21,550 results match your criteria Micron Oxford England : 1993[Journal]
J Colloid Interface Sci 2018 Dec 2;538:541-545. Epub 2018 Dec 2.
Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel; Bar-Ilan Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 5290002, Israel. Electronic address:
Hypothesis: Temperature-controlled self-faceting of liquid droplets has been recently discovered in surfactant-stabilized alkane-in-water emulsions. We hypothesize that similar self-faceting may occur in emulsion droplets of UV-polymerizable linear hydrocarbons. We further hypothesize that the faceted droplet shapes can be fixed by UV-initiated polymerization, thus providing a new route towards the production of solid polyhedra. Read More
Micron 2018 Dec 7;118:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States. Electronic address:
A wide variety of specimen preparation techniques are available for ensuring that specimen surface finish has the acceptable quality for electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. These techniques include but are not limited to vibratory polishing, broad, and focused ion beam milling. They have been widely implemented in the field of nuclear materials science with a varying degree of success. Read More
J Cell Biochem 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Regenerative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kepala Batas, Penang, Malaysia.
Stem cell therapy offers hope to reconstitute injured myocardium and salvage heart from failing. A recent approach using combinations of derived Cardiac-derived c-kit expressing cells (CCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in transplantation improved infarcted hearts with a greater functional outcome, but the effects of MSCs on CCs remain to be elucidated. We used a novel two-step protocol to clonogenically amplify colony forming c-kit expressing cells from 4- to 6-week-old C57BL/6N mice. Read More
Lab Chip 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.
BIOS Lab-on-a-Chip Group, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.
Laminar flow patterning is an iconic microfluidic technology used to deliver chemicals to specific regions on a two-dimensional surface with high spatial fidelity. Here we present a novel extension of this technology using Darcy flow within a three-dimensional (3D) hydrogel. Our test device is a simple 3-inlet microfluidic channel, totally filled with collagen, a cured biological hydrogel, where the concentration profiles of solutes are manipulated via the inlet pressures. Read More
Nat Commun 2018 Dec 13;9(1):5307. Epub 2018 Dec 13.
Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, FI-00076, Aalto, Espoo, Finland.
Plastic deformation of micron-scale crystalline solids exhibits stress-strain curves with significant sample-to-sample variations. It is a pertinent question if this variability is purely random or to some extent predictable. Here we show, by employing machine learning techniques such as regression neural networks and support vector machines that deformation predictability evolves with strain and crystal size. Read More
Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Dec 12;8(12). Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Laser-Laboratorium Göttingen e.V. Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany.
Metallic nanoparticles are important building blocks for plasmonic applications. The spatially defined arrangement of these nanoparticles in a stable glass matrix is obtained here by nanosecond excimer laser irradiation at 193 nm. Two approaches are addressed: (1) Laser induced formation of particles from a dopant material pre-incorporated in the glass, (2) Particle formation and implantation by irradiation of material pre-coated on top of the glass. Read More
Sensors (Basel) 2018 Dec 7;18(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Region 2, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, NJ 08837-3679, USA.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is involved in the discovery, evaluation, and application of low-cost air quality (AQ) sensors to support citizen scientists by directly engaging with them in the pursuit of community-based interests. Read More
Cell Host Microbe 2018 Dec;24(6):866-874.e4
Section of Microbiology, MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK; Department of Immunology & Infection, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK. Electronic address:
The cytoskeleton occupies a central role in cellular immunity by promoting bacterial sensing and antibacterial functions. Septins are cytoskeletal proteins implicated in various cellular processes, including cell division. Septins also assemble into cage-like structures that entrap cytosolic Shigella, yet how septins recognize bacteria is poorly understood. Read More
Langmuir 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Spontaneous displacement of high viscosity (~103 Pas) micron size oil droplets from a curved solid in aqueous solutions was investigated. For high viscosity oils, the dynamic droplet shape was found to deviate significantly from a spherical cap shape due to the considerable viscous force in the oil phase. The displacement dynamics of high viscosity droplets were analyzed using molecular kinetic and hydrodynamic models. Read More
J Neural Eng 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.
University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, UNITED STATES.
Objective: Microwire and Utah-style neural recording arrays are the predominant devices used for cortical neural recording, but the implanted electrodes cause a significant adverse biological response and suffer from well-studied performance degradation. Recent work has demonstrated that carbon fiber electrodes do not elicit this same adverse response, but these existing designs are not practically scalable to hundreds or thousands of recording sites. We present technology that overcomes these issues while additionally providing fine electrode pitch for spatial oversampling. Read More
Nanotechnology 2018 Oct 19. Epub 2018 Oct 19.
Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CANADA.
Anodically formed TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) constitute an optoelectronic platform that is being studied for use as a photoanode in photoelectrocatalytic cells, as an electron transport layer (ETL) in solar cells and photodetectors, and as an active layer for chemiresistive and microwave sensors. For optimal transport of charge carriers in these one-dimensional polycrystalline ordered structures, it is desirable to introduce a preferential texture with the grains constituting the nanotube walls aligned along the transport direction. Through X-ray diffraction analysis, we demonstrate that choosing the right water content in the anodization electrolyte and the use of a post-anodization zinc ion treatment can introduce a preferential texture in sub-micron length transparent TNTAs formed on non-native substrates. Read More
J Neurophysiol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.
Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Cornell University, United States.
An obstacle to understanding neural mechanisms of movement is the complex, distributed nature of the mammalian motor system. Here we present a novel behavioral paradigm for high-throughput dissection of neural circuits underlying mouse forelimb control. Custom touch-sensing joysticks were used to quantify mouse forelimb trajectories with micron-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. Read More
Nanotechnology 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
Department of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, ISRAEL.
Molecular self-assembly is a major approach for the fabrication of functional supramolecular nanomaterials. This dynamic, straightforward, bottom-up procedure may result in the formation of various architectures at the nano-scale, with remarkable physical and chemical characteristics. Biological and bio-inspired building blocks are especially attractive due to their intrinsic tendency to assemble into layered well-organized structures, as well as their inherent biocompatibility. Read More
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Shandong Normal University, No.88 Wenhua East Road, Jinan, CHINA.
Long afterglow materials can store and release light energy after illumination. Here, a brick-like, micron-sized Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+,Dy3+ long afterglow material is used for hydrogen production via the photocatalytic reforming of methanol under round-the-clock conditions for the first time, achieving a solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency of 5.18%. Read More
ACS Omega 2018 Nov 13;3(11):15435-15441. Epub 2018 Nov 13.
Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB, U.K.
We show that micron-scale two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb microwells can significantly improve the stability of blue phase liquid crystals (BPLCs). Polymeric microwells made by direct laser writing improve various features of the blue phase (BP) including a dramatic extension of stable temperature range and a large increase both in reflectivity and thermal stability of the reflective peak wavelength. These results are mainly attributed to the omnidirectional anchoring of the isotropically oriented BP molecules at the polymer walls of the hexagonal microwells and at the top and bottom substrates. Read More
PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208340. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Purpose: Metastatic brain tumors pose a severe problem in the treatment of patients with breast carcinoma. Preclinical models have been shown to play an important role in unraveling the underlying mechanisms behind the metastatic process and evaluation of new therapeutic approaches. As the size of the rat brain allows improved in vivo imaging, we attempted to establish a rat model for breast cancer brain metastasis that allows follow-up by 7 tesla (7T) preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Read More
PLoS One 2018 10;13(12):e0208352. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., United States of America.
The morphology and composition of tissue located within parietal shell canals of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite are described. Longitudinal canal tissue nearly spans the length of side shell plates, terminating near the leading edge of the specimen basis in proximity to female reproductive tissue located throughout the peripheral sub-mantle region, i.e. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 Dec 10;8(1):17763. Epub 2018 Dec 10.
Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Moscow, 143026, Russia.
We demonstrate a novel approach to the controlled loading of inorganic nanoparticles and proteins into submicron- and micron-sized porous particles. The approach is based on freezing/thawing cycles, which lead to high loading densities. The process was tested for the inclusion of Au, magnetite nanoparticles, and bovine serum albumin in biocompatible vaterite carriers of micron and submicron sizes. Read More
Acad Radiol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905. Electronic address:
Rationale And Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of effective detector-pixel-size and image voxel size on the accurate estimation of microvessel density (ratio of microvascular lumen volume/tissue volume) in an excised porcine myocardium specimen using microcomputed tomography (CT), and the ability of whole-body energy-integrating-detector (EID) CT and photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT to measure microvessel density in the same ex vivo specimen.
Materials And Methods: Porcine myocardial tissue in which the microvessels contained radio-opaque material was scanned using a micro-CT scanner and data were generated with a range of detector pixel sizes and image voxel sizes from 20 to 260 microns, to determine the impact of these parameters on the accuracy of microvessel density estimates. The same specimen was scanned in a whole-body EID CT and PCD CT system and images reconstructed with 600 and 250 micron slice thicknesses, respectively. Read More
J Am Chem Soc 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.
In recent years magic angle spinning - dynamic nuclear polarization (MAS-DNP) developed as an excellent approach for boosting the sensitivity of solid state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy, thereby enabling the characterization of challenging systems in biology and chemistry. Most commonly, MAS-DNP is based on the use of nitroxide biradicals as polarizing agents. In materials science, since the use of nitroxides often limits the signal enhancement to the materials' surface and subsurface layers, there is need for hyperpolarization approaches which will provide sensitivity in the bulk of micron sized particles. Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.
Miniature batteries can accelerate the development of mobile electronics by providing sufficient energy to power small devices. Typical micro-batteries commonly use thin film inorganic electrodes based on Li-ion insertion reaction. However, they rely on the complicated thin film synthesis method of inorganics containing many elements. Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.
Directional, micron-scale honeycomb pores in Li-ion battery electrodes were fabricated using a layer-by-layer, self-assembly approach based on spray printing of carbon nanofibers. By controlling the drying behavior of each printed electrode layer through optimization of (i) the volume ratio of fugitive bi-solvent carriers in the suspension, and (ii) the substrate temperature during printing, self-assembled, honeycomb pore channels through the electrode were created spontaneously and reliably on current collector areas larger than 20 cm × 15 cm. The honeycomb pore structure promoted efficient Li-ion dynamics at high charge/discharge current densities. Read More
Yakugaku Zasshi 2018 ;138(12):1503-1507
Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University.
Biopharmaceuticals are often formulated as liquid dosage forms. During manufacturing and storage, protein molecules and active pharmaceutical ingredients form aggregates due to various stresses, including shaking and agitation, as well as by contact with silicone oils coated on pre-fillable syringes. The diameter of protein aggregates ranges from 15-20 nm, and that of dimers comprising a large number of antibody molecules can be up to 100 μm. Read More
Micron 2018 Nov 23;117:68-75. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 -2, D-66123, Saarbrücken, Germany; Department of Physics, Saarland University, Campus D2 -2, D-66123, Saarbrücken, Germany. Electronic address:
The dynamics of processes of nanoparticles such as diffusion, attraction and repulsion, and self-assembly of structures of nanoparticles at the solid-liquid interfaces differ significantly from those occurring for bulk conditions and their fundamental physical rules are still unknown. Here, we used liquid phase scanning transmission electron microscopy (LP-STEM) to study several aspects of nanoparticle dynamics of colloidal chitosan coated gold nanoparticle (TCHIT-AuNP) clusters in a liquid layer enclosed between two SiN membranes. We found that upon beam irradiation using an electron flux of 0. Read More
Tissue Cell 2018 Dec 30;55:83-90. Epub 2018 Oct 30.
Center of Excellence in Tissue Engineering, Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India. Electronic address:
Lack of potential regenerative medicine to reconstruct damaged cartilage tissue has accelerated investigation and development of potential biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. In this study, we fabricated micron-sized non-mulberry silk fibroin fiber (SFF) using N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMA)/10% LiBr solution and further used to develop SFF reinforced chitosan(CH) based porous scaffold with desired pore size, porosity, swelling and structural stability. The developed scaffold was characterized for its various physico-chemical, mechanical and biological properties. Read More
J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2019 May;19(5):2460-2466
Nanotechnology Centre, VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba, Czech Republic.
Metal based particles were detected in pulmonary tumor tissue samples and reference lung tissue samples (lung tissue without carcinoma) by Raman microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Many of these particles were in the size below 1 m. Using scanning electron microscopy, particles based on iron were found in the majority of samples. Read More
Micron 2018 Nov 24;117:60-67. Epub 2018 Nov 24.
Univ Lyon, INSA-Lyon, UCBL, MATEIS, CNRS UMR 5510, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address:
Tilted image series are acquired on liquid suspensions of latex particles supported by a carbon membrane. To do this, a home-made stage fitting in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) is optimized to minimize cold losses and thus improve both sample stability and spatial resolution in the images. As latex particles are electron-sensitive materials, sample degradation and stability are taken into account in the choice of the parameters for tilted image series acquisition. Read More
Anal Chem 2018 Nov 30. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Surfaces and interfaces, of both practical and fundamental interest, have long been recognized to be complex, yet while there are many microscopy and spectroscopy methods for imaging structure, topography and surface chemical composition at high spatial resolution, there are relatively few techniques for mapping associated chemical fluxes in the near-interface region. In this regard, scanning electrochemical probe microscopy (SEPM), which utilizes a small scale electrode probe as an imaging device, has had a unique place in the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) family of techniques, in being able to map chemical fluxes and interfacial reactivity. For a long time, techniques such as scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) were largely stuck at the micron - or larger - scale in terms of spatial resolution, but recent years have seen spectacular progress, such that a variety of different types of SEPM technique are now available and 10s of nm spatial resolution is becoming increasingly accessible. Read More
J Biomed Opt 2018 Nov;23(12):1-10
University of California, Riverside, Department of Bioengineering, Riverside, California, United States.
Pulsed dye laser irradiation in the wavelength range of 585 to 600 nm is currently the gold standard for treatment of port-wine stains (PWSs). However, this treatment method is often ineffective for deeply seated blood vessels and in individuals with moderate to heavy pigmentation. Use of optical particles doped with the FDA-approved near-infrared (NIR) absorber, indocyanine green (ICG), can potentially provide an effective method to overcome these limitations. Read More
Small 2018 Nov 28:e1803870. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Here, a soft robotic microgripper is presented that consists of a smart actuated microgel connected to a spatially photopatterned multifunctional base. When pressed onto a target object, the microgel component conforms to its shape, thus providing a simple and adaptive solution for versatile micromanipulation. Without the need for active visual or force feedback, objects of widely varying mechanical and surface properties are reliably gripped through a combination of geometrical interlocking mechanisms instantiated by reversible shape-memory and thermal responsive swelling of the microgel. Read More
Micromachines (Basel) 2018 Nov 26;9(12). Epub 2018 Nov 26.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chaio Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan.
Micron-sized patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) are used to improve the performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, the growth of GaN is initiated not only from the bottom c-plane but also from the sidewall of the micron-sized patterns. Therefore, the coalescence of these GaN crystals creates irregular voids. Read More
J Cell Biochem 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Nowadays, increased use of nanomaterials in industry and biomedicine poses potential risks to human health and the environment. Studying their possible toxicological effects is therefore of great significance. The present investigation was designed to examine the status of oxidative stress induced by nanoparticles (NPs) of ferric oxide (Fe O ) and titanium oxide (TiO ) with their micro-sized counterpart on mouse lung and bone marrow-derived normal tissue cells. Read More
Expert Opin Drug Deliv 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
a Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics , Kiel University , Grasweg 9a, 24118 Kiel , Germany.
Introduction: Nanoparticles are under discussion in drug delivery for more than 20 years now, but examples for nanoparticulate formulations in the treatment of respiratory diseases are rare and mostly limited to the administration of sub-micron drug particles (ultrafine particles). However, nanoparticles may also carry specific benefits for respiratory treatment. Are nanoparticles the next-generation drug carrier system to facilitate systemic delivery, sustained release and cancer treatment in the lungs? Areas covered: This review will look into the promises and opportunities of the use of nanoparticles in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Read More
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.
Nanostructured metals with large surface area have a great potential for multiple device applications. Although various metal architectures based on metal nanoligaments and nanowires are well known, they typically show a tradeoff between mechanical robustness, high surface area and high (macro)porosity, which, when combined, could significantly improve the performance of devices such as batteries, electrolyzers or sensors. In this work we rationally designed templated networks of interconnected metal nanowires, combining for the first time high porosity of metal foams, narrowly-distributed macropores and a very high surface area of nanoporous dealloyed metals. Read More
J Food Sci Technol 2018 Dec 17;55(12):4867-4876. Epub 2018 Sep 17.
2Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Salt Lake Campus, Block LB, Sector III, Plot 8, Salt Lake, Kolkata, 700 098 India.
This paper reports on the development of an integrated leaf quality inspecting system using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy for quick and in situ estimation of total polyphenol (TP) content of fresh tea leaves, which is the most important quality indicator of tea. The integrated system consists of a heating system to dry the fresh tea leaves to the level of 3-4% moisture, a grinding and sieving system fitted with a 250 micron mesh sieve to make fine powder from the dried leaf. Samples thus prepared are transferred to the NIR beam and TP is measured instantaneously. Read More
ACS Nano 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.
Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale, Department of Chemistry , University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei 230026 , PR China.
Potassium-ion batteries (KIBs) are considered favorable candidates for post-lithium-ion batteries, a quality attributed to their low cost, abundance as a resource, and high working potential (-2.93 V for K/K). Owning to its relatively low potassiation potential and high theoretical capacity, antimony (Sb) is one of the most favorable anodes for KIBs. Read More
Ultrason Sonochem 2018 Nov 9. Epub 2018 Nov 9.
Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Material Science and Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China; Shanxi Key Laboratory of Advanced Magnesium-based Materials, Taiyuan 030024, China; Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, China. Electronic address:
In this study, the joint at low temperature with nano-AlO particles and AlO nano + micro particles were fabricated by semisolid assisted ultrasonic vibration with nano-AlO particle of 50 nm and volume fractions of 1% and micron-AlO particle of 10 μm and volume fractions of 1%. The joints were examined in order to understand the effects of AlO additions as microstructure, interface morphology and shear strength as well as mechanical properties of soldering 6061 aluminum alloys. Due to different size, the scallop-shaped solid solution layer was changed into a groove layer, and its thickness of AlZn solid solution layer was decreased. Read More
J Environ Radioact 2018 Nov 23;197:9-15. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Institute for Photonics & Advanced Sensing and School of Physical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, 5005, Australia.
An autoradiographic technique capable of determining the spatial location of radioactive isotopes within materials on the scale of micrometers is demonstrated in low-activity mineral samples, where the concentrations of radionuclides with short half lives is small and below the detection limits of current measurement techniques. The location of certain radionuclide species within samples with complex structures on the micron scale can yield valuable information, however current methods do not have the spatial resolution required for this purpose. We demonstrate the use of an autoradiographic emulsion to directly image alpha particle events in samples with low radionuclide concentrations, allowing spatial resolution of radionuclide locations on the order of several microns. Read More
Toxicol Lett 2018 Nov 23;301:157-167. Epub 2018 Nov 23.
Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy. Electronic address:
Gadolinium deposition in tissue is linked to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF): a rare disorder occurring in patients with severe chronic kidney disease and associated with administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). It is suggested that the GBCAs prolonged permanence in blood in these patients may result in a Gd precipitation in peripheral or central organs, where it initiates a fibrotic process. In this study we investigated new sites of retention/precipitation of Gd in a mouse model of renal disease (5/6 nephrectomy) receiving two doses (closely after each other) of a linear GBCA. Read More
J Environ Sci (China) 2019 Jan 29;75:247-254. Epub 2018 Mar 29.
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada. Electronic address:
This research investigated the removal capacity of polymeric sub-micron ion-exchange resins (SMR) for removal of lead, copper, zinc, and nickel from natural waters in competition with natural organic matter (NOM). Polymeric SMR particles were created and tested to ensure that they were adequately dispersed in the solution. They removed little NOM (10% or less) from river water and wastewater, indicating that competition from NOM was not a major concern. Read More
Micron 2018 Nov 16;117:55-59. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Microscopy Imaging Center, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.
The 'Human Cell Atlas' project has been launched to obtain a comprehensive understanding of all cell types, the fundamental living units that constitute the human body. This is a global partnership and effort involving experts from many disciplines, from computer science, engineering to medicine, and is supported by several private and public organizations, among them, the Chan Zuckerberg Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, and Google, that will greatly benefit humanity. Nearly 37 trillion cells of various shapes, sizes, and composition, are precisely organized to constitute the human body. Read More
Micron 2018 Nov 16;117:47-54. Epub 2018 Nov 16.
Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1650 boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec, J3X1S2, Canada. Electronic address:
Bringing ultrafast (nanosecond and below) temporal resolution to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has historically been challenging. Despite significant recent progress in this direction, it remains difficult to achieve sub-nanosecond temporal resolution with a single electron pulse, in real-time (i.e. Read More
J Struct Biol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.
Pennsylvania State University, Department of Anthropology, United States.
Human scalp hairs are often examined microscopically to study the variation and diversity among a range of visible morphological traits. In this study, we focused on the ultrastructure of human scalp hair within its keratinized matrix, emphasizing, the density and distribution of melanosomes, variation in cuticle thickness within populations, and the relationship of hair fiber ultrastructure with biogeographic ancestry. We used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to visualize hair cross-sections and generate micron-scale resolution images for analysis of particle morphology and the layered hair matrix. Read More
Opt Express 2018 Nov;26(23):29651-29658
We demonstrate hybrid amorphous silicon uniform grating couplers for efficient coupling between the standard single-mode fiber and sub-micron lithium niobate waveguides. The grating couplers exhibit coupling efficiency of -3.06 dB and 1-dB bandwidth of 55 nm. Read More
Opt Express 2018 Nov;26(23):30231-30244
The applicability of optical transition radiation (OTR) for measurements of micron sized transverse electron beam profiles is limited not only by the optical system resolution which has a fundamental limit imposed by the uncertainty principle. In the case of OTR generation, a single electron crossing the boundary between vacuum and screen cannot be considered as a single emitting point with isotropic angular distribution. On the contrary, the radiation is emitted from an area with a transverse range that is defined by the radial extension of the electron's Lorentz contracted Coulomb field and is typically estimated as γλ (with γ the Lorentz factor and λ the wavelength of observation). Read More
Opt Express 2018 Oct;26(21):27326-27338
Light sheet microscopy (LSM) - also known as selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) - enables high-speed, volumetric imaging by illuminating a two-dimensional cross-section of a specimen. Typically, this light sheet is created by table-top optics, which limits the ability to miniaturize the overall SPIM system. Replacing this table-top illumination system with miniature, integrated devices would reduce the cost and footprint of SPIM systems. Read More
Opt Express 2018 Oct;26(20):26618-26632
The traceable absolute distances network with multiple global targets for multilateration is developed with a femtosecond pulse laser. It is aiming to enhance the ability and flexibility of the coordinate measurement, especially to monitor the positions of distributed stations in real time for some critical industrial environments. Here, multi-target absolute distances are determined by the temporal coherence method simultaneously with the pulse-to-pulse interferometer. Read More
Opt Express 2018 Oct;26(20):25676-25692
Lens-free holographic microscopy offers sub-micron resolution over an ultra-large field-of-view >20 mm, making it suitable for bio-sensing applications that require the detection of small targets at low concentrations. Various pixel super-resolution techniques have been shown to enhance resolution and boost signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by combining multiple partially-redundant low-resolution frames. However, it has been unclear which technique performs best for small-target sensing. Read More
Opt Express 2018 Oct;26(20):25645-25656
We experimentally demonstrate an all-silicon nanoantenna-based micro-optofluidic cytometer showing a combination of high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 14 dB and ultra-compact size. Thanks to the ultra-high directivity of the antennas (>150), which enables a state-of-the-art sub-micron resolution, we are able to avoid the use of the bulky devices typically employed to collimate light on chip (such as lenses or fibers). The nm-scale antenna cross section allows a dramatic reduction of the optical system footprint, from the mm-scale of previous approaches to a few µm, yielding a notable reduction in the fabrication costs. Read More