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776,537 results match your criteria Microscopy and microanalysis : the official journal of Microscopy Society of America Microbeam Analysis Society Microscopical Society of Canada[Journal]


Highly efficient green TADF organic light-emitting diodes by simultaneous manipulating hole and electron transport.

Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Display and System Application of Ministry of Education, Shanghai University, Shanghai, P.R.China, Shanghai, CHINA.

This work demonstrates an effective performance improvement by simultaneous manipulating the hole injection and electron transport layers for (4s,6s)-2,4,5,6-tetra(9H-carbazol-9-yl)isophthalonitrile (4CzIPN) based green thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). 3 wt% sorbitol doped PEDOT:PSS layer results in the highest maximum current efficiency (CEmax) of 28.28 cd/A and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 17. Read More

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December 2018

An insight into DNA binding properties of newly designed cationic δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles: Spectroscopy, AFM imaging and living cells staining studies.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2018 Dec 10;211:260-271. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

CAS Key Laboratory of Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, PR China. Electronic address:

Two cationic δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles, 1‑Methyl‑5H‑pyrrolo[3,2‑b:4,5‑b']dipyridinium iodide (MPDPI) and 1,5‑Dimethyl‑5H‑pyrrolo[3,2‑b:4,5‑b']dipyridinium iodide (DPDPI), were devised and synthesized. Through characterizations of the interactions between DNA and the two δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles by various spectroscopy means, the strong interactions between the two compounds and double-strand DNA have been observed and the interaction types and mechanisms were explored. UV-Vis and fluorescent data have shown the big changes of DNA in the presence of either of the two compounds, demonstrating that both of the δ,δ'‑diazacarbazoles can bind to DNA tightly, and high ionic strength decreased the intercalative interactions. Read More

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December 2018

A smart nanosensor for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus and associated cardiovascular and arthritis diseases using functionalized graphene-based transistors.

Biosens Bioelectron 2018 Dec 7;126:792-799. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

DBT-National Institute of Animal Biotechnology (DBT-NIAB), Hyderabad 500032, Telangana, India. Electronic address:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which isa worldwide public health issue, is commonly associated with cardiovascular disorders (CVDs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A smart nanosensor was developed for the detection of HIV and its related diseases (CVDs and RA) using graphene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, amine-functionalized graphene (afG) was conjugated with antibodies [anti-p24 for HIV, anti-cardiac troponin 1 (anti-cTn1) for CVDs, and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) for RA] to detect various biomarkers. Read More

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December 2018

Antibacterial and photocatalytic activity of hydrothermally synthesized SnO doped GO and CNT under visible light irradiation.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2018 Dec 12;191:18-25. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Civil Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 38541, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Bacterial and dye pollution are major problems with wastewater treatment. An increasing number of photocatalysts are being used in industry to kill bacterial and reduce pollution. In the present study, highly stable SnO-doped nanocomposites have been prepared successively by a hydrothermal method. Read More

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December 2018

Protein biochips based on macroporous polymer supports: Material properties and analytical potential.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Dec 10;165:242-250. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institute of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, Universitetsky pr. 26, Petrodvorez, 198584, St. Petersburg, Russia; Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Bolshoy pr. 31, 199004, St. Petersburg, Russia.

A series of rigid macroporous polymer layers differed by hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties was synthesized in situ in preliminary fabricated wells and applied as the platforms for protein biochips. Scanning electron microscopy, etalon porosimetry and BET analysis were used for materials characterization. The comparison of analytical efficiency of the developed platforms allowed for the choice of the most optimal polymer, as well as the evaluation of impact of material porous properties. Read More

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December 2018

Extracellular polymeric substances of biofilms: Suffering from an identity crisis.

Water Res 2018 Nov 28;151:1-7. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Biotechcnology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Microbial biofilms can be both cause and cure to a range of emerging societal problems including antimicrobial tolerance, water sanitation, water scarcity and pollution. The identities of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) responsible for the establishment and function of biofilms are poorly understood. The lack of information on the chemical and physical identities of EPS limits the potential to rationally engineer biofilm processes, and impedes progress within the water and wastewater sector towards a circular economy and resource recovery. Read More

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November 2018

Effects of chitosan nanoparticles on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Carbohydrates, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023, China. Electronic address:

To investigate the effect and mechanism of chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) on the germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we conducted systematic research on the impact of different concentrations (1-100 μg/mL) of CSNPs and chitosan (CS). The result of energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed that adsorption of CSNPs on the surface of wheat seeds was higher than that of CS. Read More

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December 2018
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Single-molecule 3D imaging of human plasma intermediate-density lipoproteins reveals a polyhedral structure.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Electronic address:

Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs), the remnants of very-low-density lipoproteins via lipolysis, are rich in cholesteryl ester and are correlated with cardiovascular disease. Despite pharmacological interests in IDL, the three-dimensional (3D) structure of IDLs is still undetermined due to their variation in size, compositions, and dynamic structure. To explore the 3D structure of IDL, we reconstructed 3D density maps from each individual IDL particles using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and individual-particle electron tomography (IPET, without averaging from different molecules). Read More

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December 2018
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Morphology and ultrastructure of the midgut gland ("hepatopancreas") during ontogeny in the common spider crab Maja brachydactyla Balss, 1922 (Brachyura, Majidae).

Arthropod Struct Dev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Independent Researcher. Barcelona Spain.

We studied the anatomy and cytology of the midgut gland (MGl) of the common spider crab Maja brachydactyla Balss 1922 at several life stages (zoea, megalopa, first juvenile, and adult) using dissection, histology, electron microscopy, computed tomography, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). In newly hatched larvae, 14 blind-end tubules formed the MGl. The length of the tubules increases during the larval development. Read More

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December 2018

Fine structure of the midgut epithelium of Thulinius ruffoi (Tardigrada, Eutardigrada, Parachela) in relation to oogenesis and simplex stage.

Arthropod Struct Dev 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Silesia in Katowice, Department of Animal Histology and Embryology, Bankowa 9, 40-007 Katowice, Poland. Electronic address:

Thulinius ruffoi is a small freshwater tardigrade that lives in both non-polluted and polluted freshwater environments. As a result of tardigradan body miniaturization, the digestive system is reduced and simplified. It consists of a short fore- and hindgut, and the midgut in the shape of a short tube is lined with a simple epithelium. Read More

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December 2018

Regulation of asymmetries in the kinetics and protein numbers of bacterial gene expression.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Laboratory of Biosystem Dynamics, BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, 33101 Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Genetic circuits change the status quo of cellular processes when their protein numbers cross thresholds. We investigate the regulation of RNA and protein threshold crossing propensities in Escherichia coli. From in vivo single RNA time-lapse microscopy data from multiple promoters, mutants, induction schemes and media, we study the asymmetry and tailedness (quantified by the skewness and kurtosis, respectively) of the distributions of time intervals between transcription events. Read More

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December 2018

High fidelity recovery of airborne microbial genetic materials by direct condensation capture into genomic preservatives.

J Microbiol Methods 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

University of Colorado, Environmental Engineering Program, Boulder, CO, USA. Electronic address:

A condensation growth tube was adapted to capture bacterial bioaerosols directly into genomic preservatives. As judged by quantitative PCR and direct microscopy, bioaerosol condensation capture conserves airborne microbes' genomes as they exist in the atmospheric environment. This method circumvents the collection stresses bioaerosols experience on air filters, impactors and impingers. Read More

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December 2018

Revised version - Correction unmarked effective elimination of biofilm formed with waterborne pathogens using copper nanoparticles.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA Deemed University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, 613401, India. Electronic address:

In this paper, the self assembling properties of taurolipids were used to prepare stable copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), and demonstrated the ability of CuNPs to eradicate the biofilms formed by waterborne pathogens. The synthesized CuNPs display wine red color and exhibited surface plasmon resonance with a maximum at 590 nm. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the CuNPs are well-dispersed with spherical morphology and the size range between 5 and 12 nm. Read More

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December 2018

Molecular characterization of newly identified Klebsiella PKBSG14 and analysis of its effect on immune response and cell cycle progression using common catfish (Channa punctatus) as a model.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Parasitology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, 741235, West Bengal, India. Electronic address:

Microbial studies on Catfish revealed that Klebsiella is the most common pathogen causing prevalence of ulcers, fin erosion, and other lesions. During this study, a new strain of bacteria was isolated from Channa punctatus, and molecular identification by 16srRNA revealed the strain was Klebsiella PKBSG14 (Accession no KJ162158). The strain was also PCR positive for two virulent gene wcaG (Accession no LN606595) and rmpA (Accession no LN606594) responsible for inflammatory reactions and induction of innate immune response in the host cell. Read More

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December 2018

Vitrectomy for diabetic macular edema: optical coherence tomography criteria and pathology of the vitreomacular interface.

Am J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: To correlate spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) criteria and clinical data with pathology of the vitreomacular interface (VMI) in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME).

Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study and laboratory investigation.

Methods: We included specimens of 27 eyes of 26 patients with center-involved DME that underwent vitrectomy with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM). Read More

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December 2018

Electro-orientation of silver nanowires in alternating fields.

Langmuir 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

In this work we analyse the orientation of silver nanowires immersed in aqueous solutions, under the effect of alternating electric fields in a broad frequency range, covering from a few Hz to several MHz. The degree of orientation is experimentally determined by electro-optical techniques, which present the advantage of measuring multiple particles at the same time. In the electro-orientation spectrum, we observe a frequency dispersion in the kHz range, and provide a theoretical explanation for this behaviour: at high frequencies, charge separation in the nanoparticles leads to a large induced dipole, responsible for strong orientation. Read More

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December 2018

CSF extracellular vesicles and neurofilament light protein as biomarkers of CNS injury in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

AIDS 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Objective: The relationship of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular vesicles (EVs) to neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. Here, we characterize CSF EVs and their association with CNS injury-related biomarkers (neurofilament light [NFL], S100B, neopterin) and NCI in HIV+ subjects on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of CSF samples from HIV+ subjects on cART. Read More

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December 2018

Design and synthesis of mixed micellar system for enhanced anticancer efficacy of Paclitaxel through its co-delivery with Naringin.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2018 Dec 17:1-40. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences , Karachi University , Karachi , 74200 , Pakistan.

Emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) has limited the success of chemotherapeutic agents. Reversal of drugs efflux systems through combination therapy has got wider attention for increasing anticancer drugs efficacy. This study aims at co-encapsulation of Paclitaxel with Naringin in mixed polymeric micelles for enhanced anticancer activity of the drug. Read More

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December 2018

Myeloid angiogenic cells exhibit impaired migration, reduced expression of endothelial markers and increased apoptosis in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

St. Michael's Hospital, Cardiology , 30 Bond Street , Toronto, Ontario, Ontario, Canada , M5B 1W8 ;

Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare and devastating condition. There is no known cure for IPAH, and current treatment options are not always effective. Autologous myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) have been explored as a novel therapy for IPAH but preliminary data from clinical trials show limited beneficial effects. Read More

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December 2018

Low Residual Carrier Concentration and High Mobility in 2D Semiconducting BiOSe.

Nano Lett 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing Science and Engineering Center for Nanocarbons, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering , Peking University , Beijing 100871 , P. R. China.

The air-stable and high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) BiOSe semiconductor has emerged as a promising alternative that is complementary to graphene, MoS, and black phosphorus for next-generation digital applications. However, the room-temperature residual charge carrier concentration of 2D BiOSe nanoplates synthesized so far is as high as about 10-10 cm, which results in a poor electrostatic gate control and unsuitable threshold voltage, detrimental to the fabrication of high-performance low-power devices. Here, we first present a facile approach for synthesizing 2D BiOSe single crystals with ultralow carrier concentration of ∼10 cm and high Hall mobility up to 410 cm V s simultaneously at room temperature. Read More

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December 2018
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Kinetics of the topochemical transformation of (PbSe)m(TiSe2)n(SnSe2)m(TiSe2)n to (Pb0.5Sn0.5Se)m(TiSe2)n.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Solid state reaction kinetics on atomic length scales have not been heavily investigated due to the long times, high reaction temperatures, and small reaction volumes at interfaces in solid state reactions. All of these conditions present significant analytical challenges in following reaction pathways. Herein we use in-situ and ex-situ x-ray diffraction, in-situ x-ray reflectivity, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy to investigate the mechanistic pathways for the formation of a layered (Pb0. Read More

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December 2018

Electrochromic effect of indium tin oxide in lithium iron phosphate battery cathodes for state of charge determination.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

In this paper, we discuss the origin of an optical effect in lithium iron phosphate (LFP) battery cathodes, which depends on the electrical charge transferred into the battery. Utilizing indium tin oxide (ITO) as an electrode additive, we were able to observe a change in reflectivity of the cathode during charging and discharging with lithiation and delithiation being clearly visible in the form of lithiation fronts. Further investigations using in situ video microscopy and in situ Raman spectroscopy on test cells with an optical window indicates that ITO additionally acts as an electrochromic marker within the LFP cathode. Read More

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December 2018

PRENYLATED CURCUMIN ANALOGUES AS MULTIPOTENT TOOLS TO TACKLE ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Alzheimer's disease is likely to be caused by copathogenic factors including aggregation of Aβ peptides into oligomers and fibrils, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To date, no effective treatments are available and because of the multifactorial nature of the disease, it emerges the need to act on different and simultaneous fronts. Despite the multiple biological activities ascribed to curcumin as neuroprotector, its poor bioavailability and toxicity limit the success in clinical outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

Morphology and evolution of the wing bullae in South American Leptophlebiidae (Ephemeroptera).

J Morphol 2019 Jan;280(1):95-102

Instituto de Biodiversidad Neotropical (IBN), UNT-CONICET, Cátedra de Biología General, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina.

Insects were the first animals to take to the skies, and have been flying for over 320 million years. The order Ephemeroptera is, or at least is part of, the most early-diverging lineage of extant winged insects. The extant species present a very short adult life span, mainly dedicated to reproduction and dispersal of eggs. Read More

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January 2019

Quantifying the Initial Unfolding of Bacteriorhodopsin Reveals Retinal Stabilization.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Univ. of Colorado & NIST, JILA, 440 UCB, 80309, Boulder, UNITED STATES.

The forces that stabilize membrane proteins remain elusive to precise quantification. Particularly important but poorly resolved are the forces present during a membrane protein's initial unfolding, where the most native set of interactions are present. We developed a high-precision, atomic force microscopy assay to study the initial unfolding of bacteriorhodopsin. Read More

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December 2018
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Antimicrobial effects of the ginsenoside Rh2 on monospecies and multispecies cariogenic biofilms.

J Appl Microbiol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-Most) & Key Laboratory for Oral Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, 237 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Aims: To investigate the effects of the ginsenoside Rh2 on monospecies and multispecies cariogenic biofilms and explore the mechanism of the antibiofilm effect of Rh2 in vitro.

Methods And Results: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus sanguinis were chosen to form the monospecies or multispecies biofilms. Crystal violet staining and laser scanning confocal microscopy were used to observe the effect of Rh2 on biofilms in vitro. Read More

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December 2018

Retigabine protects the blood-brain barrier by regulating tight junctions between cerebral vascular endothelial cells in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018 Dec;22(23):8509-8518

Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of retigabine on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and its mechanism.

Materials And Methods: A total of 90 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were selected to prepare a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The blood flow changes were detected using a laser Doppler flow meter, the percentage of the cerebral infarction volume was measured by means of the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, the effect of retigabine on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion was examined via Evans blue (EB) staining, and the state of tight junctions between endothelial cells was determined via the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique. Read More

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December 2018

VNUT and VMAT2 segregate within sympathetic varicosities and localize near preferred Cav2 isoforms in the rat tail artery.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 Jan 12;316(1):H89-H105. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University , Burnaby, British Columbia , Canada.

ATP and norepinephrine (NE) are coreleased from peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals. Whether they are stored in the same vesicles has been debated for decades. Preferential dependence of NE or ATP release on Ca influx through specific voltage-gated Ca channel (Cav2) isoforms suggests that NE and ATP are stored in separate vesicle pools, but simultaneous imaging of NE and ATP containing vesicles within single varicosities has not been reported. Read More

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January 2019
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Controlling the Internal Morphology of Aqueous Core-PLGA Shell Microcapsules: Promoting the Internal Phase Separation via Alcohol Addition.

Pharm Dev Technol 2018 Dec 17:1-33. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

a School of Pharmacy , The University of Jordan , Amman 11942 Jordan.

The ability to control the internal core architecture of polymeric microcapsules has a direct impact on their applications. However, this task, especially to produce microcapsules with a high percentage of mononuclear aqueous cores, proved to be challenging. In this work, and in continuation to our previous studies, we report a facile protocol to prepare poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microcapsules with unprecedented percentage (almost 100%) of mononuclear aqueous cores by the internal phase separation method via adding alcohols. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of oral afoxolaner on naturally occurring infestations of peacocks by the louse Goniodes pavonis.

Vet Dermatol 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Centro Universitario UAEM Amecameca, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Km. 2.5 Carretera Amecameca-Ayapango, 56900, Amecameca de Juárez, México.

Background: Ectoparasitism of ornamental birds, including captive species kept in zoos, represents a serious health problem. Up to 13 different species of lice have been reported to affect peacocks worldwide and heavy infestation may cause anaemia. Because of this, alternatives to the prevailing treatments have been sought including use of isoxazolines. Read More

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December 2018

Surface charge tunable catanionic vesicles based on serine-derived surfactants as efficient nanocarriers for the delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin.

Nanoscale 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Nanophotonics, Ultrafast Bio- and Nanophotonics group, INL-International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Av. Mestre José Veiga s/n, 4715-330 Braga, Portugal.

Self-assembled vesicles composed of amino acid-based cationic/anionic surfactant mixtures show promise as novel effective drug nanocarriers. Here, we report the in vitro performance of vesicles based on cationic (16Ser) and anionic (8-8Ser) serine-based surfactants using a cancer cell model for the delivery of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). This catanionic mixture yields both negatively (0. Read More

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December 2018

Inhibition of lung cancer by 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM) through induction of necroptosis by targeting receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1).

Antioxid Redox Signal 2018 Dec 15. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

MACAU, Macao ;

Aims: Most chemotherapeutic agents exploit apoptotic signaling to trigger cancer cell death, which frequently results in drug resistance. Necroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death, offers an alternative strategy to eradicate apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. We previously reported a natural necroptosis inducer 2-methoxy-6-acetyl-7-methyljuglone (MAM) in A549 lung cancer cells. Read More

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December 2018

Atomic force microscopy meets biophysics, bioengineering, chemistry and materials science.

ChemSusChem 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

BOKU - University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Laboratory of Biophysics Department of Nanobiotechnology, Muthgasse 11, 1190, Wien, AUSTRIA.

This mini review briefly reports on the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the characterization of molecules and (bioengineered) materials related to chemistry, materials science, chemical engineering, and environmental science and biotechnology. Firstly, the operation basics of standard AFM, kelvin probe force microscopy and electrochemistry-AFM, as well as tip-enhanced Raman microscopy are described. Secondly, several applications of the former techniques about single molecules, polymers, biological membranes, films, cells, hydrogels, catalytic processes and semiconductors are provided and discussed. Read More

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December 2018

Packaging functionally-important plasma proteins into the α-granules of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived megakaryocytes.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Blood Center of Wisconsin, Blood Research Institute, Milwaukee, WI.

The contents of platelet α-granules arrive via a number of pathways; some are synthesized by megakaryocytes (MKs), e.g., von Willebrand Factor (VWF), while others are endocytosed from plasma, e. Read More

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December 2018

Monitoring circulating tumor cells in vivo by a confocal microscopy system.

Cytometry A 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a key role in cancer metastasis but are very difficult to detect. in vivo monitoring CTCs has been recognized as an important technique for cancer research and clinical diagnosis. Recently, a noninvasive method, in vivo flow cytometry (IVFC) has been developed to enable continuous, real-time, and long-duration detection of CTCs in animal models by detecting CTC fluorescence in blood vessels excited by lasers. Read More

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December 2018

Gut microbial compositions mirror caste-specific diets in a major lineage of social insects.

Environ Microbiol Rep 2018 Dec 16. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Department of Biology, Universitetsparken 15, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Social insects owe their ecological success to the division of labour between castes, but associations between microbial community compositions, castes with different tasks, and diets have not been extensively explored. Fungus-growing termites associate with fungi to degrade plant material, complemented by diverse gut microbial communities. Here we explore whether division of labour and accompanying dietary differences between fungus-growing termite castes are linked to gut bacterial community structure. Read More

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December 2018

Thermoresponsive Hydrophobic Copolymer Grafted on Agar Microspheres for All -Aqueous Bioseparations.

J Sep Sci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioprocess, College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, China.

Agar microspheres were prepared by water/oil emulsification and cross-linked under alkaline conditions. The thermoresponsive hydrophobic copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-lauryl methacrylate-co-acrylamide), was grafted on the agar microspheres via atom transfer radical polymerization. The agar microspheres grafted with copolymers were characterized by light microphotography, elemental analysis, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Read More

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December 2018

Phase Transitions in Confinements: Controlling Solid to Fluid Transitions of Xenon Atoms in an On-Surface Network.

Small 2018 Dec 17:e1803169. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232, Villigen, PSI, Switzerland.

This study reports on "phase" transitions of Xe condensates in on-surface confinements induced by temperature changes and local probe excitation. The pores of a metal-organic network occupied with 1 up to 9 Xe atoms are investigated in their propensity to undergo "condensed solid" to "confined fluid" transitions. Different transition temperatures are identified, which depend on the number of Xe atoms in the condensate and relate to the stability of the Xe clustering in the condensed "phase. Read More

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December 2018

A spatially varying charge model for regulating site-selective protein adsorption and cell behaviors.

Biomater Sci 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, P. R. China and School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou International Campus, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510006, P. R. China. and National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Guangdong Province, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China and Key Laboratory of Biomedical Materials and Engineering of the Ministry of Education, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, P. R. China.

Implanted materials that enter the body first interact with proteins in body fluids, and cells then perceive and respond to the foreign implant through this layer of adsorbed proteins. Thus, spatially specific regulation of protein adsorption on an implant surface is pivotal for mediating subsequent cellular behaviors. Unlike the surface modulation strategy for traditional biomaterials, in this research, materials with a nonuniform spatial distribution of surface charges were designed to achieve site-selective protein adsorption and further influence cell behavior by charge regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes spatially arrayed in micellar polymeric nanoparticles providing dual readout for multimodal imaging.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

CeNTech - CiMIC - Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, W. W.-Universität Münster, Heisenbergstr. 11, D-48149 Münster, Germany.

In this paper we report phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes as monomers which can be directly incorporated into growing polymers. Due to the amphiphilic nature of the polymers they can self-assemble into micellar nanoparticles, where the phosphorescent Pt(ii) complexes can arrange selectively in the core or shell of the nanoparticles. The complexes enable dual orthogonal imaging, made possible by the heavy metal, which enhances the contrast for these micelles in electron microscopy and facilitates spin-orbit coupling that turns on microsecond lifetime luminescence. Read More

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December 2018

Two photon excitable graphene quantum dots for structured illumination microscopy and imaging applications: lysosome specificity and tissue-dependent imaging.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India.

Biocompatible graphene quantum dots (GQDs), obtained from extracts of neem root, are found to be suitable for structured illumination microscopy and two-photon microscopy (TPM). Results of TPM and confocal luminescence microscopy ensure lysosome specificity in live cells and tissue-dependent localization in zebrafish, respectively, of GQDs. Read More

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December 2018

An all-in-one Sn-Co alloy as a binder-free anode for high-capacity batteries and its dynamic lithiation in situ.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA.

A three-dimensional all-in-one Sn-Co alloy anode is reported for the first time, which delivers a high capacity along with a stable coulombic efficiency as well as good temperature tolerance. The binder-free electrode eliminates the complexity of conventional slurry preparation while maintaining an integrated scaffold, which provides space to accommodate volume expansion, as confirmed by an in situ transmission electron microscopy study. Read More

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December 2018
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Visualization of inhomogeneous current distribution on ZrO-coated LiCoO thin-film electrodes using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec 17. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-604, Aramaki Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan and WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1-509, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Cathode surface coating with metal-oxide thin layers has been intensively studied to improve the cycle durability of lithium-ion batteries. A comprehensive understanding of the metal-oxide morphology and the local electrochemical properties is essential for figuring out the metal-oxide coating effect. In this study, scanning electrochemical cell microscopy (SECCM) is used to analyze the surface morphology with high spatial resolution, together with the local electrochemical properties. Read More

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December 2018

[Cu(TPMA)(Phen)](ClO): Metallodrug Nanocontainer Delivery and Membrane Lipidomics of a Neuroblastoma Cell Line Coupled with a Liposome Biomimetic Model Focusing on Fatty Acid Reactivity.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 27;3(11):15952-15965. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

ISOF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Piero Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.

The use of copper complexes for redox and oxidative-based mechanisms in therapeutic strategies is an important field of multidisciplinary research. Here, a novel Cu(II) complex [Cu(TPMA)(Phen)](ClO) (Cu-TPMA-Phen, where TPMA = tris-(2-pyridylmethyl)amine and Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) was studied using both the free and encapsulated forms. A hollow pH-sensitive drug-delivery system was synthesized, characterized, and used to encapsulate and release the copper complex, thus allowing for the comparison with the free drug. Read More

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November 2018

Fluorescent ZnS Quantum Dots-Phosphoethanolamine Nanoconjugates for Bioimaging Live Cells in Cancer Research.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 16;3(11):15679-15691. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Center of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Innovation-CeNanoI, Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary School, and Department of Physiology and Biophysics, ICB, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627 Belo Horizonte/MG, Brazil.

Many human diseases, including metabolic, immune, and central nervous system disorders, as well as several types of cancers, are the consequence of an important alteration in lipid-related metabolic biomolecules. Although recognized that one of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer cells is deregulation of lipid metabolism, the multiple complex signaling pathways are poorly understood yet. Thus, in this research, novel nanoconjugates made of ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were directly synthesized in aqueous media using phosphoethanolamine (PEA) as the capping ligand, which is an important biomolecule naturally present in cells for de novo biosynthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids involved in the cell structure (e. Read More

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November 2018

Stabilization of Liposomes by Perfluorinated Compounds.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 13;3(11):15353-15360. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Chemistry, Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are emerging persistent environmental contaminants that may be toxic to animals and humans. To gain fundamental insights into the mechanism of their toxicity, the interactions of phosphocholine (PC) liposomes as model membranes were studied with three types of PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid potassium salt, together with three common surfactants: sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and sodium 1-heptanesulfonate (SHS). The interactions were systematically characterized by zeta potential measurement, dynamic light scattering, negative-stain transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Read More

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November 2018

Guar-Based Injectable Thermoresponsive Hydrogel as a Scaffold for Bone Cell Growth and Controlled Drug Delivery.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 9;3(11):15158-15167. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Chemistry and Center for Integrative Nanotechnology Sciences, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, 2801 South University Avenue, Little Rock, Arkansas 72204, United States.

In this study, an injectable thermoresponsive hydroxypropyl guar--poly(-vinylcaprolactam) (HPG--PNVCL) copolymer was synthesized by graft polymerization. The reaction parameters such as temperature, time, monomer, and initiator concentrations were varied. In addition, the HPG--PNVCL copolymer was modified with nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) by in situ covalent cross-linking using divinyl sulfone (DVS) cross-linker to obtain HPG--PNVCL/n-HA/DVS composite material. Read More

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November 2018
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Alginate-Based Hydrogel Beads as a Biocompatible and Efficient Adsorbent for Dye Removal from Aqueous Solutions.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 9;3(11):15140-15148. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65167, Iran.

In this study, sodium alginate was employed as a starting material for preparing two kinds of biocompatible adsorbents, including calcium alginate hydrogel beads and magnetic hydrogel beads. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern, and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray techniques were used to characterize the prepared adsorbents. The performance of the prepared adsorbents for the removal of methyl violet from aqueous solution was studied in detail. Read More

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November 2018

Cisplatin-Loaded Graphene Oxide/Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite Composite as a Promising Tool for Osteosarcoma-Affected Bone Regeneration.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 1;3(11):14620-14633. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Biomaterials in Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Natural Products Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai625021, India.

Presently, tissue engineering approaches have been focused toward finding new potential scaffolds with osteoconductivity on bone-disease-affected cells. This work focused on the cisplatin (CDDP)-loaded graphene oxide (GO)/hydroxyapatite (HAP)/chitosan (CS) composite for enhancing the growth of osteoblast cells and prevent the development of osteosarcoma cells. The prepared composites were characterized for the confirmation of composite formation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Highly Flexible Electrospun Hybrid (Polyurethane/Dextran/Pyocyanin) Membrane for Antibacterial Activity via Generation of Oxidative Stress.

ACS Omega 2018 Nov 1;3(11):14551-14561. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Forest Science and Technology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju-si 561-756, Jeollabuk-do, Republic of Korea.

A hybrid nanofibrous mat consisting of polyurethane, dextran, and 10 wt % of biopigment (i.e., pyocyanin) was facilely fabricated using a direct-conventional electrospinning method. Read More

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November 2018
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