379,287 results match your criteria Microbial ecology[Journal]


T-cell immunology of the lung: maintaining the balance between host defence and immune pathology.

Authors:
Daniel M Altmann

Immunology 2019 Jan;156(1):1-2

Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK.

Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage. A number of recent studies have considered specific aspects of this double-edged sword, including the diversity of responses to fungal exposure, sources and consequences of interleukin-17 immunity, and the role of tertiary lymphoid follicles in the lung. Read More

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January 2019
7 Reads

Microbial Intervention as a Novel Target in Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Progression.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2018 Dec 6;51(5):2123-2135. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Guangzhou Digestive Disease Center, Guangzhou First People's Hospital, the Second Affiliated Hospital of South China University of Technology, Guangzhou,

Background/aims: Emerging evidence suggests a close link between gut microbiota and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between gut microbiota and the DNA methylation of adiponectin (an adipocyte-specific adipocytokine) in rats, following diet-induced NAFLD.

Methods: 50 male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups with or without a high fat diet (HFD), antibiotics, and probiotics, in order to establish an imbalanced gut microbiota and probiotic treatment model in NAFLD rats. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Two-stage microbial conversion of crude glycerol to 1,3-propanediol and polyhydroxyalkanoates after pretreatment.

J Environ Manage 2018 Dec 3;232:615-624. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Division of Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore; Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Cleantech Loop, Singapore 637141, Singapore.

With increasing demand for biodiesel, crude glycerol as a by-product in biodiesel production has been generated and oversupplied. This study, therefore, explored the pretreatment and a subsequent two-stage microbial system to convert crude glycerol into high value-added products: 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). After pretreatment, long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) could be effectively removed from crude glycerol to eliminate the inhibition effects on subsequent microbial process. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Airborne bacteria in a wastewater treatment plant: Emission characterization, source analysis and health risk assessment.

Water Res 2018 Nov 14;149:596-606. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; National Engineering Laboratory for VOCs Pollution Control Material & Technology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 101408, China. Electronic address:

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are major sources of airborne bacteria, which could pose health risks to WWTP workers and surrounding residents. In this study, air samples were collected from various treatment facilities of a typical WWTP. Community compositions of airborne bacteria were identified by high-throughput sequencing technique. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Effects of ofloxacin on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in constructed wetland.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 27;656:503-511. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore, 1 Engineering Drive 2, E1A 07-03, Singapore117576, Singapore.

Constructed wetlands (CWs) have emerged as a promising technology for the purification of micro-polluted water. However, their nitrogen removal performance can be significantly degraded by design, operational, and environmental factors. The present study investigates the effects of ofloxacin (OFL: 0. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

The Bacterial Metabolite Indole Inhibits Regeneration of the Planarian Flatworm Dugesia japonica.

iScience 2018 Nov 16;10:135-148. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Allen Discovery Center at Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA. Electronic address:

Planarian flatworms have been used for over a century as models for regeneration. Planarians live in aquatic environments with constant exposure to microbes, but the mechanisms by which bacteria may mediate planarian regeneration are largely unknown. We characterized the microbiome of laboratory populations of the planarian Dugesia japonica and determined how individual bacteria impact D. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Tools and strategies for constructing cell-free enzyme pathways.

Biotechnol Adv 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia; Biomolecular Discovery and Design Research Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

Single enzyme systems or engineered microbial hosts have been used for decades but the notion of assembling multiple enzymes into cell-free synthetic pathways is a relatively new development. The extensive possibilities that stem from this synthetic concept makes it a fast growing and potentially high impact field for biomanufacturing fine and platform chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, the translation of individual single enzymatic reactions into cell-free multi-enzyme pathways is not trivial. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Bioactivity of soy-based fermented foods: A review.

Biotechnol Adv 2018 Dec 3. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

College of Food Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China. Electronic address:

For centuries, fermented soy foods have been dietary staples in Asia and, now, in response to consumer demand, they are available throughout the world. Fermentation bestows unique flavors, boosts nutritional values and increases or adds new functional properties. In this review, we describe the functional properties and underlying action mechanisms of soy-based fermented foods such as Natto, fermented soy milk, Tempeh and soy sauce. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Effects of acute exposures of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and inorganic lead on the fecal microbiome of the green anole (Anolis carolinensis).

PLoS One 2018 6;13(12):e0208281. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

The Environmental Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

Microbiome studies focused on ecologically relevant vertebrate models like reptiles have been limited. Because of their relatively small home range, fast maturation, and high fecundity, lizards are an excellent reptilian terrestrial indicator species. For this study we used the green anole, Anolis carolinensis, to assess the impact of military relevant contaminants on fecal microbiome composition. Read More

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December 2018

Development of a host-microbiome model of the small intestine.

FASEB J 2018 Dec 6:fj201801414R. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The intestinal epithelium plays an essential role in the balance between tolerant and protective immune responses to infectious agents. In vitro models do not typically consider the innate immune response and gut microbiome in detail, so these models do not fully mimic the physiologic aspects of the small intestine. We developed and characterized a long-term in vitro model containing enterocyte, goblet, and immune-like cells exposed to a synthetic microbial community representative of commensal inhabitants of the small intestine. Read More

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December 2018

Comorbidities and antimicrobial resistance in urological outpatients with positive urine culture

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2018 11 30;56(4):347-353. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Hospital General de Zona No. 33, Departamento de Urología. Monterrey, Nuevo León, México

Background: The urinary tract infections are the third cause of infections in Mexico. The inappropriate use of antibiotic has generated the presence of multidrugresistant bacteria.

Objective: To identify the bacterial resistance patterns of the hospital and to detect the present comorbidities that can modify the evolution of urinary tract infection for proper empirical management. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Loop assembly: a simple and open system for recursive fabrication of DNA circuits.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EA, UK.

High efficiency methods for DNA assembly have enabled routine assembly of synthetic DNAs of increased size and complexity. However, these techniques require customisation, elaborate vector sets or serial manipulations for the different stages of assembly. We have developed Loop assembly based on a recursive approach to DNA fabrication. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of probiotics to reduce the severity of oral mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Cancer 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China.

Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic combination on the severity of oral mucositis (OM), which is a common, unpreventable complication induced by radiochemotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who undergo concurrent radiochemotherapy (CCRT).

Methods: Eligible patients (n = 99) with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma who were undergoing CCRT were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive a probiotic combination or placebo during radiochemotherapy, and the incidence of severe OM (grade 3 or higher) was the primary endpoint.

Results: Patients taking the probiotic combination showed a significant reduction in the severity of OM. Read More

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December 2018

Methane production and emissions in trees and forests.

New Phytol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, 647 Contees Wharf Road, Edgewater, MD, 21037.

Forest ecosystem methane (CH ) research has focused on soils, but trees are also important sources and sinks in forest CH budgets. Living and dead trees transport and emit CH produced in soils; living trees and deadwood emit CH produced inside trees by microorganisms; and trees produce CH through an abiotic photochemical process. Here, we review the state of the science on the production, consumption, transport, and emission of CH by living and dead trees, and the spatial and temporal dynamics of these processes across hydrologic gradients inclusive of wetland and upland ecosystems. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Radical SAM-dependent adenosylation catalyzed by l-tyrosine lyases.

Org Biomol Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

The radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily is currently the largest known enzyme family. These enzymes reductively cleave SAM to produce a highly reactive 5'-deoxyadenosyl (dAdo) radical, which abstracts a hydrogen from the substrate and initiates diverse reactions. The canonic dAdo radical-mediated hydrogen abstraction can be changed to radical addition reactions by using olefin-containing substrate analogues, which result in adenosylation reactions. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Linkages between epithelial microbiota and host transcriptome in the ileum during high grain challenges: implications for gut homeostasis in goats.

J Agric Food Chem 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

A high-grain diet (HG) can result in ruminal subacute acidosis, which is detrimental to gut health and can lead to decreased productivity. This study investigated the ileal epithelial microbiota and its relationship with host epithelial function in goats fed an HG diet (concentrate: hay, 90: 10) and a Control diet (concentrate: hay, 55: 45) aiming to elucidate the mechanisms involved in ileal adaptation to subacute acidosis. The HG challenge increased ileal volatile fatty acid concentration (P = 0. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Developing a risk management framework to improve public health outcomes by enumerating Salmonella in ground turkey.

Epidemiol Infect 2018 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Environmental Health Sciences,School of Public Health,University of Minnesota,Saint Paul,USA.

Salmonella spp. continue to be a leading cause of foodborne morbidity worldwide. To assess the risk of foodborne disease, current national regulatory schemes focus on prevalence estimates of Salmonella and other pathogens. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Diagnostic Value of HLA Typing in Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Thalassemia and Hemoglobinopathy Research Center, Research Institute of Health, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz. Iran.

Development of cardiomyopathy (CM) is dependent upon several factors. However, reaction of immune response against myocardial tissue due to microbial and viral infections plays an important role in this disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between HLAs and their pathogenic mechanisms in the incidence of CM. Read More

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December 2018

Changes in the Distal Esophageal Microbiota in Chinese Patients with Reflux Esophagitis.

J Dig Dis 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Digestive Department, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objective: Changes in microbiota structure in the distal esophagus may be associated with the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The composition of the distal esophageal microbiota between Chinese patients and healthy volunteers was compared through metagenomic high-throughput DNA sequencing and bioinformatic analyses.

Methods: Healthy volunteers (HV) and patients with reflux esophagitis (RE) were enrolled. Read More

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December 2018
5 Reads

Rapid tool for identification of bacterial strains using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy on genomic DNA.

J Appl Microbiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Biological Resource Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup, Jeollabuk-do, 56212, Korea.

Aims: We developed a new rapid and reliable method for identifying bacteria using a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy of bacterial genomic DNA and multivariate analysis.

Methods And Results: FT-IR spectra of genomic DNA from four type strains of Pseudomonas spp., three Escherichia spp. Read More

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December 2018

The antibiotic action of methylarsenite is an emergent property of microbial communities.

Mol Microbiol 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

Arsenic is the most ubiquitous environmental toxin. Here, we demonstrate that bacteria have evolved the ability to use arsenic to gain a competitive advantage over other bacteria at least twice. Microbes generate toxic methylarsenite (MAs(III)) by methylation of arsenite (As(III)) or reduction of methylarsenate (MAs(V)). Read More

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November 2018

Effect of fermentation system on the physicochemical and microbial community dynamics during enset (Ensete ventricosum) fermentation.

J Appl Microbiol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

KU Leuven, Campus Geel, Lab4Food, Technology Cluster Bioengineering Technology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems, Geel, Belgium.

Aims: The present study was conducted to assess the effect of three different fermentation systems on fermentation of enset into kocho.

Methods And Results: Nine enset plants were processed, mixed and fermented in either a pit, a bamboo basket or a Sauerkraut jar. Samples were taken on days 1, 7, 15, 31, 60 and 90. Read More

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December 2018
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Effect of microbial inoculants on the fermentation characteristics, nutritive value, and in vitro digestibility of various forages.

Anim Sci J 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Institute of Ensiling and Processing of Grass, College of Agro-grassland Science, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

This study was aimed to examine the characteristics of three isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (HG24, M1, and TG1), and to evaluate their effects on fermentation characteristics, nutritive value, and in vitro digestibility in a variety of substrates. The experiments were conducted with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schred. Read More

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December 2018

Letter to the Editor: Consensus-based European guidelines for treatment of atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) in adults and children: part II. JEADV 2018, 32, 850-878. doi.org/10.1111/jdv.14888.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Head Research & Head Outpatient Clinic, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zürich, Switzerland.

We read with interest and with full consent the new consensus-based European guidelines for the treatment of atopic eczema, Part II . However, we would like to comment on the section on microbial textiles where the recommendation to use silk garments with permanent antimicrobial in the management of children with moderate to severe eczema is raised. On the basis of an UK multicenter clinical trial which seemed to show that silk garments with permanent antimicrobial were ineffective in the treatment of children with atopic eczema, the guidelines deny now any clinical benefit of AEGIS-coated silk textiles in children with atopic eczema and this contrary to the previous two guidelines . Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Microbial keratitis complicated by acute hydrops following corneal collagen cross-linking for keratoconus.

Clin Exp Optom 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Ophthalmology, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough, UK.

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December 2018

An interdisciplinary review of the thanatomicrobiome in human decomposition.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA.

Death does not occur instantaneously and organs do not decompose at the same rate or in the same way. Nulligravid human uteri and prostate glands are the last internal organs to deteriorate during decomposition; however, the reason for this very important observation is still enigmatic. Recent studies have elucidated that the composition and abundance of microbes in the human thanatomicrobiome (microbiome of death) varies by organ and changes as a function of time and temperature. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Aspherical and Spherical InvA497-Functionalized Nanocarriers for Intracellular Delivery of Anti-Infective Agents.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 5;36(1):22. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department Drug Delivery, Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland (HIPS), Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI), 66123, Saarbrücken, Germany.

Purpose: The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of polymeric spherical and aspherical invasive nanocarriers, loaded with antibiotic, to access and treat intracellular bacterial infections.

Methods: Aspherical nanocarriers were prepared by stretching of spherical precursors, and both aspherical and spherical nanocarriers were surface-functionalized with the invasive protein InvA497. The relative uptake of nanocarriers into HEp-2 epithelial cells was then assessed. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) phenotyping.

Intensive Care Med 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

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December 2018
1 Read

Discrepancy Between Equations Estimating Kidney Function in Geriatric Care: A Study of Implications for Drug Prescription.

Drugs Aging 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

CHU Bordeaux, Département de Gérontologie Clinique, Avenue du Haut-Lévêque, F-33604, Pessac, France.

Background: In older patients, the agreement is low between creatinine clearance estimated with the Cockcroft-Gault equation (eCrCl) and glomerular filtration rate estimated with the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (eGFR). The implications of these discrepancies for drug prescription have so far been assessed only for a few selected molecules.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the proportion of geriatric patients receiving drugs with a different recommended dose or indication (i. Read More

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December 2018

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Capsules with Targeted Colonic Versus Gastric Delivery in Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A Comparative Cohort Analysis of High and Lose Dose.

Dig Dis Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Finch Therapeutics, Somerville, MA, USA.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium. difficile infection (rCDI). FMT capsules have emerged, and it is unknown if delivery location and dose impact efficacy. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Gut microbiota dysbiosis worsens the severity of acute pancreatitis in patients and mice.

J Gastroenterol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, 17 Yong Waizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang, 330006, Jiangxi, China.

Background: The gut is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP) and the infectious complications of AP are commonly associated with enteric bacteria, yet whether gut microbiota dysbiosis participants in AP severity remains largely unknown.

Methods: We collected clinical information and fecal samples from 165 adult participants, including 41 with mild AP (MAP), 59 with moderately severe AP (MSAP), 30 with severe AP (SAP) and 35 healthy controls (HC). The serum inflammatory cytokines and gut barrier indexes were detected. Read More

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December 2018

The mouse-canine chimeric anti-dog podoplanin antibody P38B exerts antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2019 Mar 24;17:23-26. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Antibody Drug Development, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575, Japan.

Podoplanin (PDPN) is a type I transmembrane heavily glycosylated sialoglycoprotein that is expressed in normal tissues such as pulmonary type I alveolar cells, renal podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells. PDPN overexpression in cancerous tissue is associated with hematogenous metastasis through interactions with the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Previously, we have reported the development of a mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38 (IgG, kappa) against dog PDPN (dPDPN). Read More

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Increased sensitivity of microbiological testing of cornea organ culture medium by additional resin treatment.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2018 10;3(1):e000173. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Institute for Transfusion Medicine, University Tissue Bank, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: This validation study investigates the treatment of cornea organ culture medium (Modified Eagle Medium, Biochrom GmbH, Berlin, Germany) with RESEP, a new medical device for antibiotics removal, before microbiological testing with BACTEC blood culture bottles.

Methods And Analysis: 10-100 colony forming units of and were inoculated in 9mL of cornea organ culture medium. In group A, the medium was withdrawn with RESEP and treated for 20 min at room temperature, and then inoculated in BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F/Anaerobic/F blood culture bottles. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Nasal microbiota and symptom persistence in acute respiratory tract infections in infants.

ERJ Open Res 2018 Oct 3;4(4). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

University Children's Hospital Basel UKBB, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in infancy have been implicated in the development of chronic respiratory disease, but the complex interplay between viruses, bacteria and host is not completely understood. We aimed to prospectively determine whether nasal microbiota changes occur between the onset of the first symptomatic ARI in the first year of life and 3 weeks later, and to explore possible associations with the duration of respiratory symptoms, as well as with host, environmental and viral factors. Nasal microbiota of 167 infants were determined at both time-points by 16S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene PCR amplification and subsequent pyrosequencing. Read More

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October 2018

Chemical methods for determining the electron storage capacity of black carbon.

MethodsX 2018 17;5:1515-1520. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, United States.

Electron storage capacity (ESC) is a new and important property that determines the capacity of a black carbon to mediate abiotic and microbial electron transfer reactions in natural and engineered systems. It is necessary to develop accurate and reproducible methods to measure black carbon's ESC in order to understand its redox behavior and to predict its capacity to support redox transformation of contaminants in subsurface environments. In this study, we developed chemical methods that employed combinations of reductants and oxidants of different redox potentials - Ti(III) citrate or dithionite as reductant, and ferricyanide or dissolved O as oxidant - to measure the ESC of a wood-derived biochar. Read More

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November 2018

Nitrogen input by bamboos in neotropical forest: a new perspective.

PeerJ 2018 29;6:e6024. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Plant Biology Department, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Nitrogen (N) is an important macronutrient that controls the productivity of ecosystems and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a major source of N in terrestrial systems, particularly tropical forests. Bamboo dominates theses forests, but our knowledge regarding the role of bamboo in ecosystem functioning remains in its infancy. We investigated the importance of a native bamboo species to the N cycle of a Neotropical forest. Read More

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November 2018

Chemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of fruit fractions of L. f. (Arecaceae).

PeerJ 2018 28;6:e5991. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

PostGraduate Program in Ethnobiology and Nature Conservation, Universidade Regional do Cariri, Crato, Ceará, Brazil.

Background: Fruit consumption is currently considered beyond the nutritional aspects because of the important roles in disease prevention and benefits to health. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical profile and evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of different fractions obtained from fruit pulps of (MFFs).

Methods: Initially, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions were obtained from the pulps. Read More

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November 2018

Soil organic carbon dynamics matching ecological equilibrium theory.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 18;8(22):11169-11178. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

School of Integrative Plant Science Cornell University Ithaca New York.

The persistence of soil organic carbon (SOC) has traditionally been explained as a combination of recalcitrance properties and stabilization processes, which lead to the formation of complex organic compounds. However, recent conceptual advances and experimental evidence challenge this view. Here, we test these conceptual advances using a dynamic equilibrium theory of SOC founded on classic ecological theory. Read More

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November 2018

Mycorrhizal interactions do not influence plant-herbivore interactions in populations of ssp. spanning from center to margin of the geographic range.

Ecol Evol 2018 Nov 26;8(22):10743-10753. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Plant and Microbial Biology University of Minnesota St. Paul Minnesota.

Multispecies interactions can be important to the expression of phenotypes and in determining patterns of individual fitness in nature. Many plants engage in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), but the extent to which AMF modulate other species interactions remains poorly understood. We examined multispecies interactions among plants, AMF, and insect herbivores under drought stress using a greenhouse experiment and herbivore choice assays. Read More

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November 2018

Simultaneous consumption of cellobiose and xylose by to circumvent glucose repression and identification of its cellobiose-assimilating operons.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2018 1;11:320. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

1Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center of Efficient Processing and Utilization of Forest Resources, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037 People's Republic of China.

Background: The use of inedible lignocellulosic biomasses for biomanufacturing provides important environmental and economic benefits for society. Efficient co-utilization of lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, is critical for the viability of lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, the phenomenon of glucose repression prevents co-utilization of both glucose and xylose in cellulosic hydrolysates. Read More

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December 2018

Laser MICROSAMPLING of soil microbial community.

J Biol Eng 2018 28;12:27. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Research Center "Crystallography and Photonics" RAS, Institute of Photonic Technologies, 142190, Troitsk, Moscow, Russia.

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November 2018
1 Read

Particle-Attached and Free-Living Archaeal Communities in the Benthic Boundary Layer of the Mariana Trench.

Front Microbiol 2018 21;9:2821. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Institute of Oceanography, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The benthic boundary layer (BBL) is the part of the water column that is situated near to the sediment surface, where active oceanic biogeochemical cycling occurs. Archaea play an important role in mediating this cycling, however, their composition and diversity in the BBL remain largely unknown. We investigated the community composition and abundance of both particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) archaea in the BBL on the slopes of the Mariana Trench using Illumina sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR), at both the DNA and RNA levels. Read More

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November 2018

Opportunistic Bacteria Dominate the Soil Microbiome Response to Phenanthrene in a Microcosm-Based Study.

Front Microbiol 2018 21;9:2815. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.

Bioremediation offers a sustainable approach for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the environment; however, information regarding the microbial communities involved remains limited. In this study, microbial community dynamics and the abundance of the key gene (PAH-RHDα) encoding a ring hydroxylating dioxygenase involved in PAH degradation were examined during degradation of phenanthrene in a podzolic soil from the site of a former timber treatment facility. The 10,000-fold greater abundance of this gene associated with Gram-positive bacteria found in phenanthrene-amended soil compared to unamended soil indicated the likely role of Gram-positive bacteria in PAH degradation. Read More

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November 2018

Drying and Rainfall Shape the Structure and Functioning of Nitrifying Microbial Communities in Riverbed Sediments.

Front Microbiol 2018 16;9:2794. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany.

Non-flow periods in fluvial ecosystems are a global phenomenon. Streambed drying and rewetting by sporadic rainfalls could drive considerable changes in the microbial communities that govern stream nitrogen (N) availability at different temporal and spatial scales. We performed a microcosm-based experiment to investigate how dry period duration (DPD) (0, 3, 6, and 9 weeks) and magnitude of sporadic rewetting by rainfall (0, 4, and 21 mm applied at end of dry period) affected stocks of N in riverbed sediments, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) and rates of ammonia oxidation (AO), and emissions of nitrous oxide (NO) to the atmosphere. Read More

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November 2018

Iron Dysregulation and Dormant Microbes as Causative Agents for Impaired Blood Rheology and Pathological Clotting in Alzheimer's Type Dementia.

Front Neurosci 2018 16;12:851. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.

Alzheimer's disease and other similar dementias are debilitating neurodegenerative disorders whose etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown, even after decades of research. With the anticipated increase in prevalence of Alzheimer's type dementias among the more susceptible aging population, the need for disease-modifying treatments is urgent. While various hypotheses have been put forward over the last few decades, we suggest that Alzheimer's type dementias are triggered by external environmental factors, co-expressing in individuals with specific genetic susceptibilities. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Emergence of tigecycline resistance in co-producing MCR-1 and NDM-5 during tigecycline salvage treatment.

Infect Drug Resist 2018 13;11:2241-2248. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China,

Objective: Here, we report a case of severe infection caused by that harbored , , and acquired resistance to tigecycline during tigecycline salvage therapy.

Methods: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Southern blot hybridization, and complete genome sequence of the strains were carried out. The genetic characteristics of the and plasmids were analyzed. Read More

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November 2018

High Abundance of genus Prevotella in the gut of perinatally HIV-infected children is associated with IP-10 levels despite therapy.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17679. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Laboratory of AIDS Research and Immunology, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.

Perinatal HIV infection is characterized by faster HIV disease progression and higher initial rate of HIV replication compared to adults. While antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly reduced HIV replication to undetectable levels, there is persistent elevated inflammation associated with HIV disease progression. Alteration of gut microbiota is associated with increased inflammation in chronic adult HIV infection. Read More

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December 2018

A downy mildew effector evades recognition by polymorphism of expression and subcellular localization.

Nat Commun 2018 Dec 5;9(1):5192. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, NR4 7UH, UK.

Pathogen co-evolution with plants involves selection for evasion of host surveillance systems. The oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis, and race-specific interactions between Arabidopsis accessions and Hpa isolates fit the gene-for-gene model in which host resistance or susceptibility are determined by matching pairs of plant Resistance (R) genes and pathogen Avirulence (AVR) genes. Arabidopsis Col-0 carries R gene RPP4 that confers resistance to Hpa isolates Emoy2 and Emwa1, but its cognate recognized effector(s) were unknown. Read More

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December 2018

Enrichment of the fetal fraction in non-invasive prenatal screening reduces maternal background interference.

Sci Rep 2018 Dec 5;8(1):17675. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic and Developmental Sciences, MOE-LSB and MOE-LSC, Department of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Measurement of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is an indispensable process for non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS). According to recent studies, cffDNA in maternal plasma can be enriched for various lengths of fragments, and a sufficient amount of cffDNA can effectively eliminate background interference on the part of maternal DNA. Therefore, we developed a simple and effective separation method, improved NIPS (iNIPS), that enriches the fetal fraction and improves the accuracy of NIPS for fetal aneuploid detection. Read More

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December 2018