redness and defective vision of 1-day duration in his left eye. Slit lamp examination revealed coarse superficial punctate lesions with graft edema. He was diagnosed with acute graft rejection and treated with topical steroids. Read More

    Molecular diagnosis of potentially human pathogenic Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon species in exotic birds in Southwestern Iran.
    J Infect Public Health 2018 Mar - Apr;11(2):192-196. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that produce spores. The infections caused by these parasites are mostly considered to be opportunistic in immunodeficient patients. Because of the zoonotic nature of microsporidia as well as the increasing prevalence of immunodeficiency diseases, the aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular diagnosis of Enterocytozoon bieneusi (E. Read More

    Molecular characterization of Enterocytozoon bieneusi isolates in laboratory macaques in north China: zoonotic concerns.
    Parasitol Res 2017 Oct 31;116(10):2877-2882. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Zoonosis, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 600 Changjiang Road, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, China.
    The significance of wild and zoo nonhuman primates (NHPs) as potential sources of human Enterocytozoon bieneusi infections has been increasingly appreciated, while the role of laboratory NHPs in zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis remains elusive. In this study, the infection rate, genetic characteristic, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi were investigated for 205 laboratory macaques in Beijing, north China. Read More

    Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.
    Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2017 Sep;20(3):749-771
    Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, 2065 West Farm Road, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. Electronic address:
    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. Read More

    Effects of selected Indonesian plant extracts on E. cuniculi infection in vivo.
    Exp Parasitol 2017 Oct 2;181:94-101. Epub 2017 Aug 2.
    Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Department of Botany and Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.
    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extracts from several plant leaves widely used in traditional medicine to cure digestive tract disorders and in the self-medication of wild animals such as non-human primates, namely Archidendron fagifolium, Diospyros sumatrana, Shorea sumatrana, and Piper betle leaves, with regard to their antimicrosporidial activity against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in immunocompetent BALB/c mice determined using molecular detection of microsporidial DNA (qPCR) in various tissues and body fluids of infected, treated mice. Of the plant extracts tested, Diospyros sumatrana provided the most promising results, reducing spore shedding by 88% compared to untreated controls. Moreover, total burden per 1 g of tissue in the D. Read More

    Functional characterization of an aquaporin from a microsporidium, Nosema bombycis.
    PLoS One 2017 27;12(7):e0181703. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
    Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu Province, China.
    Microsporidia are a diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, capable of causing parasitic infections in both vertebrates and invertebrates. During the germination process, there is an increase in the osmotic pressure of microsporidian spores. As part of this study, we cloned a homologous aquaporin gene in Nosema bombycis, and named it Nosema bombycis aquaporin (NbAQP). Read More

    Application of mass spectrometry to elucidate the pathophysiology of Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection in rabbits.
    PLoS One 2017 19;12(7):e0177961. Epub 2017 Jul 19.
    University of Miami - Miller School of Medicine, Division of Comparative Pathology, Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, Miami, Florida, United States of America.
    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidian species which can induce subclinical to serious disease in mammals including rabbits, a definitive natural host. The pathophysiology of infection has not been comprehensively elucidated. In this exploratory study, we utilized two mass spectrometry approaches: first, the analysis of the humoral response by profiling the microsporidian antigens as revealed by Western blot screening, and second, implementing the iTRAQ®-labeling protocol to focus on the changes within the host proteome during infection. Read More

    Detection ofin White Yaks in Gansu Province, China.
    Biomed Res Int 2017 6;2017:5790181. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China.
    , the most common zoonotic pathogen of microsporidiosis, has been found in various animals and humans, but no information is available concerning the prevalence and genotypes ofin white yaks. In the present study, 353 faecal samples from white yaks in Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomous County, Gansu Province, Northwestern China, were collected and examined by PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer gene to estimateprevalence and identify their genotypes. Of the 353 faecal samples, 4 (1. Read More

    Prevalence of the microsporidianin honeybee () apiaries in Central Italy.
    Saudi J Biol Sci 2017 Jul 22;24(5):979-982. Epub 2017 Jan 22.
    Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy.
    andare microsporidia which play an important role in the epidemiology of honeybee microsporidiosis worldwide. Nosemiasis reduces honeybee population size and causes significant losses in honey production. To the best of our knowledge, limited information is available about the prevalence of nosemiasis in Italy. Read More

    A follow-up study of selected biomarkers of health in cod Gadus morhua L. collected from the southern Baltic off the Polish coast.
    J Fish Dis 2017 Dec 29;40(12):1883-1894. Epub 2017 Jun 29.
    Department of Biology, University of Hartford, West Hartford, CT, USA.
    Selected biomarkers of health were examined in 50 post-spawning cod Gadus morhua collected in November 2015 from the southern Baltic. The biomarkers included condition factor (CF), macroscopic lesions, histopathology of spleen, liver and gonads, and morphometry of follicular atresia and hepatic and splenic melanomacrophage cells (MMC). All fish appeared in good body condition. Read More

    High prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi zoonotic genotype D in captive golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellanae) in zoos in China.
    BMC Vet Res 2017 Jun 5;13(1):158. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the dominant specie of microsporidia which can infect both anthroponotic and zoonotic species. The golden snub-nosed monkey is an endangered primate which can also infect by E. bieneusi. Read More

    New Genotypes ofIsolated from Sika Deer and Red Deer in China.
    Front Microbiol 2017 18;8:879. Epub 2017 May 18.
    College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural UniversityZhengzhou, China.
    To examine the occurrence and genotype distribution ofin cervids, 615 fecal samples were collected from red deer () and sika deer () on 10 different farms in Henan and Jilin Province.was identified and genotyped with a nested PCR analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA genes, showing an average infection rate of 35.9% (221/615). Read More

    Microsporidiosis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med 2017 Apr 6;10(4):341-350. Epub 2017 Apr 6.
    Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Objective: To examine all evidence about Microsporidia infection in vertebrate/invertebrate hosts and Iranian populations distributed in different regions of the country.

    Methods: All published articles up to December 2015, including descriptive and cross-sectional studies related to the prevalence and genotyping of Microsporidia infection in Iran, was considered in this systematic review. The meta-analysis was done using the random-effects model and Stats Direct statistical software. Read More

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi Microsporidiosis in Stem Cell Transplant Recipients Treated with Fumagillin1.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 06;23(6):1039-1041
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi microsporidiosis is an emerging disease in immunocompromised patients. We report 2 cases of this disease in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients successfully treated with fumagillin. Thrombocytopenia occurred but without major adverse events. Read More

    Coexistence of herpes simplex virus infection in microsporidial stromal keratitis associated with granulomatous inflammation.
    Indian J Ophthalmol 2017 Apr;65(4):276-281
    Ocular Microbiology Services, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Bhubaneswar, Orissa; Jhaveri Microbiology Centre, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
    Background: Microsporidial stromal keratitis poses several diagnostic challenges. Patients may present with corneal ulceration, marked stromal thinning, or even as a quite corneal scar. The presentation of microsporidial stromal keratitis commonly mimics viral keratitis. Read More

    The first study on opportunistic intestinal microsporidiosis in IBD patients receiving immunosuppressive medications in Iran.
    Epidemiol Infect 2017 07 15;145(10):2095-2099. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences,Tehran,Iran.
    Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients. Read More

    Multilocus genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi derived from nonhuman primates in southwest China.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(5):e0176926. Epub 2017 May 12.
    The Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, China.
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been increasingly reported in non-human primates (NHPs) in recent years, and this has garnered attention. However, reports of E. bieneusi infections in NHPs are limited worldwide. Read More

    Risk factors for the presence of Deformed wing virus and Acute bee paralysis virus under temperate and subtropical climate in Argentinian bee colonies.
    Prev Vet Med 2017 May 28;140:106-115. Epub 2017 Feb 28.
    Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria EEA Rafaela, Ruta 34 Km 227, Rafaela, 2300, Santa Fe Province, Argentina; Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria EEA Rafaela, Ruta 34 Km 227, Rafaela, 2300, Santa Fe Province, Argentina. Electronic address:
    Beekeepers all across the world are suffering important losses of their colonies, and the parasitic mites Varroa destructor and Nosema sp, as well as several bee viruses, are being pointed out as the possible causes of these losses, generally associated with environmental and management factors. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of seven virus species (Deformed wing virus -DWV-, Acute bee paralysis virus -ABPV-, Chronic bee paralysis virus -CBPV-, Black queen cell virus -BQCV-, Kashmir bee virus -KBV-, Israeli acute bee paralysis virus -IAPV-, and Sacbrood bee virus -SBV), as well as the prevalence of Nosema sp. and Varroa destructor, and their possible associated factors, under temperate and subtropical climate conditions in Argentinean colonies. Read More

    Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran.
    Acta Trop 2017 Aug 21;172:107-112. Epub 2017 Apr 21.
    Cellular and Molecular Research Center & Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.
    Microsporidia are often considered as an opportunistic infection in patients with impaired immune systems such as transplant recipients and patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Due to the increasing prevalence of parasitic infections and immunodeficiency diseases; the aim of the study is to evaluate molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. in immunodeficient patients in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Read More

    Surveillance of Vittaforma corneae in hot springs by a small-volume procedure.
    Water Res 2017 07 19;118:208-216. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
    Department of Tropical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No.155, Sec.2, Li-Nong Street, Taipei, 112, Taiwan, ROC. Electronic address:
    Vittaforma corneae is an obligate intracellular fungus and can cause human ocular microsporidiosis. Although accumulating reports of V. corneae causing keratoconjunctivitis in both healthy and immunocompromised persons have been published, little is known about the organism's occurrence in aquatic environments. Read More

    The role of microsporidian polar tube protein 4 (PTP4) in host cell infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Apr 20;13(4):e1006341. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America.
    Microsporidia have been identified as pathogens that have important effects on our health, food security and economy. A key to the success of these obligate intracellular pathogens is their unique invasion organelle, the polar tube, which delivers the nucleus containing sporoplasm into host cells during invasion. Due to the size of the polar tube, the rapidity of polar tube discharge and sporoplasm passage, and the absence of genetic techniques for the manipulation of microsporidia, study of this organelle has been difficult and there is relatively little known regarding polar tube formation and the function of the proteins making up this structure. Read More

    Decay of the glycolytic pathway and adaptation to intranuclear parasitism within Enterocytozoonidae microsporidia.
    Environ Microbiol 2017 May 12;19(5):2077-2089. Epub 2017 Apr 12.
    Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, EX4 4QD, UK.
    Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are the fundamental pathways of ATP generation in eukaryotes. Yet in microsporidia, endoparasitic fungi living at the limits of cellular streamlining, oxidative phosphorylation has been lost: energy is obtained directly from the host or, during the dispersive spore stage, via glycolysis. It was therefore surprising when the first sequenced genome from the Enterocytozoonidae - a major family of human and animal-infecting microsporidians - appeared to have lost genes for glycolysis. Read More

    Genetic aspects and environmental sources of microsporidia that infect the human gastrointestinal tract.
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2017 Jan;111(1):18-21
    Research Service (151), Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, University and Woodland Avenues, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are microsporidia that infect the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Each of these microsporidia has been shown to infect various non-human hosts (mammalian and avian), raising the possibility of inter-species transmission, for example, from such hosts to human subjects via waterborne dispersal of microsporidian spores. During the past two decades, genome sequencing has delineated more than 90 genotypes of Ent. Read More

    First survey of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in diarrhoeic children from Wuhan, China.
    Infect Genet Evol 2017 07 8;51:127-131. Epub 2017 Mar 8.
    State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China; Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:
    Intestinal protozoan pathogens cause significant diarrhoeal diseases in children. However, to date, there has been limited genetic study of the intestinal pathogens Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Enterocytozoon in humans in China, with the exception of research in a small number of cities/provinces. In the present study, PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterise these protistan parasites from 500 children with a history of diarrhoea in Wuhan and environs, Hubei province, China. Read More

    Clinical and demographic study of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in South India: a 3-year study (2013-2015).
    Br J Ophthalmol 2017 10 22;101(10):1436-1439. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Department of Ocular Microbiology, Aravind Eye Hospital, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aim: To study the demographic profile, clinical features, treatment outcome and ocular morbidity of smear-positive microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis.

    Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with clinical features of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis and who were smear positive for the same on Gram stain from January 2013 to December 2015. Demographic data, predisposing factors, microbiological investigations, clinical course and visual outcome were analysed. Read More

    Three Cases of Neurologic Syndrome Caused by Donor-Derived Microsporidiosis.
    Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Mar;23(3):387-395
    In April 2014, a kidney transplant recipient in the United States experienced headache, diplopia, and confusion, followed by neurologic decline and death. An investigation to evaluate the possibility of donor-derived infection determined that 3 patients had received 4 organs (kidney, liver, heart/kidney) from the same donor. The liver recipient experienced tremor and gait instability; the heart/kidney and contralateral kidney recipients were hospitalized with encephalitis. Read More

    Histochemical study of Encephalitozoon cuniculi spores in the kidneys of naturally infected New Zealand rabbits.
    J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 May 16;29(3):269-277. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Cuerpo Académico de Zoonosis y Enfermedades Emergentes (Rodríguez, Villarreal, Nevárez, Castillo, Rodríguez, Navarro, Trejo), Department of Immunology, FMVZ-UANL, Campus de Ciencias Agropecuarias, General Escobedo, Nuevo León, Mexico.
    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is an important microsporidian pathogen that is considered an emergent, zoonotic, and opportunistic. It infects both domestic and laboratory rabbits, generating severe chronic interstitial and granulomatous nephritis with fibrosis and granulomatous encephalitis. Encephalitozoonosis is diagnosed in paraffin-embedded sections by examining the spores in the host tissues. Read More

    Multi-locus genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears in southwestern China: High genetic diversity, broad host range, and zoonotic potential.
    PLoS One 2017 9;12(2):e0171772. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
    The Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China.
    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate eukaryotic intracellular parasite that infects a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Although considerable research has been conducted on this organism, relatively little information is available on the occurrence of E. bieneusi in captive Asiatic black bears. Read More

    Microsporidiosis in Four Tortoises ( Testudo hermanni boettgeri).
    Vet Pathol 2017 07 7;54(4):704-709. Epub 2017 Feb 7.
    1 Chemisches und Veterinäruntersuchungsamt Ostwestfalen-Lippe, Detmold, Germany.
    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, spore-forming fungi. A wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts can be infected; however, cases of infected turtles or tortoises have not yet been described. This is the first description of 4 cases in tortoises ( Testudo spp), which showed general signs of illness as well as intestinal and respiratory signs until death occurred or they were euthanized. Read More

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