775,405 results match your criteria Microscopy research and technique[Journal]


Hot spots for GPCR signaling: lessons from single-molecule microscopy.

Curr Opin Cell Biol 2018 Dec 3;57:57-63. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Pharmacology and Bio-Imaging Center, University of Würzburg, Germany.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are among the best-studied membrane receptors, mainly due to their central role in human physiology, involvement in disease and relevance as drug targets. Although biochemical and pharmacological studies have characterized the main steps in GPCR signaling, how GPCRs produce highly specific responses in our cells remains insufficiently understood. New developments in single-molecule microscopy have made it possible to study the protein-protein interactions at the basis of GPCR signaling in previously inconceivable detail. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Microbubble aeration enhances performance of vacuum membrane distillation desalination by alleviating membrane scaling.

Water Res 2018 Nov 20;149:588-595. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Control and Resource Reuse, Tongji University, 1239, Siping Road, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Institute of Pollution Control and Ecological Security, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Membrane fouling, especially inorganic fouling due to salt crystal formation and deposition on the membrane surface, is still a major technical issue in membrane distillation (MD) applications. In this study, microbubble aeration (MBA) was included in a laboratory-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) rig and its effect on a desalination process was examined. Without MBA, serious membrane scaling occurred during desalination of simulated high-salinity sea water (100 g. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Ammonium persulphate induced synthesis of polymethyl methacrylate grafted sodium alginate composite films with high strength for food packaging.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

State Key Laboratory of Bio-Fibers and Eco-Textiles, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China; College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, PR China. Electronic address:

The graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto alginate was carried out in aqueous media by initiators of ammonium persulphate under a nitrogen gas atmosphere. Then, the grafting of PMMA chains onto the alginate backbone was confirmed through the study of Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. At last, a thin and transparent polymethyl methacrylate grafted alginate film with high strength was obtained by the casting method. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

The novel cationic cell-penetrating peptide PEP-NJSM is highly active against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm.

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Screening Processes, Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, University of Sfax, Road Sidi Mansour km 6, PO BOX 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia.

A cationic cell-penetrating peptide PEP-NJSM was identified in human virus proteomes by a screening of charge clusters in protein sequences generating cell penetrating peptides (CPP). PEP-NJSM was selectively active against Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis as antibacterial agent with MIC value of 128 μM compared to the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain with MIC value exceeded 512 μM. The selected peptide exhibited an important anti-biofilm activity even at sub-MIC levels. Read More

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December 2018
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Anticancer activity modulation of an innovative solid formulation of extra virgin olive oil by cultured zeolite scaffolds.

Food Chem Toxicol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Research Institute on Membrane Technology, Unit of Zeolite Membranes, ITM-CNR, University of Calabria, Cubo 17/c, 87036, Rende, Italy.

This paper deals with the design and manufacture of pure and hybrid synthetic (Mixed Matrix Membranes, MMMs) zeolite scaffolds (containing various amount of zeolite crystals dispersed in a polymeric matrix) to obtain new biomaterials. These scaffolds can potentially be used in the field of translational medicine to obtain innovative results to address tumorigenesis mechanisms with the promotion of an effort to deal with technical methods and information. Since olive oil has beneficial effects in healthy human cells and slows down and/or inhibits cell growth, the aim of this work was to monitor the protective and beneficial antitumor effects of olive oil in a new solid formulation (Spread Bio-Oil) on cancer cell cultured on zeolite scaffolds. Read More

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December 2018

Selective proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinases of photo-oxidised dermal extracellular matrix proteins.

Cell Signal 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Cell Matrix Biology & Regenerative Medicine, UK. Electronic address:

Photodamage in chronically sun-exposed skin manifests clinically as deep wrinkles and histologically as extensive remodelling of the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) and in particular, the elastic fibre system. We have shown previously that loss of fibrillin microfibrils, a key elastic fibre component, is a hallmark of early photodamage and that these ECM assemblies are susceptible in vitro to physiologically attainable doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Here, we test the hypotheses that UVR-mediated photo-oxidation is the primary driver of fibrillin microfibril and fibronectin degradation and that prior UVR exposure will enhance the subsequent proteolytic activity of UVR-upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Cabazitaxel and Thymoquinone co-loaded Lipospheres as a Synergistic Combination for Breast Cancer.

Chem Phys Lipids 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (NIPER), Hyderabad, 500037, India. Electronic address:

Cabazitaxel as microtubule inhibitor and thymoquinone as HDAC inhibitor affects the important genes like p53, STAT3, Bax, BCL-2, p21 and down regulation of NF-κB are reported for potential activity against breast tumors. However, poor aqueous solubility and permeability hinders the delivery of these drugs to target site. To address the delivery challenges cabazitaxel and thymoquinone co-loaded lipospheres were developed. Read More

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December 2018

Structure and biomechanics of the antennal grooming mechanism in the southern green stink bug Nezara viridula.

J Insect Physiol 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Functional Morphology and Biomechanics, Kiel University, Germany.

Insects devote a high amount of time to self-groom to remove foreign material, especially from their sensory appendages. Using various microscopy techniques and behavioural experiments on intact and ablated insects, the present study investigates the antennal grooming of the green stinkbug Nezara viridula, which represents a serious pest of different crops in most areas of the world. The antennal grooming behaviour encompass an action of scraping involving the tibial comb complex (tibial comb + fossula) of both forelegs, generally followed by the tibial comb complex grooming of one leg using the tarsal hairy pad of the opposite leg (rubbing). Read More

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December 2018

Optical coherence tomography for diagnosing skin cancer in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013189. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston Campus, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is essential to guide appropriate management and to improve morbidity and survival. Melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are high-risk skin cancers, which have the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death, whereas basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually localised, with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue. Anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against inappropriate referral and unnecessary excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
7 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing keratinocyte skin cancers in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013191. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Early accurate detection of all skin cancer types is important to guide appropriate management and improve morbidity and survival. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is usually a localised skin cancer but with potential to infiltrate and damage surrounding tissue, whereas cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and melanoma are higher risk skin cancers with the potential to metastasise and ultimately lead to death. When used in conjunction with clinical or dermoscopic suspicion of malignancy, or both, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help to identify cancers eligible for non-surgical treatment without the need for a diagnostic biopsy, particularly in people with suspected BCC. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Reflectance confocal microscopy for diagnosing cutaneous melanoma in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Dec 3;12:CD013190. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK, B15 2TT.

Background: Melanoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates of any cancer. It accounts for a small percentage of skin cancer cases but is responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths. Early detection and treatment is key to improving survival; however, anxiety around missing early cases needs to be balanced against appropriate levels of referral and excision of benign lesions. Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Influence of UV irradiation and cold atmospheric pressure plasma on zirconia surfaces: an in vitro study.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: To compare the influence of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) treatment on surface structure, surface chemistry, cytocompatibility, and cell behavior on zirconia in vitro.

Materials And Methods: Zirconia samples (TZ-3YSBE) were treated by UV irradiation, oxygen plasma, or argon plasma for 12 minutes each and compared with the nontreated samples. Surface analysis was conducted using scanning electron microscopy, roughness analysis, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

Micro-ATR FTIR, SEM-EDS and X-ray micro-CT: an innovative multi-technique approach to investigate bone affected by peri-implantitis.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: The aim of this work was to prove the synergic complementarity of attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (micro-ATR FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray computed microtomography (micro-CT) by studying implant samples with bone affected by peri-implantitis.

Materials And Methods: Six samples of implanted bone affected by peri-implantitis and one control healthy bone were analyzed. Thick bone sections included in epoxy-resin and removed implants were analyzed by micro-ATR FTIR, SEM-EDS, and micro-CT. Read More

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December 2018

A laminin-derived functional peptide, PPFEGCIWN, promotes bone formation on sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched titanium implant surfaces.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo bone-forming potential of a sandblasted, large-grit, acid-etched (SLA) titanium (Ti) surface treated with a laminin-derived functional peptide, PPFEGCIWN (DN3).

Materials And Methods: Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured with SLA Ti discs untreated or treated with DN3 or a control scrambled peptide (SP). Cell adhesion, spreading, and viability on the discs were tested. Read More

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December 2018

Quantification of image artifacts from navigation markers in dynamic guided implant surgery and the effect on registration performance in different clinical scenarios.

Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Purpose: Different navigation markers in dynamic guided implant surgery could cause different degrees of artifacts, which would affect the accuracy and efficiency of the implant navigation system. This study aimed to quantify artifacts caused by navigation markers made of different materials and to evaluate their effects on registration accuracy under various oral conditions.

Materials And Methods: Four U-shaped tubes with different navigation markers (440c stainless steel, silicon nitride, zirconium oxide, and aluminium oxide) were produced by three-dimensional printing. Read More

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December 2018
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Lack of NWC protein (c11orf74 homolog) in murine spermatogenesis results in reduced sperm competitiveness and impaired ability to fertilize egg cells in vitro.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208649. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland.

NWC is an uncharacterised protein containing three strongly conserved domains not found in any other known protein. Previously, we reported that the NWC protein is detected in cells in the germinal layer in murine testes (strain: C57BL/6), and its knockout results in no obvious phenotype. We determined the NWC expression pattern during spermatogenesis, and found this protein in spermatocytes and round spermatids, but not in epididymal sperm. Read More

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December 2018

A gradient-based, GPU-accelerated, high-precision contour-segmentation algorithm with application to cell membrane fluctuation spectroscopy.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0207376. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Mechanics of Biological Membranes and Biorheology, Dpto. Química Física I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

We present a novel intensity-gradient based algorithm specifically designed for nanometer-segmentation of cell membrane contours obtained with high-resolution optical microscopy combined with high-velocity digital imaging. The algorithm relies on the image oversampling performance and computational power of graphical processing units (GPUs). Both, synthetic and experimental data are used to quantify the sub-pixel precision of the algorithm, whose analytic performance results comparatively higher than in previous methods. Read More

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December 2018

Improving the Electrochemical Properties of the Manganese-Based P3 Phase by Multiphasic Intergrowth.

Inorg Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy , Central South University , Changsha , Hunan 410083 , P. R. China.

Layered transition-metal oxides are one kind of the most promising cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. In this study, we propose a strategy to enhance the electrochemical properties of P3-type manganese-based layered oxide cathode by introducing a small amount of layered P2 and Li-O'3 phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) structural refinement and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are performed to confirm the microstructures of different samples. Read More

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December 2018

Direct Imaging of Photo-Switching Molecular Conformations Using Individual Metal Atom Markers.

ACS Nano 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Photo-switching behavior of individual organic molecules was imaged by annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) using a highly electron beam transparent graphene support. Photo-switching azobenzene derivatives with ligands at each ends containing single transition metal atoms (Pt) were designed (Pt-complex), and the distance between the strong ADF-STEM contrast from the two Pt atoms in each Pt-complex is used to track molecular length changes. UV irradiation was used to induce photo-switching of the Pt complex on graphene, and we show that the measured Pt-Pt distances within isolated molecules decreases from ~2. Read More

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December 2018

Oxide vs. Non-oxide Cathode Materials for Aqueous Zn Batteries: An Insight into the Charge Storage Mechanism and Consequences Thereof.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Aqueous Zn-ion batteries, which are being proposed as large scale energy storage solutions due to their unparalleled safety and cost advantage, are comprised of a positive host (cathode) material, a metallic zinc anode, and a mildly acidic aqueous electrolyte (pH ~ 3 - 7). Typically, the charge storage mechanism is believed to be reversible Zn2+ (de)intercalation in the cathode host, with the exception of α-MnO2, for which multiple vastly different and contradicting mechanisms have been proposed. However, our present study, combining electrochemical, operando X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and in situ pH evolution analyses on two oxide hosts - tunneled α-MnO2 and layered V3O7·H2O vis-à-vis two non-oxide hosts - layered VS2 and tunneled Zn3[Fe(CN)6]2, suggests that oxides and non-oxides follow two dissimilar charge storage mechanisms. Read More

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December 2018

CuO-Coated and Cu-doped Co-modified P2-type Na[NiMn]O for sodium-ion batteries.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

College of Materials Science and Opto-electronic Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China.

Layered P2-type CuO-coated Na2/3[Ni1/3Mn2/3]O2 (NNMO@CuO) with excellent rate capability and cycling performance was investigated as a sodium-ion battery cathode material for the first time. The NNMO@CuO cathode material combines the advantages of CuO coating and Cu2+ doping. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, TEM elemental line scan analysis and ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that CuO has been successfully coated on the particle surface uniformly, and that this CuO layer effectively suppresses the exfoliation of the metal oxide layers and unfavorable side reactions. Read More

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December 2018

Rational design and observation of the tight interface between graphene and ligand protected nanocrystals.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea and School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Institute of Chemical Process, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Heterostructures constructed of graphene and colloidal nanocrystals provide a unique way to exploit the coupled physical properties of the two functional building blocks. Studying the interface structure between the two constituent materials is important to understand the formation mechanism and the resulting physical and chemical properties. Along with ab initio calculations, we elucidate that the bending rigidity and the strong van der Waals interaction of graphene to the metal surface guide the formation of a tight and conformal interface. Read More

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December 2018
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Auxiliary subunits keep AMPA receptors compact during activation and desensitization.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Biology, Cellular Biophysics, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Signal transduction at vertebrate excitatory synapses involves the rapid activation of AMPA (a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) receptors, glutamate-gated ion channels whose four subunits assemble as a dimer-of-dimers. Technical advances in cryo-electron microscopy brought a slew of full-length structures of AMPA receptors, on their own and in combination with auxiliary subunits. These structures indicate that dimers might undergo substantial lateral motions during gating, opening up the extracellular layer along the central 2-fold symmetry axis. Read More

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December 2018
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Stem cells repurpose proliferation to contain a breach in their niche barrier.

Elife 2018 Dec 6;7. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Robin Neustein Laboratory of Mammalian Development and Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Rockefeller University, New York, United States.

Adult stem cells are responsible for life-long tissue maintenance. They reside in and interact with specialized tissue microenvironments (niches). Using murine hair follicle as a model, we show that when junctional perturbations in the niche disrupt barrier function, adjacent stem cells dramatically change their transcriptome independent of bacterial invasion and become capable of directly signaling to and recruiting immune cells. Read More

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December 2018

Proteins regulating microvesicle biogenesis and multidrug resistance in cancer.

Authors:
J Taylor M Bebawy

Proteomics 2018 Dec 6:e1800165. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Discipline of Pharmacy, Graduate School of Health, The University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Microvesicles (MV) are emerging as important mediators of intercellular communication. These signalling vectors are implicated in physiological processes ranging from vascular homeostasis to inflammation. They also play an important role in the cancer pathology and progression. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Co-localization of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissues of pigs and llamas.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UAB, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

The present study investigated the co-localization of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) across respiratory and lymphoid organs of experimentally MERS-CoV infected pigs and llamas by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess the ciliary integrity of respiratory epithelial cells in both species. In pigs, on day 2 post-inoculation (p. Read More

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December 2018

Thermal effects on IgM-milk fat globule-mediated agglutination.

J Dairy Res 2018 Dec 6:1-6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Food Science,Aarhus University, AU Foulum,Blichers Alle 20, DK-8830 Tjele,Denmark.

The process of agglutination causes firm cream layers in bovine milk, and a functioning agglutination mechanism is paramount to the quality of non-homogenized milks. The phenomenon is not well-described, but it is believed to occur due to interactions between immunoglobulins (Ig) and milk fat globules. For the first time, this paper demonstrates how the process of agglutination can be visualized using confocal laser scanning microscopy, rhodamine red and a fluoresceinisothiocynat-conjugated immunoglobulin M antibody. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

M918: A novel cell penetrating peptide for effective delivery of HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins into eukaryotic cell lines.

Curr HIV Res 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Pilot Nano-Biotechnology Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran. Iran.

Background: HIV-1 Nef protein is a possible attractive target in development of therapeutic HIV vaccines including protein-based vaccines. The most important disadvantage of protein-based vaccines is their low immunogenicity which can be improved by heat shock proteins (Hsps) as an immunomodulator, and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as a carrier.

Methods: In this study, the HIV-1 Nef and Hsp20-Nef proteins were generated in E. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Measurement of Tunic Hardness in an Edible Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, with Remarks on Soft Tunic Syndrome.

Zoolog Sci 2018 Dec;35(6):548-552

2 Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577, Japan.

The infection caused by a kinetoplastid flagellate, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, in an ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, results in softening of the tunic, and finally death. This disease is usually recognized using palpation of the softening tunic, and A. hoyamushi infection is detectable using microscopy or PCR amplification of specific gene fragments. Read More

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December 2018

Nuclear compartmentalization, dynamics and function of regulatory DNA sequences.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Biocenter, Department Biology II, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität (LMU Munich), Martinsried, Germany.

Transcription regulatory elements (TREs) have been extensively studied on the biochemical level with respect to their interactions with transcription factors, other DNA segments and larger protein complexes. In this review we describe concepts and preliminary experimental evidence for positional changes of TREs within a dynamic, functional nuclear architecture. We suggest a multi-layered shell-like chromatin organization of chromatin domain clusters with increasing chromatin compaction levels from the periphery toward the interior with a decondensed transcriptionally active peripheral layer and compact repressed chromatin typically located in the interior. Read More

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December 2018

Ultra high field Imaging of Myelin Disease Models: Towards Specific Markers of Myelin Integrity?

J Comp Neurol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, Brain and Spine Institute, ICM, Hôpital de la Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers of myelin are critical for the evaluation and development of regenerative therapies for demyelinating diseases. Several MRI methods have been developed for myelin imaging, based either on acquisition schemes or on mathematical modeling of the signal. They generally showed good sensitivity but validation for specificity towards myelin is still warranted to allow a reliable interpretation in an in vivo complex pathological environment. Read More

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December 2018

Visualizing Bioactive Small Molecules by Alkyne Tagging and Slit-Scanning Raman Microscopy.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1888:99-114

Synthetic Organic Chemistry Laboratory, RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research, Wako, Saitama, Japan.

An understanding of the intracellular distribution of bioactive small molecules provides insight into their target organelles and biomolecules, and throws light on their molecular mechanisms of action and specificity. Many studies in this area have employed fluorescence imaging, using molecules of interest labeled with fluorescent dyes. However, modification with a bulky fluorophore may significantly alter the properties, including bioactivity, of small molecules. Read More

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January 2019

Hawthorn Extract Alleviates Atherosclerosis through Regulating Inflammation and Apoptosis Related Factors: An Experimental Study.

Chin J Integr Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China.

Objective: To determine the effects of hawthorn extract on serum lipid levels, pathological changes in aortic atherosclerosis plaque, inflammatory factors, and apoptosis-related protein and mRNA expression in apolipoprotein E gene knockout (ApoE) mice.

Methods: Thirty-six ApoE mice were fed with a high-fat diet starting at the age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly divided into 3 groups by a random number table including model group, hawthorn extract group, and simvastatin group, 12 mice in each group. Read More

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December 2018
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Alpinia calcarata: potential source for the fabrication of bioactive silver nanoparticles.

Nano Converg 2018 Dec 6;5(1):37. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Botany, Bioresource Tech Laboratory, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, 495009, India.

In the present study silver nanoparticles fabricated by using leaf extract of Alpinia calcarata. We have also studied the effect of various experimental parameters viz., metal ion concentration, pH and incubation period on nanoparticle biosynthesis. Read More

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December 2018
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Cell laden alginate-keratin based composite microcapsules containing bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications.

J Mater Sci Mater Med 2018 Dec 5;29(12):185. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr.6, 91058, Erlangen, Germany.

Microcapsules based on alginate-keratin, alginate dialdehyde (ADA)-keratin and ADA-keratin-45S5 bioactive glass (BG) were successfully prepared. The samples were characterized by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that ADA-based materials possess higher degradation rate compared to alginate-based materials. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Observation of electrochemically active Fe/Fe in LiCoFeMnO by in situ Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute for Applied Materials (IAM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany. and Helmholtz Institute Ulm for Electrochemical Energy Storage (HIU), Helmholtzstrasse 11, 89081 Ulm, Germany.

LiCo0.8Fe0.2MnO4 has been investigated as an active material for the positive electrode in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with a discharge potential of around 5 V (vs. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Dataset of ptychographic X-ray computed tomography of inverse opal photonic crystals produced by atomic layer deposition.

Data Brief 2018 Dec 27;21:1924-1936. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Hamburg University of Technology, Denickestraße 15, 21073 Hamburg, Germany.

This data article describes the detailed parameters for synthesizing mullite inverse opal photonic crystals via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), as well as the detailed image analysis routine used to interpret the data obtained by the measurement of such photonic crystals, before and after the heat treatment, via Ptychographic X-ray Computed Tomography (PXCT). The data presented in this article are related to the research article by Furlan and co-authors entitled "Photonic materials for high-temperature applications: Synthesis and characterization by X-ray ptychographic tomography" (Furlan et al., 2018). Read More

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December 2018

Impact of Intravenous Fluid Challenge Infusion Time on Macrocirculation and Endothelial Glycocalyx in Surgical and Critically Ill Patients.

Biomed Res Int 2018 1;2018:8925345. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Dpt. of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine in Plzen, Charles University, Plzen, Czech Republic.

The fluid challenge (FC) is a well-established test of preload reserve. Only limited data exist in regard to the FC efficacy based on infusion time. Slow administration may be associated with lack of effect based on fluid redistribution and external conditions changes. Read More

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November 2018

Nanoscale Imaging of Kidney Glomeruli Using Expansion Pathology.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2018 21;5:322. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Kidney glomerular diseases, such as the minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and other nephrotic syndromes, are typically diagnosed or confirmed via electron microscopy. Although optical microscopy has been a vital tool to examine clinical specimens for diagnoses in pathology for decades, the optical resolution is constricted by the physical diffraction limit of the optical microscope, which prevents high-resolution investigation of subcellular anatomy, such as of the podocyte tertiary foot processes. Here, we describe a simple, fast, and inexpensive protocol for nanoscale optical imaging of kidney glomeruli. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Archaea Symbiont of Infection May Explain Heart Failure in Chagas Disease.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 21;8:412. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Instituto do Coraçao, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Archaeal genes present in may represent symbionts that would explain development of heart failure in 30% of Chagas disease patients. Extracellular vesicles in peripheral blood, called exosomes (< 0.1 μm) or microvesicles (>0. Read More

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November 2018

Effect of Liposomal Doxorubicin in Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC).

J Cancer 2018 20;9(23):4301-4305. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of California Irvine (UCI), California, USA.

This study was performed to compare the impact of doxorubicin vs. liposomal doxorubicin on penetration depth in peritoneal tissue during Pressurized Intra-Peritoneal Aerosol Chemotherapy (PIPAC) via microcatheter (MC). Fresh post mortem swine peritoneum was cut into proportional sections. Read More

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October 2018

Dominant and Recessive Major Genes Lead to Different Types of Host Cell Death During Resistance to in Rice.

Front Plant Sci 2018 21;9:1711. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research (Wuhan), Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

The bacterial blight caused by pv. () is the most devastating bacterial disease of rice worldwide. A number of dominant major disease resistance () genes and recessive genes against have been cloned and molecularly characterized in the last two decades. Read More

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November 2018

Visualization of Exo- and Endocytosis of AMPA Receptors During Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity Around Postsynaptic-Like Membrane Formed on Glass Surface.

Authors:
Tomoo Hirano

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 21;12:442. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Regulation of exo- and endocytosis of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) plays a critical role in the expression of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory central synapses. Enhanced AMPAR exocytosis or endocytosis has been suggested to contribute to LTP or LTD, respectively. However, several unsettled fundamental questions have remained about AMPAR exo- and endocytosis in the basal condition and during synaptic plasticity: (1) Does the size of each exo- or endocytosis event, and/or do the frequencies of these events change during LTP or LTD? If they change, what are the time courses of the respective changes? (2) Where does the exo- or endocytosis preferentially occur in each condition: inside or in the vicinity of postsynaptic membrane, or in the extrasynaptic membrane? (3) Do different types of AMPAR, such as GluA1 homo-tetramer, GluA1/2 hetero-tetramer and GluA2/3 hetero-tetramer, show distinct exo- and endocytosis changes? To address these questions, we developed new methods to observe individual events of AMPAR exo- or endocytosis with a high signal to noise (SN) ratio in a culture preparation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Read More

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November 2018
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Protective effects of a novel facial cream against environmental pollution: in vivo and in vitro assessment.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2018 12;11:571-578. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Innovation and Development, ISDIN SA, Barcelona, Spain,

Background: The effects of pollution on health have received increasing attention in recent years. Extrinsic skin aging occurs via multiple processes, and pollution is now recognized as a major component, causing increased pigmentation and wrinkles via oxidative mechanisms. We tested the antipollution efficacy of a cosmetic facial cream (FC) by assessing its effects on carbon particle adhesion to skin and on oxidative and inflammatory pathways in the skin. Read More

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November 2018
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Mechanisms of deformable nanovesicles based on insulin-phospholipid complex for enhancing buccal delivery of insulin.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 9;13:7319-7331. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China,

Background: Non-injectable delivery of peptides and proteins are not feasible due to its large molecular, high hydrophilic and gastrointestinal degradation. Therefore, proposing a new method to solve this problem is a burning issue.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to propose a novel protein delivery strategy to vanquish the poor efficacy of buccal mucosa delivery systems for protein delivery and then investigate the detailed mechanisms of the enhanced buccal delivery of protein, using insulin as a model drug. Read More

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November 2018

Reinforcement of calcium phosphate cement using alkaline-treated silk fibroin.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 9;13:7183-7193. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China,

Background: Bone cement plays an important role in the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is a potential alternative to poly(methyl methacrylate), currently the gold standard of bone cements. However, the poor mechanical properties of CPCs limit their clinical applications. Read More

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November 2018
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Controlling orthogonal ribosome subunit interactions enables evolution of new function.

Nature 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK.

Orthogonal ribosomes are unnatural ribosomes that are directed towards orthogonal messenger RNAs in Escherichia coli, through an altered version of the 16S ribosomal RNA of the small subunit. Directed evolution of orthogonal ribosomes has provided access to new ribosomal function, and the evolved orthogonal ribosomes have enabled the encoding of multiple non-canonical amino acids into proteins. The original orthogonal ribosomes shared the pool of 23S ribosomal RNAs, contained in the large subunit, with endogenous ribosomes. Read More

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December 2018

Simple multi-wavelength imaging of birefringence:case study of silk.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17652. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8550, Japan.

Polarised light imaging microscopy, with the addition of a liquid crystal (LC) phase retarder, was used to determine the birefringence of silk fibres with high (∼1 μm) spatial resolution. The measurement was carried out with the silk fibres (the optical slow axis) and the slow axis of the LC-retarder set at parallel angles. The direct fit of the transmission data allowed for high fidelity determination of the birefringence Δn ≈ 1. Read More

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December 2018

Effects of near infrared focused laser on the fluorescence of labelled cell membrane.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17674. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

ICFO-Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, 08860, Castelldefels, Barcelona, Spain.

Near infrared (NIR) laser light can have important reactions on live cells. For example, in a macroscopic scale, it is used therapeutically to reduce inflammation and in a single-cell scale, NIR lasers have been experimentally used to guide neuronal growth. However, little is known about how NIR lasers produce such behaviours on cells. Read More

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December 2018

Investigating the RAS can be a fishy business: interdisciplinary opportunities using Zebrafish.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2018 Dec 5;132(23):2469-2481. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

University of Edinburgh/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, Queen's Medical Research Institute, The University of Edinburgh, 47, Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ, U.K.

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is highly conserved, and components of the RAS are present in all vertebrates to some degree. Although the RAS has been studied since the discovery of renin, its biological role continues to broaden with the identification and characterization of new peptides. The evolutionarily distant zebrafish is a remarkable model for studying the kidney due to its genetic tractability and accessibility for imaging. Read More

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December 2018
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